The men's rights movement (MRM)[1] is a branch of the men's movement. The MRM in particular consists of a variety of groups and individuals (men's rights activists or MRAs) who focus on general social issues and specific government services which they say adversely impact, or in some cases, structurally discriminate against, men and boys. Common topics discussed within the men's rights movement include family law (such as child custody, alimony and marital property distribution), reproduction, suicides, domestic violence against men, false accusations of rape, circumcision, education, conscription, social safety nets, and health policies. The men's rights movement branched off from the men's liberation movement in the early 1970s, with both groups comprising a part of the larger men's movement.

Many scholars describe the movement or parts of it as a backlash against feminism.[2] As part of the manosphere, the movement, and sectors of the movement, have been described by scholars and commentators as misogynistic,[3][4][5] hateful,[6][5][7] and, in some cases, as advocating violence against women.[5][8][9] In 2018, the Southern Poverty Law Center categorized some men's rights groups as being part of a hate ideology under the umbrella of male supremacy while stating that others "focused on legitimate grievances".[10][11]



The term "men's rights" was used at least as early as February 1856 when it appeared in Putnam's Magazine. The author was responding to the issue of women's rights, calling it a "new movement for social reform, and even for political revolution", which the author proposed to counter with men's rights.[12] Ernest Belfort Bax wrote The Legal Subjection of Men in 1896, deriding the women's rights movement as a farcical effort by women—the "privileged sex"—to prove they were "oppressed."[13]

Three loosely connected men's rights organizations formed in Austria in the interwar period. The League for Men's Rights was founded in 1926 with the goal of "combating all excesses of women's emancipation".[14][15][16][17] In 1927, the Justitia League for Family Law Reform and the Aequitas World's League for the Rights of Men split from the League of Men's Rights.[14][15] The three men's rights groups opposed women's entry into the labor market and what they saw as the corrosive influence of the women's movement on social and legal institutions. They criticized marriage and family laws, especially the requirement to pay spousal and child support to former wives and illegitimate children, and supported the use of blood tests to determine paternity.[14][15] Justitia and Aequitas issued their own short-lived journals Men's Rightists Newspaper and Self-Defense where they expressed their views that were heavily influenced by the works of Heinrich Schurtz, Otto Weininger, and Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels. The organizations ceased to exist before 1939.[14][15]

Split from men's liberation movement

Warren Farrell, a proponent of the men's rights movement

The modern men's rights movement emerged from the men's liberation movement, which appeared in the first half of the 1970s when scholars began to study feminist ideas and politics.[18][19] These scholars acknowledged men's institutionalized power while critically examining the consequences of hegemonic masculinity,[18] believing that both men and women suffered in a patriarchal society.[20] The men's liberation movement was led by psychologists who argued that femininity and masculinity were socially formed behaviors and not the result of genes. They tried to balance the two ideas that men were responsible for oppressing women, but also being oppressed themselves by strict gender roles.[18][21][22]

In the mid-1970s, this movement began to focus on the oppression of men and less on the effects of sexism on women.[23] In the late 1970s, the movement split into two separate strands with opposing views: the pro-feminist men's movement and the anti-feminist men's rights movement,[18] which sees men as an oppressed group.[20][24][25][26][27]

In the 1980s, the men's rights movement focused only on the ways that sex roles discriminated against males rather than the oppression it inflicted on both genders. Author Herb Goldberg claimed that the U.S. was a "matriarchal society" because women have the power to transgress gender roles and assume masculine and feminine roles, while males are still constrained to the purely masculine role.[28] Reneé Blank and Sandra Slipp in 1994 compiled the testimonies of men who believed they were discriminated against based on their sex and race. This occurred in a time where women were entering the work force and obtaining managerial positions.[29][non-primary source needed]

A major concern of the men's rights movement has been the issue of fathers' rights.[20] In the 1980s and 1990s, men's rights activists opposed societal changes sought by feminists and defended the patriarchal gender order in the family, schools and the workplace.[30] Sociologist Michael Kimmel states that their earlier critiques of gender roles "morphed into a celebration of all things masculine and a near infatuation with the traditional masculine role itself".[31]


One of the first major men's rights organizations was the Coalition of American Divorce Reform Elements, founded by Richard Doyle in 1971, from which the Men's Rights Association spun off in 1973.[19][32] Free Men Inc. was founded in 1977 in Columbia, Maryland, spawning several chapters over the following years, which eventually merged to form the National Coalition of Free Men (known since 2008 as the National Coalition for Men).[33] Men's Rights, Inc. was also formed in 1977,[20][34][33] the National Organization for Men was founded in 1983,[20] and Fathers and Families was formed in 1994.[35] In the United Kingdom, a men's rights group calling itself the UK Men's Movement began to organize in the early 1990s.[36] The Save Indian Family Foundation (SIFF) was founded in 2005, and in 2010 claimed to have over 30,000 members.[37][38][39]

Protest in New Delhi for men's rights organized by the Save Indian Family Foundation.

Men's rights groups have formed in some European countries during periods of shifts toward conservatism and policies supporting patriarchal family and gender relations.[40] In the United States, the men's rights movement has ideological ties to neoconservatism.[41][42] Men's rights activists have received lobbying support from conservative organizations[43] and their arguments have been covered extensively in neoconservative media.[44]

Fringe political parties focusing on men's rights have been formed including, but not limited to, the Australian Non-Custodial Parents Party (Equal Parenting),[45] the Israeli Man's Rights in the Family Party,[46][47][48] and the Justice for Men and Boys party in the UK.

Online activism

The men's rights movement has become more vocal and more organized since the development of the Internet,[49][50] where activists tend to congregate.[51][52] Men's rights websites and forums have proliferated within the online manosphere.[53][54][49] Paul Elam's site A Voice for Men (AVFM) functions as a central point of discussion and organization for men's rights issues.[55] Other sites dedicated to men's rights are the Fathers Rights Foundation,[56] (Men Going Their Own Way),[53] and several Reddit forums such as /r/MensRights and /r/TheRedPill.[54][57][58] Men's rights proponents often use the red pill and blue pill metaphor from the film The Matrix to identify each other online;[51][56] those who accept the idea that men are the oppressed victims of a misandrist society are said to have "taken the red pill".[54][59] While some of the groups have adversarial relationships with one another,[59] they tend to be united in their misogyny, promotion of masculinity, and opposition to feminism.[60][61]


Many scholars consider the men's rights movement a backlash[2] or countermovement[62] to feminism. The men's rights movement generally incorporates points of view that reject feminist and profeminist ideas.[42][18] Men's rights activists say feminism has radicalized its objective and harmed men.[18][24][63][64] Men's rights activists believe that men are victims of feminism and "feminizing" influences in society,[65] and that entities such as public institutions now discriminate against men.[66][24]

