Father of the Nation
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The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his/her country, state, or nation. Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae), also seen as Parens Patriae, was a Roman honorific meaning the "Father of the Fatherland", bestowed by the Senate on heroes, and later on emperors. In monarchies, the monarch was often considered the "father/mother of the nation" or as a patriarch to guide his family. This concept is expressed in the Divine Right espoused in some monarchies, while in others it is codified into constitutional law as in Spain, where the monarch is considered the personification and embodiment, the symbol of the unity and permanence of the nation. In Thailand, the monarch is given the same recognition, and demonstrated loyalty is enforced with severe criminal statutes.
Many dictators bestow titles upon themselves, which rarely survive the end of their regime. Gnassingbé Eyadéma of Togo's titles included "father of the nation", "older brother", and "Guide of the People". Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire's included "Father of the nation", "the Guide", "the Messiah", "dajsh, "the Leopard", and "the Sun-President". In postcolonial Africa, "father of the nation" was a title used by many leaders both to refer to their role in the independence movement as a source of legitimacy, and to use paternalist symbolism as a source of continued popularity. On Joseph Stalin's seventieth birthday in 1949, he was bestowed with the title "Father of Nations" for his establishment of "people's democracies" in countries occupied by the USSR after World War II.
The title "Father of the Nation" is sometimes politically contested. The 1972 Constitution of Bangladesh declared Sheikh Mujibur Rahman to be "father of the nation". The BNP government removed this in 2004, to the protests of the oppostition Awami League, led by Rahman's daughter Sheikh Hasina. A motion in the Parliament of Slovakia to proclaim controversial pre-war leader Andrej Hlinka "father of the nation" barely failed in September 2007.
The following people are still often called the "Father" of their respective nations. Highlighted names indicate people who are still living.
|Name||Nation||Title (native)||Title (translation)||Notes|
|Ahmad Shah Durrani||Afghanistan||Ahmad Shah Baba||Father of the Nation||Founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire.|
|Skanderbeg||Albania||Ati i Kombit||Father of the Nation|
|José de San Martín||Argentina /
|Padre de la Patria /
Fundador de la República y Protector del Perú
|Father of the Fatherland /
Founder of the Republic and Protector of Peru
|Primary leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from Spain (1778 – 1850).|
|Hayk (Հայկ)||Armenia||Nahapet (Նահապետ)||Head of the Family
|Founder of the Armenian nation.|
|Sir Henry Parkes, GCMG||Australia||Father of Federation||Premier of New South Wales.|
|Sir Lynden Pindling||The Bahamas||Father of the Nation||Leader at independence in 1973.|
|Sheikh Mujibur Rahman||Bangladesh||Jatir Janak (জাতির জনক)
|Father of the Nation
Friend of Bengal
|Founder of Bangladesh.|
|Philip the Good||Belgium||Father of the Fatherland||First duke of Burgundy who strove for territorial unification of his lands in the Low Countries.|
|George Cadle Price||Belize||Father of the Nation||Former Chief Minister, Premier and two-term Prime Minister before retiring in 1997.|
|Libertador||Liberator||Primary leader of South America's successful struggle for independence from Spain.|
|Dom Pedro I and José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva||Brazil||Pai da Nação e Patriarca da Independência||Father of the Nation and Patriarch of Independence||Founder and the first Emperor of Brazil (1822). Bonifácio was the advisor of Pedro I.|
|Omar Ali Saifuddien III||Brunei||Architect of Modern Brunei||Builder of the Modern Nation and Father of Independence||28th Sultan of Brunei and First Minister of Defence (1914 – 1986).|
|John A. Macdonald and the other fathers of Confederation||Canada||Father of Confederation||Father of Confederation|
|Bernardo O'Higgins||Chile||Padre de la patria||Father of the fatherland||Secondary leader of Chile's successful struggle for independence from Spain.|