Men's rights activists dispute that men as a group have institutional power and privilege[42][67] and believe that men are victimized and disadvantaged relative to women,[68][69][18][70] including in regard to what had been considered feminist concerns, such as domestic violence, pornography, prostitution, and sexism in mass media.[20] Men's rights groups generally reject the notion that feminism is interested in men's problems,[42] and some men's rights activists have viewed the women's movement as a plot to deliberately conceal discrimination against men and promote gynocentrism.[18][71][69] Warren Farrell and Herb Goldberg have argued that women hold the true power in society through their roles as the primary caregivers of children, and that male power is an illusion.[24]

Sociologist Michael Messner states that the early men's rights movement "appropriates the symmetrical language of sex roles" first used by feminists, which implies a false balance of institutional power between men and women.[18] Masculinities scholar Jonathan A. Allan described the men's rights movement as a reactionary movement that is defined by its opposition to women and feminism but has not yet formulated its own theories and methodologies outside of antifeminism.[65]


Men's rights proponents are concerned with a wide variety of matters, some of which have spawned their own groups or movements, such as the fathers' rights movement, concerned specifically with divorce and child custody issues.[72] Some, if not all, men's rights issues stem from gender roles and, according to sociologist Allan Johnson, patriarchy.[73]


Men's rights activists seek to expand the rights of unwed fathers in case of their child's adoption.[74][75] Warren Farrell argues that in failing to inform the father of a pregnancy, an expectant mother deprives an adopted child of a relationship with the biological father. He proposes that women be legally required to make every reasonable effort to notify the father of her pregnancy within four to five days.[75] In response, philosopher James P. Sterba agrees that, for moral reasons, a woman should inform the father of the pregnancy and adoption, but this should not be imposed as a legal requirement as it might result in undue pressure, for example, to have an abortion.[76]

Anti-dowry laws

Men's rights organizations such as Save Indian Family Foundation (SIFF) say that women misuse legislation meant to protect them from dowry death and bride burnings.[77] SIFF is a men's rights organization in India that focuses on abuse of anti-dowry laws against men.[78] SIFF has campaigned to abolish Section 498A[79] of the Indian Penal Code, which penalizes cruelty by husbands (and the husband's family) in pursuit of dowry or for driving a wife to suicide.[80][81] SIFF states anti-dowry laws are regularly being abused to settle petty disputes in marriage[82] and that they regularly receive calls from many men who allege their wives have used false dowry claims to imprison them.[83]

Child custody

Family law is an area of deep concern among men's rights groups. Men's rights adherents argue that the legal system and family courts discriminate against men, especially in regards to child custody after divorce.[84][72][85][86] They believe that men do not have the same contact rights or equitable shared parenting rights as their ex-spouse and use statistics on custody awards as evidence of judicial bias against men.[87] Men's rights advocates seek to change the legal climate for men through changes in family law, for example by lobbying for laws that make joint custody the default custody arrangement except in cases where one parent is unfit or unwilling to parent.[88][87] They have appropriated the feminist rhetoric of "rights" and "equality" in their discourse, framing child custody as a matter of basic civil rights.[18][62][89][90] Men's rights activists argue that the lack of contact with their children makes fathers less willing to pay child support.[91] Others cite the discredited parental alienation syndrome (PAS) or parental alienation as a reason to grant custody to fathers; they claim that mothers alienate children from their fathers and make false accusations of abuse in order to seek revenge against fathers.[92][93][94][86]

Two protesters from UK-based fathers' rights group Fathers 4 Justice protesting in Peterborough in 2010.

Scholars and critics assert that empirical research does not support the notion of a judicial bias against men[84] and that men's rights advocates distort statistics in a way that ignores the fact that the majority of men do not seek custody, and the overwhelming majority of custody cases are settled outside of court.[87]

Academics critique the rhetorical framing of custody decisions, stating that men's rights advocates appeal for "equal rights" without ever specifying the legal rights they believe have been violated.[95] Scholars and critics assert that the men's rights rhetoric of children's "needs" that accompanies their plea for fathers' rights is merely to deflect criticism that they are motivated by self-interest and masks men's rights advocates' own claims.[62][96][4] Critics argue that abusive men use allegations of parental alienation to counter mothers' legitimate concerns about their and their chlldren's safety.[93][94][86] Deborah Rhode argues that, contrary to the claims of some men's rights activists, research shows that joint legal custody does not increase the likelihood that fathers will pay child support or remain involved parents.[97] Michael Flood argues that the fathers' and men's rights movement seems to prioritize re-establishing paternal authority over the children, rather than actual involvement, and that they prioritize principles of equality over the positive parenting and well-being of the children.[98]


Observers[who?] have stated that the 'intactivist' movement, an anti-circumcision movement, has some overlap with the men's rights movement.[65][99] Most men's rights activists object to routine neonatal circumcision and say that female genital mutilation has received more attention than male circumcision.[65][100][101][102]

The controversy around non-consensual circumcision of children for non-therapeutic reasons is not exclusive to the men's rights movement, and involves concerns of feminists and medical ethics.[103][104] Some doctors and academics have argued that circumcision is a violation of the right to health and bodily integrity,[105][104][106][107][108] while others have disagreed.[109][110][111][112]


Men's rights groups in the United States began organizing in opposition to divorce reform and custody issues around the 1960s. Up until this time, husbands held legal power and control over wives and children.[113] The men involved in the early organization claimed that family and divorce law discriminated against them and favored their wives.[114] Men's rights leader Rich Doyle likened divorce courts to slaughterhouses, considering their judgements unsympathetic and unreasonable.[115]

Men's rights activists have argued that divorce and custody laws violate men's individual rights to equal protection. Law professor Gwendolyn Leachman writes that this sort of framing "downplays the systemic biases that women face that justify protective divorce and custody laws".[116]

Domestic violence

Men's rights groups describe domestic violence committed by women against men as a problem that goes ignored, under-reported,[117][118] and under-researched,[119] in part because men are reluctant to label themselves as victims.[118] They say that women are as aggressive or more aggressive than men in relationships[120] and that domestic violence is gender-symmetrical.[121][122] They cite controversial family conflict research by Murray Straus and Richard Gelles as evidence of gender symmetry.[123][122] Men's rights advocates argue that judicial systems too easily accept false allegations of domestic violence by women against male partners.[124] Men's rights advocates have been critics of legal, policy and practical protections for abused women,[122][125][126] campaigning for domestic violence shelters for battered men[117][118] and for the legal system to be educated about women's violence against men.[117] In the early 21st or late 20th century, the National Coalition for Free Men sued the Minnesota state, calling for funding to women's domestic violence programmes to be removed under the idea that they "discriminate against men".[127]

In response to such claims, family violence scholar Richard Gelles published an article entitled "Domestic Violence: Not An Even Playing Field" and accused the men's rights movement of distorting his research findings on men's and women's violence to promote a misogynistic agenda.[128] Many domestic violence scholars and advocates have rejected the research cited by men's rights activists as flawed,[129][130] disputing their claims that such violence is gender symmetrical,[18][120][131][132] saying that their focus on women's violence stems from a political agenda to minimize the severity of the problem of men's violence against women and children[130] and to undermine services to abused women.[120][132]


Men's rights adherents describe the education of boys as being in crisis, with boys having reduced educational achievement and motivation compared to girls.[133] Advocates blame the influence of feminism on education for what they believe is discrimination against and systematic oppression of boys in the education system.[134][135] They critique what they describe as the "feminization" of education, stating that the predominance of female teachers, a focus on girls' needs, as well as a curricula and assessment methods that supposedly favour girls, have proved repressive and restrictive to men and boys.[133][136]

Men's rights groups call for increased recognition of masculinity, greater numbers of male role models, more competitive sports, and the increased responsibilities for boys in the school setting. They have also advocated clearer school routines, more traditional school structures, including gender-segregated classrooms, and stricter discipline.[136]

One primary characteristic of men's rights groups is the view of boys as a homogeneous group that shares common educational experiences; this means that it fails to account for how responses to educational approaches may differ by age, disability, culture, ethnicity, sexuality, religion, and class.[136]

In Australia, men's rights discourse has influenced government policy documents. Compared to Australia, less impact has been noted in the United Kingdom, where feminists have historically had less influence on educational policy.[134] However, Mary Curnock Cook, the British Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) chief executive, argued that in Britain "despite the clear evidence and despite the press coverage, there is a deafening policy silence on the issue. Has the women's movement now become so normalised that we cannot conceive of needing to take positive action to secure equal education outcomes for boys?"[135]

Female privilege

The men's rights movement rejects the concept that men are privileged relative to women. The movement is divided into two groups: those who consider men and women to be harmed equally by sexism, and those who view society as endorsing the degradation of men and upholding what they term "female privilege".[137]

Governmental structures

Men's rights groups have called for governmental structures to address issues specific to men and boys including education, health, work and marriage.[138][139][140] Men's rights groups in India have called for the creation of a Men's Welfare Ministry and a National Commission for Men, or for the abolition of the National Commission for Women.[138][141][142] In the United Kingdom, the creation of a Minister for Men analogous to the existing Minister for Women, has been proposed by David Amess, MP and Lord Northbourne, but was rejected by the government headed by Prime Minister Tony Blair.[139][143][144] In the United States, Warren Farrell heads a commission focused on the creation of a White House Council on Boys and Men as a counterpart to the White House Council on Women and Girls, which was formed in March 2009.[133][140]


Men's rights groups view the health issues faced by men, and their shorter life spans compared to women globally, as evidence of discrimination and oppression.[72][145] They claim that feminism has led to women's health issues being privileged at the expense of men's.[146] They highlight certain disparities in funding of men's health issues as compared to women's, stating that, for example, prostate cancer research receives less funding than breast-cancer research.[145][147] However, women and minorities had typically been excluded from medical research until the 1990s.[148][149] Viviana Simon states, "Most biomedical and clinical research has been based on the assumption that the male can serve as representative of the species." Medical scholars warn that such false assumptions are still prevalent.[150] Contrary to antifeminist assertions, empirical findings suggest that gender bias against females remains the norm in medicine.[151][152] [page needed] Farrell argues that industrialization raised the stress level of men while lowering the stress-level of women by pulling men away from the home and the family, and pushing women closer to home and family. He cites this an explanation why men are more likely to die from all 15 leading causes of death than women at all ages. He argues that the U.S. government having an Office of Research on Women's Health but no Office of Research on Men's Health, along with the U.S. federal government spending twice as much money on Women's health, shows that society considers men more disposable than women.[153][time needed]

Scholars have critiqued these claims,[130][145][154] stating, as Michael Messner puts it, that the poorer health outcomes are the heavy costs paid by men "for conformity with the narrow definitions of masculinity that promise to bring them status and privilege"[154] and that these costs fall disproportionately on men who are marginalized socially and economically.[154] According to Michael Flood, men's health would best be improved by "tackling destructive notions of manhood, an economic system which values profit and productivity over workers' health, and the ignorance of service providers", instead of blaming a feminist health movement.[155] Genevieve Creighton & John L Oliffe have stated that men engage in positive health practices, such as reducing fat intake and alcohol, to conform to positive masculine ideals.[156] Some have argued that biology contributes to the life-expectancy gap. For example, it has been found that females consistently outlive males among primates. Eunuchs, castrated before puberty, have shown to live with varying differences, more than other males, pointing to testosterone levels playing a role in the life-expectancy gap.[157] Luy and Gast found that the female–male life expectancy gap is primarily due to higher mortality rates among specific sub-populations of men. They therefore state that social programs should be narrowly targeted to those sub-populations, rather than to men as a whole.[158]


Glen Poole, author of the book Equality For Men, argues that homelessness is a gendered issue, saying that in Britain, most homeless people are male.[159] A 2018 study focused on three Pennsylvania emergency departments found little difference in the number of men and women who self-reported as homeless; however, the study did not claim to reflect the homeless population in the United States as a whole.[160] [non-primary source needed] In 2022, most homeless individuals were male. [161] Men are also more likely to be unsheltered than women, this may be partly due to the administrators of the homelessness system prioritizing vulnerability, age, or risk of violence over serving men and women equally. But, many reasons are found outside the homelessness system, like men being over-represented in the criminal justice system and more likely to drop out of school than women. [162] For information on the homeless population of the United States as a whole, see Homelessness in the United States.


Men's rights campaigners believe that men receive harsher treatment than women in criminal justice systems around the world. They cite the disproportionate number of men in prison as evidence of this.[163] In the United States,[164] the United Kingdom,[165] Australia,[166] India[167] and across the European Union,[168] 90–95% of prison inmates are male. Studies have shown that, compared with women who commit similar crimes, men are more likely to be incarcerated, receive longer prison sentences, and have to serve a greater portion of their sentences.[169][170][171][172][173][174][175] According to Warren Farrell, a man convicted of murder in the United States is twenty times more likely to receive a death sentence than a woman convicted of murder.[174] There is also evidence that female sex offenders are treated with more leniency than their male counterparts.[176] Farrell believes society considers women to be naturally more innocent and credible, and criticizes battered woman and infanticide defenses.[174] He criticizes conditions in men's prisons and the lack of attention to prison male-to-male rape by authorities.[174]

Military conscription

Men's rights activists argue that the sole military conscription of men is an example of discrimination against men.[72][177] Historically, most societies have only required men to be conscripted. According to David Benatar, "perhaps the most obvious example of male disadvantage is the long history of social and legal pressures on men, but not on women, to enter the military and to fight in war, thereby risking their lives and bodily and psychological health. Where the pressure to join the military has taken the form of conscription, the costs of avoidance have been self-imposed exile, imprisonment, physical assault or, in the most extreme circumstances, execution."[178] Around 80 countries worldwide still use conscription in various forms, and most of these have a male-only draft.[178] As of 2018, only two countries – Norway and Sweden – required women to be conscripted under the same formal conditions as men.[179][180]