|Sun Yat-sen||Republic of China||simplified Chinese: 国父; traditional Chinese: 國父 (Guófù)||Father of the Nation||Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. The Nationalist government decreed the title in 1940. Sun is more widely known in mainland China as the "Forerunner of the Democratic Revolution".|
|José María Castro Madriz||Costa Rica||Fundador de la República||Founder of the Republic||First President of the Republic of Costa Rica.|
|Ante Starčević||Croatia||Otac domovine||Father of the Homeland||His diverse activities and works laid the foundations for the modern Croatian state.|
|Carlos Manuel de Céspedes||Cuba||Padre de la Patria||Father of the Fatherland||Leader of the first Cuban independence movement which fought the Ten Years' War.|
|Archbishop Makarios III||Cyprus||Εθνάρχης||Father of the Cyprus / Leader||First and longest President of Cyprus.|
|Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor||Czech Republic||Otec vlasti||Father of the Homeland||King of Bohemia. Title coined by the rector of the Charles University of Prague at the emperor's funeral.|
|František Palacký||Czech Republic||Otec národa||Father of the Nation||Politician and historian. Whereas vlast "homeland" included all inhabitants, národ "nation" comprised only Czech people.|
|Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk||Czech Republic||Tatíček /
|Father of the Fatherland / President Liberator||First President of Czechoslovakia.|
|Juan Pablo Duarte||Dominican Republic||Padre de la patria||Father of the Fatherland||Defeated Haiti during war of independence.|
|Members of the Parlamentarischer Rat||Germany||Väter und Mütter des Grundgesetzes||Fathers and mothers of the Basic Law||Drafted the Basic Law, the constitution of (then West) Germany|
|Kwame Nkrumah||Ghana||Father of the nation||First president and prime minister of Ghana, the first country in Sub-Saharan Africa to achieve full independence.|
|Alexander the Great||Greece||Πατέρας των Ελλήνων||Father of the Greeks||Founder of the Macedonian Empire responsible for spreading Greek culture during the Hellenistic period.|
|Cheddi Jagan||Guyana||Father of the Nation||President of Guyana from 1992–1997.|
|Jean-Jacques Dessalines||Haiti||Père de la patrie||Father of the Fatherland||Primary leader of Haiti's successful struggle for independence from France.|
|Árpád||Hungary||Honalapító||Founder of the Homeland||Second Grand Prince of the Hungarians, leader of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian basin.|
|Mahatma Gandhi||India||Leader of Independence Movement||This title was not an official title and has no records in the National Archives of India. Indian constitution (Art. 18) prohibits the State from conferring any titles.||India's first mass leader, who propounded and popularized principles of mass movement based on truth and non-violence. Mahatma Gandhi was the guiding force behind Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit-India Movement, all directed towards attainment of independence from imperial British Rule following his principles of Satyagraha. He was a socio-political leader having broad and novel ideas related to nationalism, health, education, social upliftment, distribution of wealth, conflict resolution and many more topics. He was inspired by Thoreau and Tolstoy and in turn influenced similar non-violent leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King Jr. He is the most revered leader across various diversities of India and his face is on each currency note of India having value of Rs. 2 and above.|
|Sukarno||Indonesia||Bapak Bangsa/Pemimpin Besar Revolusi Indonesia/Proklamator||Father of the Nation/Great Leader of Indonesian Revolution/The Proclamator||First President of Indonesia.|
|Cyrus the Great||Iran (Persia)||Shahanshah||King of kings||First Shah of Persian Empire.|
|David Ben-Gurion||Israel||Founding Father of Israel||First Prime Minister of Israel|
|Vittorio Emanuele II di Savoia||Italy||Padre della Patria||Father of the Fatherland||First king of a united Italy since the 6th century.|
|Emperor||Japan||天皇(Ten-noh)||Founder of Empire of Japan|
|Alikhan Bukeikhanov||Kazakhstan||Prime Minister of the Alash Autonomy||Leader and founder of the Alash Orda national liberation movement.|
|Dinmukhamed Kunayev||Kazakhstan||Leader of the Kazakh SSR||First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.|
|Jomo Kenyatta||Kenya||Baba wa Taifa||Father of the Nation/Freedom Fighter||First President of Kenya from 1963 to his death in 1978 who helped create the Kenyan Constitution.|