In the United States, all males ages 18–25 are required to register for Selective Service. Failure to do so can result in fines, imprisonment, and ineligibility for student loans and federal employment. Women are not required to register. In 1971, draft resisters in the United States initiated a class-action suit alleging that male-only conscription violated men's rights to equal protection under the US constitution.[181][182] When the case, Rostker v. Goldberg, reached the Supreme Court in 1981, they were supported by a men's rights group and multiple feminist groups, including the National Organization for Women.[182] However, the Supreme Court upheld the Military Selective Service Act,[181] stating that 'the argument for registering women was based on considerations of equity, but Congress was entitled, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to focus on the question of military need, rather than 'equity''.[183] The 2016 decision by Defense Secretary Ash Carter to make all combat positions open to women relaunched debate over whether or not women should be required to register for the Selective Service System.[184] In the case National Coalition for Men v. Selective Service System, the Southern District Court of Texas ruled the male-only draft unconstitutional.

Paternity fraud

Men's and fathers' rights groups interest in "paternity fraud" or mistaken paternity falls into two main categories: men who are compelled to provide financial support for a child that has been proven by DNA testing not to be their biological offspring, and men who have been led to believe that the children they are raising are their own, and have subsequently discovered otherwise.[185] They hold biological views of fatherhood, emphasizing the imperative of the genetic foundation of paternity rather than social aspects of fatherhood.[185][186] They state that men should not be forced to support children fathered by another man,[187] and that men are harmed because a relationship is created between a man and non-biological children while denying the children and their biological father of that experience and knowledge of their genetic history. In addition, they say non-biological fathers are denied the resources to have their own biological children in another relationship.[185]

Men's rights activists support the use of one-parent consent paternity testing to reassure presumed fathers about the child's paternity;[187] men's and fathers' rights groups have also called for compulsory paternity testing of all children.[185][188][189] They have campaigned vigorously in support of men who have been shown by genetic testing not to be the biological father, but who are nevertheless required to be financially responsible for them.[186] Prompted by these concerns, legislators in certain jurisdictions have supported this biological view and have passed laws providing relief from child support payments when a man is proved not to be the father.[185][186] Australian men's rights groups have opposed the recommendations of a report by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the National Health and Medical Research Council that would require the informed consent of both parents for paternity testing of young children,[187] and laws that would make it illegal to obtain a sample for DNA testing without the individual's informed consent.[190]

Estimates of the extent of misattributed paternity vary considerably. Some campaigners claim that between 10% and 30% of children are being parented by men who are unaware that they are not the biological father, but Professor Leslie Cannold writes that these numbers have been inflated by an order of magnitude, with about 1% seen in Australia and the UK, and 3% observed in the US.[185] Sociologist Michael Gilding asserts that men's rights activists have exaggerated the rate and extent of misattributed paternity, which he estimates at about 1–3%.[188][191][192] Gilding opposed as unnecessary calls for mandatory paternity testing of all children.[188] Even the lowest estimates of the prevalence of paternity fraud suggest it affects tens of thousands of men in the US alone.[193]


False accusations against men

Men's rights activists believe there are a significant number of false accusations of rape,[194] and have proposed legal changes to protect men in those situations.[195]

Men's rights proponents believe that the naming of the accused while providing the accuser (victim) with anonymity encourages abuse of this kind.[196] Men's rights advocates have also claimed that rape "has been used as a scam."[197] Studies from the United States, Australia, and the Britain have found the percentage of estimated false or unsubstantiated rape allegations to be around 2% to 8%.[198][199][200][201]

Whilst false accusations of rape often receive much online and media attention, the vast majority do not lead to conviction or wrongful jail time despite the claims of some organisations.[202] A study from the British Home Office for example, shows that in the early 2000s, of 216 sexual assault cases that were classified as false allegations, only six led to an arrest and just two led to charges against the accused before ultimately being ruled as false.[202][203][204]

To argue the issue of false accusations of rape, the categories of 'false' and 'unsubstantiated' are often conflated, such as the National Coalition for Men citing reports such as the 1996 FBI summary that finds a rate of 8% for unsubstantiated forcible rape, which is four times higher than the average for all index crimes as a whole.[205][non-primary source needed] Experts emphasize that verified false allegations are a distinct category from unsubstantiated allegations, and conflating the two is fallacious.[206] These figures are widely debated due to the questionable methodology and small sample sizes.[207][208]

Sexual violence against men

Men's rights activists have also raised contention on the issue of sexual violence against men, especially in the context of the stigma surrounding male victims of rape and the legal troubles they face, including being counter-sued for rape, child support (see Hermesmann v. Seyer), and lack of action. Men's rights activists have also criticized the lack of attention towards prison male-to-male rape by authorities.[205][non-primary source needed]

Criminalization of marital rape

Legislation and judicial decisions criminalizing marital rape are opposed by some men's rights groups in the United Kingdom,[209][210][211][212] the United States[122][213] and India.[214][215] The reasons for opposition include concerns about false allegations related to divorce proceedings,[216][217][218] and the belief that sex within marriage is an irrevocable part of the institution of marriage.[219][220] In India, there has been anxiety about relationships[221] and the future of marriage that such laws have given women "grossly disproportional rights".[222] Virag Dhulia of the Save Indian Family Foundation, a men's rights organization, has opposed recent efforts to criminalize marital rape in India, arguing that "no relationship will work if these rules are enforced".[221]

Critique of men's rights rape discourse

Feminist scholars Lise Gotell and Emily Dutton argue that content on the manosphere reveals anti-feminist pro-rape arguments, including that sexual violence is a gender-neutral problem, feminists are responsible for erasing men's experiences of victimization, false allegations are widespread, and that rape culture is a feminist-produced moral panic. They contend it is important to engage [this topic] as there is a real danger that MRA (Men's Rights Activism) claims could come to define the popular conversation about sexual violence.[223]

Reproductive rights

Men's rights campaigners assert that while a woman has several legal avenues to opt out of being a mother after conception (abortion, adoption, safe haven laws), a man has no choice in whether he becomes a father and is at the mercy of the mother's decision.[224][225] Moreover, a man who fathers a child as a result of reproductive coercion or a sexual assault by a woman can still be compelled to support the child financially.[226] Cases in Kansas, California and Arizona have established that a male raped as a minor by a woman can be held legally responsible for a child that results from the assault, a situation the director of the National Center for Men described as "off-the-charts ridiculous" that "wouldn't be tolerated" if the genders were reversed.[227] According to Warren Farrell, "Roe v. Wade gave women the vote over their bodies. Men still don't have the vote over theirs—whether in love or war."[228][third-party source needed]

In consequence, some advocate for "paper abortion", which would allow the biological father, before the birth of the child, to opt out of any rights, privileges, and responsibilities toward the child, including financial support.[citation needed]

In 2006, the American National Center for Men backed Dubay v. Wells, a lawsuit which concerned whether men should have the opportunity to decline all paternity rights and responsibilities in the event of an unplanned pregnancy. Supporters argued that this would allow the woman time to make an informed decision and give men the same reproductive rights as women.[229] The case and the appeal were dismissed, with the U.S. Court of Appeals (Sixth Circuit) stating that neither parent has the right to sever their financial responsibilities for a child and that "Dubay's claim that a man's right to disclaim fatherhood would be analogous to a woman's right to abortion rests upon a false analogy".[230][231]

Social security and insurance

Men's rights groups argue that women are given superior social security and tax benefits than men.[42] Warren Farrell states that men in the United States pay more into social security, but in total, women receive more in benefits, and that discrimination against men in insurance and pensions have gone unrecognized.[232][third-party source needed]


Men's rights activists point to higher suicide rates in men compared to women.[145][146] In the United States for example, the male-to-female suicide death ratio varies, approximately, between 3:1 and 10:1,[233] and some studies have shown a higher suicidal intent in men.[234]

In Australia, 75% of suicides are male,[235][236] with, on average, 6 men killing themselves each day.[237]

Studies have also found an over-representation of women in attempted or incomplete suicides and men in complete suicides.[238] This phenomenon, described as the "gender paradox in suicide," is argued to derive from a tendency for females to use less lethal methods and greater male access and use of lethal methods.[238][239]

Prominent men's rights activists

Most men's rights activists in the United States are white, middle-class, heterosexual men.[52][240][63][241] Prominent advocates include Warren Farrell,[24] Herb Goldberg,[24] Richard Doyle,[242] and Asa Baber.[243][244] There are also women in the movement, including Helen Smith, Christina Hoff Sommers,[245] Erin Pizzey[246] and Bettina Arndt.[247]

Karen DeCrow

Karen DeCrow was an American attorney, author, and activist and feminist, who served as president of the National Organization for Women from 1974 to 1977, she was also a strong supporter of equal rights for men in child custody decisions, arguing for a "rebuttable presumption" of shared custody after divorce.[248] She also asserted that men as well as women should be allowed the decision not to become a parent, and was an avid supporter of father's rights movements, and argued that domestic violence is a "two-way street."[248] As a result, DeCrow found she was "increasingly at odds with the organization she had once led, though she never broke with it."[248]

Marc Angelucci

Marc Angelucci was an American attorney, men's rights activist, and the vice-president of the National Coalition for Men (NCFM).[249] As a lawyer, he represented several cases related to men's rights issues, most prominently National Coalition for Men v. Selective Service System, in which the federal judge declared the male-only selective-service system unconstitutional, and Woods v. Horton, which ruled that the California State Legislature had unconstitutionally excluded men from domestic violence victim protection programs.[250][251]

Warren Farrell

Warren Farrell is an American educator, activist and author of seven books on men's and women's issues.

Farrell initially came to prominence in the 1970s as a supporter of second wave feminism; he served on the New York City Board of the National Organization for Women (NOW). Generally considered the 'Father of Men's Rights Movement,'" Farrell advocates for "a gender liberation movement, with "both sexes walking a mile in each other's moccasins."[252]

Herb Goldberg

Herb Goldberg was the author of the book What Men Still Don't Know About Women, Relationships, and Love,The Hazards of Being Male: Surviving the Myth of Masculine Privilege (1975), and What Men Really Want and Men's Secrets related to the formative men's movement. He was a professor emeritus of psychology at California State University, Los Angeles and a practicing psychologist in Los Angeles.[253]

Erin Pizzey

Erin Pizzey is an English men's rights advocate, domestic abuse advocate and ex-feminist. She holds a controversial theory that most domestic violence between men and women is mutual and reciprocated.[254] [255][failed verification] Pizzey has released two notable works, Scream Quietly or the Neighbours Will Hear and Prone to Violence.[256][undue weight? ] In the 2024 New Year Honours she was named Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[257]

Bettina Arndt

Bettina Arndt is an Australian men's right activist who was awarded the Order of Australia for gender equity in 2020.[258] Despite heavy criticism, the Council of the Award of Australia decided not to strip her of the award.[258][undue weight? ]


Many authors have characterized the men's rights movement as misogynistic.[259] The Southern Poverty Law Center has stated that while some of the websites, blogs and forums related to the movement "voice legitimate and sometimes disturbing complaints about the treatment of men, what is most remarkable is the misogynistic tone that pervades so many."[129][260][261] After further research into the movement, the SPLC elaborated: "A thinly veiled desire for the domination of women and a conviction that the current system oppresses men in favor of women are the unifying tenets of the male supremacist worldview."[10] Other studies have pointed towards men's rights groups in India trying to change or completely abolish important legal protections for women as a form of "patriarchal anxiety" as well as being hostile towards women.[262]

The venue for the first Men's Rights Conference in the US received death threats, calls, and demonstrations[263] forcing the organizers to raise funds for extra security[264] and eventually change the venue.

Professor Ruth M. Mann of the University of Windsor in Canada suggests that men's rights groups fuel an international rhetoric of hatred and victimization by disseminating misinformation via online forums and websites containing constantly-updated "diatribes against feminism, ex-wives, child support, shelters, and the family law and criminal justice systems."[265] According to Mann, these stories reignite their hatred and reinforce their beliefs that the system is biased against men and that feminism is responsible for a large scale and ongoing "cover-up" of men's victimization. Mann says that although existing legislation in Canada acknowledges that men are also victims of domestic violence, men's rights advocates demand government recognition that men are equally or more victimized by domestic violence, claims not supported by the data.[265] Mann also states that in contrast to feminist groups, who have advocated for domestic violence services on behalf of other historically oppressed groups in addition to women, such as individuals impacted by poverty, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, etc., men's rights groups have attempted to achieve their goals by actively opposing and attempting to dismantle services and supports put in place to protect abused women and children.[265]

Other researchers such as Michael Flood have accused the men's rights movement, particularly the father's rights groups in Australia, of endangering women, children, and even men who are at greater risk of abuse and violence.[4][266] Flood states that the men's rights/father's rights groups in Australia pursue "equality with a vengeance" or equal policies with negative outcomes and motives in order to re-establish paternal authority over the well-being of children and women as well as positive parenting.[266]