|Kim Il-sung / Kim Jong-il||Democratic People's Republic of Korea||Several; see list of Kim Jong-il's titles||Several||The first and second leader of North Korea, respectively|
|Jonas Basanavičius||Lithuania||Tautos patriarchas||Patriarch of the Nation||Various cultural activities during the Lithuanian National Revival.|
|Krste Misirkov||Macedonia||Татко на нацијата||Father of the Nation||Prominent linguist, writer and activist.|
|Tunku Abdul Rahman||Malaysia||Bapa Kemerdekaan||Father of Independence||The first Prime Minister of Malaysia. A prince from the Kedah Sultanate, the Cambridge-educated Tunku led the negotiated independence of Federation of Malaya from the British in 1957. Later formed Malaysia through the union of Peninsular Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak in 1963.|
|Dom Mintoff||Malta||Missier Malta Hielsa||Father of Free Malta||A Maltese statesman and leading politician. He twice served as Prime Minister of Malta (from 1955–58, and from 1974–84) as the Leader of the Labour Party, a position he held from 1949-84. In 1974, with him as Prime Minister, Malta negotiated a series of constitutional reforms leading to the establishment of the Maltese Republic and the removal of the British monarch as head of state. In 1979, the last of the British Navy vessels left Malta hence putting an end to the last remaining relics of colonial rule and leaving Malta free to pursue its own foreign relations independent of the western powers of the time. He is also credited with the establishment of the Maltese welfare state and the Socialist-style nationalisation and collectivisation of various key industries.|
|Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam||Mauritius||Father of the Nation||First post-independence Prime Minister, in 1968.|
|Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla||Mexico||Padre de la patria mexicana||Father of the Mexican Nation||First revolutionary leader in the Mexican War of Independence.|
|Aung San||Myanmar||Father of Nations, Father of Independence, Father of Tatmadaw||5th Prime Minister of Burma in British Era from 1946 to 1947||Assassinated on 19 July 1947, before the independence of Burma.|
|Sam Nujoma||Namibia||Founding Father of the Namibian Nation||First President of Namibia, 1990–2005; title conferred by Act of Parliament in 2005.|
|Prithvi Narayan Shah||Nepal||National Hero
|Father of the Nation||King of the People of Nepal|
|William the Silent||Netherlands||Vader des Vaderlands||Father of the Fatherland||Leader of the successful Dutch Revolt against Spain, which led to the Dutch Republic, the first independent Dutch state.|
|Nnamdi Azikiwe||Nigeria||Father of Nigerian Nationalism||First president of Nigeria when it became a republic on October 1, 1963, and was the last governor general of Nigeria.|
|Einar Gerhardsen||Norway||Landsfaderen||Father of the Nation||First post–World War II prime minister of Norway.|
|Muhammad Ali Jinnah||Pakistan||Quaid-e-Azam & Baba-e-Quam||Father of the Nation/Great Leader||Founder of Pakistan, leader of the Muslim League and first Governor-General of Pakistan.|
|Sir Michael Somare||Papua New Guinea||Father of the Nation||Leader at independence in 1975; also known as "the chief" and "the old man".|
|Dr. Sun Yat-sen||People's Republic of China||simplified Chinese: 国父; traditional Chinese: 國父 (Guófù)||Father of the Nation||Sun played a major role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty. Also revered in Taiwan, Sun is one of the only post-19th century revolutionaries that is revered by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China.|
|Emilio Aguinaldo||Philippines||Kauna-unahang Pangulo ng Pilipinas||First President of the Philippines||Leader of the latter part of the Philippine Revolution and first President of the Philippines through the 1899 Malolos Congress, which oversaw the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution.|
|Andrés Bonifacio||Philippines||Amá ng Himagsikan||Father of the Revolution||De facto President and leader of the Philippine Revolution, which saw armed resistance against the Spanish Empire. His birthday, November 30, 1863, is a national holiday.|
|José Rizal||Philippines||Pambansáng Bayani||National Hero||Colloquially known as the "National Hero". Rizal's works and writings–which helped start the Philippine Revolution–are part of the national curriculum as mandated by Republic Act No. 1425. The anniversary of his December 30, 1896 execution by the Spanish colonial government is a national holiday.|