See also


  1. ^ Rafail, Patrick; Freitas, Isaac (2019). "Grievance Articulation and Community Reactions in the Men's Rights Movement Online". Social Media + Society. 5 (2): 205630511984138. doi:10.1177/2056305119841387. ISSN 2056-3051.
  2. ^ a b Sources:
  3. ^ Ruzankina, E.A. (2010). "Men's movements and male subjectivity". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia. 49 (1). Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc.: 8–16. doi:10.2753/aae1061-1959490101. S2CID 144841265.
  4. ^ a b c Dragiewicz, Molly (2011). Equality with a Vengeance: Men's Rights Groups, Battered Women, and Antifeminist Backlash. Northeastern University Press. ISBN 978-1-55553-756-2.
  5. ^ a b c Schmitz, Rachel M.; Kazyak, Emily (12 May 2016). "Masculinities in Cyberspace: An Analysis of Portrayals of Manhood in Men's Rights Activist Websites". Social Sciences. 5 (2): 18. doi:10.3390/socsci5020018.
  6. ^ Ribeiro, Manoel Horta; Blackburn, Jeremy; Bradlyn, Barry; et al. (2021). "The Evolution of the Manosphere Across the Web". Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. Vol. 15. Palo Alto, Calif.: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. pp. 196–207. arXiv:2001.07600v5. doi:10.1609/icwsm.v15i1.18053. ISBN 978-1-57735-869-5. ISSN 2334-0770.
  7. ^ Goldwag, Arthur (15 May 2012). "Hatewatch: Intelligence report article provokes fury among Men's Rights Activists". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
  8. ^ Roose, Joshua; Flood, M.; Alfano, M. (2020). "Challenging the Use of Masculinity as a Recruitment Mechanism in Extremist Narratives: A Report to the Victorian Department of Justice and Community Safety" (PDF). Department of Justice and Community Safety.[dead link]
  9. ^ Farrell, Tracie; Fernandez, Miriam; Novotny, Jakub; Alani, Harith (June 2019). "Exploring Misogyny across the Manosphere in Reddit" (PDF). Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science. pp. 87–96. doi:10.1145/3292522.3326045. ISBN 978-1-4503-6202-3. S2CID 195776677.
  10. ^ a b "Male Supremacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  11. ^ Russell-Kraft, Stephanie (4 April 2018). "The Rise of Male Supremacist Groups". The New Republic. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  12. ^ "A word for men's rights". Putnam's Magazine. 7 (38): 208–214. February 1856. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  13. ^ Bax, E. Belfort (1908) [1896]. The Legal Subjection of Men. London: The New Age Press. OCLC 875136389.
    • Reprinted as Bax, E. Belfort (2015). The legal subjection of men (classic reprint). London: Forgotten Books. ISBN 978-1-330-65750-8.
  14. ^ a b c d Malleier, Elisabeth (2003). "Der 'Bund für Männerrechte'. Die Bewegung der 'Männerrechtler' im Wien der Zwischenkriegszeit". Wiener Geschichtsblätter [de]. 58 (3): 208–233.
  15. ^ a b c d Wrussnig, Kerstin Christin (2009). 'Wollen Sie ein Mann sein oder ein Weiberknecht?' Zur Männerrechtsbewegung in Wien der Zwischenkriegszeit (PDF) (MA thesis). University of Vienna.
  16. ^ "Men's Rights League in Vienna". The New York Times. 10 March 1926. p. 20. Retrieved 6 June 2013. A 'League for Men's Rights' was founded today to protect men against Austrian feminism, which has grown rapidly since the war.
  17. ^ Healy, Maureen (2004). Vienna and the Fall of the Habsburg Empire: Total War and Everyday Life in World War I. Cambridge UP. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-521-83124-6. As historians Sigrid Augeneder and Gabriella Hauch explain, legally removing women from traditional male jobs constituted one facet of the return to a 'healthy order' (gesunde Ordnung) in the postwar period. Hauch discusses the somewhat comical 'League for Men's Rights' founded in the 1920s to "protect the endangered existence of men.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Messner, Michael A. (June 1998). "The limits of 'The Male Sex Role': an analysis of the men's liberation and men's rights movements' discourse" (PDF). Gender & Society. 12 (3): 255–276. doi:10.1177/0891243298012003002. JSTOR 190285. S2CID 143890298.
  19. ^ a b Newton 2004, p. 190–200.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Eagle, Jonna (2003). "Men's Movements". In Carroll, Bret (ed.). American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-4522-6571-1.
  21. ^ Baker, Maureen; Bakker, J. I. Hans (Autumn 1980). "The Double-Bind of the Middle Class Male: Men's Liberation and the Male Sex Role". Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 11 (4): 547–561. doi:10.3138/jcfs.11.4.547.
  22. ^ Carrigan, Tim; Connell, Bob; Lee, John (1985). "Toward a New Sociology of Masculinity". Theory and Society. 14 (5): 551–604. doi:10.1007/BF00160017. JSTOR 657315. S2CID 143967899.
  23. ^ Messner, Michael A. (1997). Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements. Lanham, Md.: AltaMira Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0-7591-1755-6.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Maddison, Sarah (1999). "Private Men, Public Anger: The Men's Rights Movement in Australia" (PDF). Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies. 4 (2): 39–52. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013.
  25. ^ Pease, Bob; Camilleri, Peter (2001). "Feminism, masculinity and the human services". Working with men in the human services. Crow's Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-86508-480-0.
  26. ^ Kahn, Jack S. (2009). An introduction to masculinities. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4051-8179-2.
  27. ^ Williams, Gwyneth I. (2001). "Masculinity in context: an epilogue". In Williams, Rhys H. (ed.). Promise keepers and the new masculinity: private lives and public morality. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7391-0230-5.
  28. ^ Coston, Bethany; Kimmel, Michael (1 January 2013). "White Men as the New Victims: Reverse Discrimination Cases and the Men's Rights Movement". Nevada Law Journal. 13 (2).
  29. ^ Blank, Renee; Slipp, Sandra (1 September 1994). "The white male: an endangered species?". Management Review. 83 (9): 27–33. Gale A15803282 ProQuest 206709029.
  30. ^ Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B. (2012). "Interrogating recuperative masculinity politics in schooling". International Journal of Inclusive Education. 16 (4): 407–421. doi:10.1080/13603116.2011.555095. S2CID 144275951. The concept of recuperative masculinity politics was developed by Lingard and Douglas (1999) to refer to both mythopoetic (Biddulph 1995, 2010; Bly 1990) and men's rights politics (Farrell 1993). Both of these rejected the move to a more equal gender order and more equal gender regimes in all of the major institutions of society (e.g. the family, schools, universities, workplaces) sought by feminists and most evident in the political and policy impacts in the 1980s and 1990s from second-wave feminism of the 1970s. 'Recuperative' was used to specifically indicate the ways in which these politics reinforced, defended and wished to recoup the patriarchal gender order and institutional gender regimes.
  31. ^ Kimmel, Michael (2017). Angry White Men: American Masculinity at the End of an Era. The Nation Institute. ISBN 978-1-56858-962-6.
  32. ^ Lee, Calinda N. (2003). "Fathers' rights". In Carroll, Bret E. (ed.). American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. One. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-7619-2540-8.
  33. ^ a b Ashe 2007, p. 63.
  34. ^ Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio; Taylor, Verta; Whittier, Nancy (2006). "Gender movements". In Saltzman Chafetz, Janet (ed.). Handbook of the sociology of gender. New York: Springer. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-387-36218-2.
  35. ^ Chamberlain, Pam (March 2011). "Father's Rights Groups Threaten Women's Gains—And Their Safety". Political Research Associates. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  36. ^ Dunphy 2000, pp. 142–143.
  37. ^ Karnad, Raghu (3 December 2007). "Now, is that malevolence?". Outlook magazine. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  38. ^ Polanki, Pallavi (17 July 2010). "Men Who Cry". OPEN. Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  39. ^ "Members of men's rights body meet". The Times of India. 8 October 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  40. ^ Ruxton, Sandy; van deer Gaag, Nikki (2013). "Men's involvement in gender equality – European perspectives". Gender & Development. 21 (1): 161–175. doi:10.1080/13552074.2013.767522. S2CID 145747752.
  41. ^ Menzies 2007, p. 77.
  42. ^ a b c d e Clatterbaugh 2007a.
  43. ^ Berman, Judy (5 November 2009). ""Men's rights" groups go mainstream". Salon. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  44. ^ Connell, R. W. (Spring 2005). "Change among the gatekeepers: men, masculinities, and gender equality in the global arena" (PDF). Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 30 (3): 1801–1825. CiteSeerX doi:10.1086/427525. JSTOR 10.1086/427525. S2CID 15161058. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  45. ^ Sawer, Marian (2002). "In safe hands? Women in the 2001 election". In Warhurst, John; Simms, Marian (eds.). 2001: The centenary election. St Lucia, Qld.: University of Queensland Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-7022-3303-6.
  46. ^ Weitz, Udo (26 December 2003). "Run-up to election shows Israelis are as fragmented as ever". USA Today. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  47. ^ Bennet, James (19 January 2003). "Israeli parties clamor for votes in divided society". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  48. ^ "Israel's fringe parties take root". The Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. The Associated Press. 2 January 2003. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  49. ^ a b Kimmel, Michael (2017). "White men as victims: The Men's Rights Movement". Angry white men: American masculinity as the end of an era (2nd ed.). New York: Nation Books. ISBN 978-1-56858-962-6.
  50. ^ Chowdhury, Romit (2014). "Conditions of emergence: the formation of men's rights groups in contemporary India". Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 21 (1): 27–53. doi:10.1177/0971521513511199. S2CID 144978025.
  51. ^ a b "Men's rights movement: why it is so controversial?". The Week. 19 February 2015.
  52. ^ a b Katz, Jackson (2015). "Engaging men in prevention of violence against women". In Johnson, Holly; Fisher, Bonnie; Jaquier, Véronique (eds.). Critical issues on violence against women: international perspectives and promising strategies. New York: Routledge. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-415-85624-9.
  53. ^ a b Hodapp, Christa (2017). Men's Rights, Gender, and Social Media. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. p. xv. ISBN 978-1-49-852617-3. The manosphere is a group of loosely associated websites, blogs, and forums all concerned with masculinity and men's issues, and includes input from the MRM, pick-up artists, anti-feminists, and fathers' rights activists.
  54. ^ a b c Ging, Debbie (2019). "Alphas, Betas, and Incels: Theorizing the Masculinities of the Manosphere". Men and Masculinities. 22 (4): 638–657. doi:10.1177/1097184X17706401. ISSN 1097-184X. S2CID 149239953.
  55. ^ Hodapp (2017), pp. xix–xx.
  56. ^ a b Kelly, R. Tod (20 October 2013). "The Masculine Mystique: Inside The Men's Rights Movement (MRM)". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  57. ^ Rosin, Hanna (13 May 2014). "Dad's cay in court: The perception that family law is unfair to fathers is not exactly true". Slate. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  58. ^ Clark-Flory, Tracy (1 July 2014). "'Feminism is a sexual strategy': Inside the angry online men's rights group 'Red Pill'". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  59. ^ a b Zuckerberg, Donna (2018). Not All Dead White Men: Classics and Misogyny in the Digital Age. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 12–16. ISBN 978-0-674-97555-2.
  60. ^ Hodapp 2017, p. 8: "[T]he MRM is related to the manosphere, a loose association of websites and organizations promoting certain forms of masculinity and generally expressing a disdain for feminism."
  61. ^ Jane, Emma A. (2017). "Systemic misogyny exposed: Translating Rapeglish from the Manosphere with a Random Rape Threat Generator". International Journal of Cultural Studies. 21 (6): 661–680. doi:10.1177/1367877917734042. ISSN 1367-8779. S2CID 149078033 – via ResearchGate. Despite some conflicting agendas and tribalism, [manosphere] groups are united by an antagonism towards women, a vehement opposition to feminism, and the production of hyperbolic misogynist discourse ...
  62. ^ a b c Williams, Rhys H. (1995). "Constructing the Public Good: Social Movements and Cultural Resources". Social Problems. 42 (1): 134–135. CiteSeerX doi:10.2307/3097008. JSTOR 3097008. Another example of contractual model rhetoric is in the language of the Men's Rights movement. As a countermovement to the feminist movement, it has concentrated on areas generally thought of as family law—especially divorce and child custody laws. The movement charges that maternal preference in child custody decisions is an example of gender prejudice, with men the ones who are systematically disadvantaged... Men's Rights groups... have adopted much of the rhetoric of the early liberal feminist movement... Similarly, along with the appeal to "equal rights for fathers"... the Men's Rights movement also uses a rhetoric of children's "needs"... The needs rhetoric helps offset charges that their rights language is motivated by self-interest alone.
  63. ^ a b Cahill, Charlotte (2010). "Men's movement". In Chapman, Roger (ed.). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 354–356. ISBN 978-1-84972-713-6.
  64. ^ Allen, Jonathan A. (9 March 2015). "Phallic Affect". Men and Masculinities. 19: 22–41. doi:10.1177/1097184X15574338. S2CID 147829870. The men's rights movement is distinct from other explorations of masculinity insofar as the movement itself is fundamentally situated in opposition to feminist theory and activism.
  65. ^ a b c d Allen, Jonathan A. (9 March 2015). "Phallic Affect". Men and Masculinities. 19: 22–41. doi:10.1177/1097184X15574338. S2CID 147829870.
  66. ^ Beasley, Chris (2005). Gender and Sexuality: Critical Theories, Critical Thinkers. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7619-6979-2.
  67. ^ Kimmel, Michael S. (1987). "Men's Responses to Feminism at the Turn of the Century". Gender & Society. 1 (3): 261–283. doi:10.1177/089124387001003003. S2CID 145428652.
  68. ^ Dunphy 2000, p. 88.
  69. ^ a b Flood, Michael (2007). "Men's Movement". In Flood, Michael; Gardiner, Judith Kegan; Pease, Bob; Pringle, Keith (eds.). International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. Routledge. pp. 418–422. ISBN 978-0-415-33343-6 – via