|D. Afonso Henriques||Portugal||Fundador da Nação||Father of the Nation
a.k.a. The Conqueror
|Founder and 1st. King of Portugal (1139), recognized by the Holy See in 1179.|
|Peter I of Russia||Russia||Отец Отечества (Otets Otechestva)||Father of the Fatherland||Was granted the title in 1721 by the Governing Senate, along with "Emperor of Russia" and "The Great".|
|El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed||Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||Father of the Nation||Leader of the Polisario Front, First President of the SADR. Fought against Spanish colonial army & against the invasion of the Moroccan & Mauritanian armies.|
|Sir John Compton||Saint Lucia||Father of the Nation||Prime Minister at independence in 1979. Also known as "Daddy Compton".|
|Saint Marinus||San Marino||Founder of a chapel and monastery in central Italy, in 301 (traditional date: September 3). From this initial community the state of San Marino later grew.|
|Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia||Saudi Arabia||والد الأمة (Waalid Al Ummah)/ المؤسس (Al-Moa'sis)||Father of the Nation/ The Founder||Unified the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and established the modern Saudi state. He descended from the noble House of Saud, the dynasty which had ruled most of Arabia in the 18th century. His son King Salman is the current head of state of Saudi Arabia. Five other older sons – Saud, Faisal, Khalid, Fahd and Abdullah – served as former heads of state.|
|Dobrica Ćosić||Serbia||Отац нације||Father of the Nation||Serbian politician, writer, and political theorist.|
|Saint Sava||Serbia||Отац отаџбине||Father of the Fatherland||Founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church.|
|Karađorđe and Miloš Obrenović||Serbia||Отац отаџбине||Father of the Fatherland||Leaders of the First and Second Serbian Uprising during the Serbian Revolution.|
|Lee Kuan Yew||Singapore||Father of Singapore||First Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore, governing for over 30 years. Leading figure throughout Singapore's time as a part of Malaysia and its later independence.|
|Andrej Hlinka (disputed)||Slovakia||Otec národa||Father of the Nation||Catholic priest, fighter for Slovak autonomy and leader of controversial Slovak People's Party.|
|Primož Trubar||Slovenia||Oče naroda||Father of the Nation||A consolidator of the Slovene language and the author of the first Slovene printed book.|
|Mohammed Abdullah Hassan||Somalia||Father of the fatherland||Leader of the first Somali independence movement against the Kingdom of Italy and Great Britain.|
|Nelson Mandela||South Africa||Tata wethu||Father of the Nation||First President of post-apartheid South Africa.|
|Catholic Monarchs||Spain||Reyes Católicos de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón||Catholic Monarchs of the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon||The unifiers of Spain. They unified the territories of Castille, Aragon and Al-Andalus, all the territories of the Iberian Peninsula, except Portugal. During their reign America was discovered and started the Spanish Empire.|
|Don Stephen Senanayake||Sri Lanka||ජාතියේ පියා (Jathiyay Piya)||Father of the Nation||First Prime Minister, from 1947 to 1952.|
|Johan Ferrier||Suriname||Vader des Vaderlands||Father of the Nation||First president after the independence of the country in 1975 (the term Vader des Vaderlands has its roots in the Netherlands).|
|Gustav I of Sweden||Sweden||Nationalhjälte||National hero||Broke Sweden from Danish rule under Christian II.|
|Julius Nyerere||Tanzania||Baba wa Taifa||Father of the Nation||First President of Tanzania.|
|Dr. Eric Williams||Trinidad and Tobago||Father of the Nation||Founder of the People's National Movement (PNM), first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, first Premier of Trinidad and Tobago, second Chief Minister of Trinidad and Tobago and was instrumental in making Trinidad and Tobago independent from the British.|
|Dr. Rudranath Capildeo||Trinidad and Tobago||Founding Father||Led the Democratic Labour Party (DLP), first Leader of the Opposition of Trinidad and Tobago, a Hindu leader, and a mathematical physicist.|
|Habib Bourguiba||Tunisia||المجاهد الاكبر(Al mujehed al akbar)||The Supreme Warrior||Father of the independence of Tunisia and first President of Tunisia. He led the Tunisian national movement against France. After independence, he founded a modern state, built schools and hospitals and gave the Tunisian women rights that are still unique in the Arab World today.|
|Mustafa Kemal Atatürk||Turkey||Atatürk||Father of the Turks (always used as a last name and not a title proper)||Founder of the Republic of Turkey and first President of Turkey. He led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence, and enacted the reforms that made Turkey a democratic nation-state. Granted in accordance with the 1934 Surname Law establishing surnames in Turkey.|
|Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan||United Arab Emirates||والد الأمة (Waalid Al Ummah)||Father of the Nation||President of the UAE for its first 33 years (1971–2004).|
|George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin and other Signers and Framers||United States||Founding Fathers||The Signers signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776. The Framers were delegates to the Constitutional Convention and took part in framing or drafting the proposed United States Constitution.|
|George Washington||United States||Father of his country||George Washington is particularly highlighted out of the Founding Fathers of the United States as being the "father of his country" for his role as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, his resignation of command at the end of the war, the presidency of the Constitutional Convention and for his tenure (and voluntary retirement) as the first President of the United States.|
|José Gervasio Artigas||Uruguay||Padre de la independencia uruguaya, Protector de los Pueblos Libres y Jefe de los orientales ||Father of Uruguayan independence, Defender of the Free and Chief of the eastern people||Fought against British, Spanish, and Portuguese colonial armies in Río de la Plata.|
|Ho Chi Minh||Vietnam||Cha già dân tộc||Old Father of the Nation||Hồ Chí Minh is revered among the Vietnamese people and is considered the "Old Father of the Nation" by them. Hồ spent most of his life fighting for his country's independence, including fighting against the French colonial and Empire of Japan which used to invade and ruled over Vietnam and Indochina. He declared Vietnam's independence on September 2, 1945 under the name of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, then later won the First Indochina War which officially ended France's sovereignty over Vietnam and Indochina. Ho Chi Minh City was named after him in honor of his efforts in unifying the country in Vietnam War.|
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- Haskin, Jeanne M. (2005). The Tragic State of the Congo: From Decolonization to Dictatorship. Algora Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 0-87586-417-1.
- Schatzberg, Michael G. (2001). Political Legitimacy in Middle Africa: Father, Family, Food. Indiana University Press. pp. passim, see index, and esp. p. 8 & p. 213. ISBN 0-253-33992-8.
- Paczkowski, Andrzej (2003). The Spring Will be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom. translated by Jane Cave. Penn State Press. p. 210. ISBN 0271023082.
- "Country profile: Bangladesh". BBC News. 2009-10-23. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
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it has been well documented that Sir Lynden Pindling was the leader of the political movement that led to the attainment of majority rule on January 10, 1967, and that he is recognized as the ৭ of the Nation — the man who was the country's leader when The Bahamas obtained its independence from Great Britain on July 10, 1973.
"Rt. Hon. George Price". CARICOM.com. CARICOM. March 20, 2008. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
Rt. Honourable George Cadle Price, "Father of the Nation" of Belize
"The Father of the Nation Turns 90". 7 News Belize. January 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
Even Prime Minister Dean Barrow calls George Price the father of the nation[permanent dead link]
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- "Povijest Oca domovine" (in Croatian). Hrvatska stranka prava dr. Ante Starčević. Archived from the original on 2010-03-13. Retrieved 2010-05-18.His works are considered to have laid the foundations for Croatian nationalism and he is often referred to as "Father of the Homeland" by Croats.
Hautrive, Iliana (2004-10-10). "Cuba commemorates the 136 anniversary of the beginning of its wars of independence". Trabajadores. Archived from the original on 2013-02-10. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
Cuba commemorates this Sunday the beginning of its wars of independence, the 10 of October of 1868, when the insigne patriotic Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, considered the Father of the Motherland, gave the freedom to his slaves to begin the fight by the liberation of the Nation.
- Roberts, Andrew Lawrence (2005). From Good King Wenceslas to the Good Soldier Švejk: A Dictionary of Czech Popular Culture. Central European University Press. p. 102. ISBN 963-7326-26-X.
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- "Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice (Legislative Department). GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF LAW AND JUSTICE (LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT). Archived from the original on 2015-02-23. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- "1973: Israel's founding father dies". 1 December 1973.
- O'Connor, Kevin (2003). The history of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-313-32355-3.
- "Centenary of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam". Mauritius Post Museum. Mauritius Post. 2004. Archived from the original on June 25, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
Known as the "Father of the Nation", Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam has throughout his political career from 1940 to 1982 been closely associated with the significant emancipation of the people of Mauritius and has led the struggle for Independence.
"El Grito, una tradición popular mexicana sin dueño". El Periodico de Mexico (in Spanish). 2007-09-15. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
Miguel Hidalgo, considerado el "padre de la patria" mexicana
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- Bjørn Talen (1987-05-09). "Gratulerer, kjære landsmann!" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- "Quaid's 60th death anniversary being marked today". The News International. September 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
Today the nation marks the 60th Death anniversary of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, known as Quaid-e-Azam, meaning "Great Leader" and Baba-e-Qaum meaning Father of the Nation.[permanent dead link]
- "Father of the Nation : Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah". Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
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- Anisimov, Evgeniy Viktorovich (1993). The Reforms of Peter the Great: Progress Through Coercion in Russia. translator John T. Alexander. M.E. Sharpe. p. 143. ISBN 1-56324-047-5.
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- Zorica Vulić (11 May 2000). "Ko je ovaj čovek?: Dobrica Ćosić" (in Serbian). Glas javnosti.
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- Branko Pešić (1988). Spomen hram Sv. Save na Vračaru u Beogradu: 1895–1988. Sveti arhijerejski sinod Srpske pravoslavne crkve.
Отац Отаџбине Св. Сава је надахнуо Немањи- ну државу идеалима хришћанског патриотизма и створио слободну цркву у слободној држави. Држа- ва је Отечество - земља мојих ота- ца. Држава не сме да буде импери- ја, јер где ...
- Durde Jelenić (1923). Nova Srbija i Jugoslavija, 1788–1921. p. 56.
ОТАЦ ОТАЏБИНЕ - КАРАЂОРЂЕ ПЕТРОВИЋ
- Milivoj J. Malenić (1901). Posle četrdeset godina: u spomen proslave četrdesetogodišnjice Sv. Andrejske velike narodne skupštine. U Drž. štamp. Kralj. Srbije.
да се на престо српски поврати њен ослободилац и оснивалац: Отац Отаџбине, Милош Обреновић Велики,
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His Highness Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the late UAE President and Ruler of Abu Dhabi, a man affectionately known as 'The Father of The Nation' for his work as an architect of the UAE Federation.
Wheeler, Julia (2 November 2004). "Obituary: Sheikh Zayed". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
He was frequently referred to as the father of the nation.
- "America's Founding Fathers". National Archives. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
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"Efemérides Culturales Argentinas: Junio 19" (in Spanish). Ministry of Education, Argentina. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
1764: Nace en Montevideo (Uruguay) José Gervasio Artigas, iniciador rioplatense del federalismo y padre de la independencia uruguaya. Falleció cerca de Asunción el 23 de septiembre de 1850.
Edelmann, Alexander Taylor (1965). Latin American Government and Politics: The Dynamics of a Revolutionary Society. Dorsey Press. p. 309.
José Gervasio Artigas, who doggedly led his guerrilla bands against the Spanish armies and raised the flag of a free Uruguay, is affectionately remembered by his fellow countrymen as "the father of Uruguayan independence.