  70. ^ Clatterbaugh, Kenneth (2007b). "Anti-feminism". In Flood, Michael; Gardiner, Judith Kegan; Pease, Bob; Pringle, Keith (eds.). International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. Routledge. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-415-33343-6.
  71. ^ Whitaker, Stephen (2001). "Gender Politics in Men's Movements" (PDF). In Vannoy, Dana (ed.). Gender Mosaics: Social Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 343–351. ISBN 978-0-19-532998-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013.
  72. ^ a b c d Messner 1997, pp. 41–48.
  73. ^ Johnson, Allan G. (2005). The Gender Knot: Unraveling our Patriarchal Legacy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-1-59213-383-3. such problems are prominent in many men's lives, but this is no organized male response to the patriarchal system whose dynamics produce much of men's loss, suffering, and grief. Contrary to Bly's claim, it is not a parallel to the women's movement that is merely on a "different timetable." It may be a response to genuine emotional and spiritual needs that are met by bringing men together to drum, chant, and share stories and feelings from their lives. It may help to heal some of the damage patriarchy does to men's lives. But it is not a movement aimed at the system and the gender dynamics that actually cause that damage.
  74. ^ Williams, Gwyneth (1 January 2002). "Fathers' rights movement". In Judith A. Baer (ed.). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-313-30644-0.
  75. ^ a b Farrell & Sterba 2008, p. 79–80.
  76. ^ Farrell & Sterba 2008, p. 193–94.
  77. ^ Ramesh, Randeep (13 December 2007). "Dowry law making us the victims, says India's men's movement". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  78. ^ "Men demand fair play". The Times of India. 20 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  79. ^ "Section 498A in The Indian Penal Code". Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  80. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (2 March 2011). "Dowry wars: The big issue that has India divided". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  81. ^ Chowdhury, Romit (2014). "Family, Femininity, Feminism: 'Structure of Feeling' in the Articulation of Men's Rights". In Nielsen, Kenneth Bo; Waldrop, Anne (eds.). Women, Gender and Everyday Social Transformation in India. London: Anthem Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-78-308269-8.
  82. ^ Gilani, Iftikhar (6 April 2010). "Shoaib Malik controversy to hit Pakistan-India relations". Daily Times. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  83. ^ Dhillon, Amrit (24 December 2007). "Men say wives use India's pro-women laws to torment them". The Age. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  84. ^ a b Melville, Angela; Hunter, Rosemary (2001). "'As everybody knows': Countering myths of gender bias in family law" (PDF). Griffith Law Review. 10 (1): 124–138. Several authors have observed that men's rights groups claim that the family law system and the Family Court are biased against men, despite the lack of supporting empirical research. Also available through HeinOnline.
  85. ^ Pease, Bob (2002). Men and gender relations. Croydon, Vic.: Tertiary Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-86458-218-8.
  86. ^ a b c Fidler, Barbara Jo; Bala, Nicholas; Saini, Michael A. (2013). Children Who Resist Post-Separation Parental Contact: A Differential Approach for Legal and Mental Health Professionals. OUP USA. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0-19-989549-6.
  87. ^ a b c Crean, Susan M. (1988). In the name of the fathers: the story behind child custody. Toronto: Amanita. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0-921299-04-2.
  88. ^ Clatterbaugh 1997, p. 77.
  89. ^ Williams, Gwyneth I.; Williams, Rhys H (1995). ""All We Want Is Equality": Rhetorical Framing in the Fathers' Rights Movement". In Best, Joel (ed.). Images of Issues: Typifying Contemporary Social Problems (2nd ed.). New York: A. De Gruyter. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-0-202-30539-4.
  90. ^ Coltrane, Scott; Hickman, Neal (1992). "The Rhetoric of Rights and Needs: Moral Discourse in the Reform of Child Custody and Child Support Laws". Social Problems. 39 (4): 400–420. doi:10.2307/3097018. JSTOR 3097018.
  91. ^ Kamerman, SB; Kahn, AJ, eds. (1997). Family change and family policies in Great Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-19-829025-4.
  92. ^ Cabrera, NJ; Tamis-LeMonda, CS, eds. (2013). Handbook of father involvement: multidisciplinary perspectives (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 425. ISBN 978-0-415-87867-8.
  93. ^ a b Rathus, Zoe (7 November 2019). "'Parental alienation': the debunked theory that women lie about violence is still used in court". The Conversation. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  94. ^ a b Hill, Jess (2 October 2019). "Family law inquiry is no sop to Hanson. It's a deliberate move to bury previous reviews | Jess Hill". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  95. ^ Williams, Gwyneth I.; Williams, Rhys H. (2003). "Framing in the fathers' rights movement". In Loseke, Donileen R.; Best, Joel (eds.). Social problems: constructionist readings. New York: de Gruyter. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-202-30703-9.
  96. ^ Ryrstedt, Eva (2003). "Joint decisions – a prerequisite or a drawback in joint parental responsibility?". Australian Journal of Family Law. 17 (2): 155–206. Research has highlighted that it is usually disaffected fathers and men's rights groups, who have masked their own claims behind the rhetoric of the rights of the child to know and be cared for by both parents.
  97. ^ Rhode, DL (1997). Speaking of sex: the denial of gender inequality. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-674-83177-3.
  98. ^ Flood, Michael (2012). "Separated fathers and the 'fathers' rights' movement". Journal of Family Studies. 18 (2–3): 235–245. doi:10.5172/jfs.2012.18.2-3.235. S2CID 55469150.
  99. ^ Song, Sandra (16 November 2015). "We spoke to an Intactivist fighting for his foreskin". Paper Magazine. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  100. ^ Meyers, Rupert (21 December 2015). "Men's Rights Activists are cave dwelling idiots". GQ. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  101. ^ Strochlic, Nina (3 December 2013). "Anti-Cutters Slam New CDC Recommendations on Circumcision". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  102. ^ Ross, Julianne (10 June 2014). "The 8 Biggest Lies Men's Rights Activists Spread About Women". Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  103. ^ Povenmire, R. (1998–1999). "Do Parents Have the Legal Authority to Consent to the Surgical Amputation of Normal, Healthy Tissue From Their Infant Children?: The Practice of Circumcision in the United States". Journal of Gender, Social Policy and the Law. 7 (1): 87–123. PMID 16526136.
  104. ^ a b El-Salam, Seham Abd (2002–2003). "The Importance of Genital Mutilations to Gender Power Politics". Al-Raida. 20 (99): 42. Women's defense of men's right to bodily integrity and their work against MGM will not have a negative impact on their struggle against FGM.
  105. ^ Denniston, George C. (1999). Male and female circumcision medical, legal, and ethical considerations in pediatric practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-306-46131-6.
  106. ^ Somerville, M. (2000). "Altering baby boys' bodies: the ethics of infant male circumcision". The Ethical Canary: Science, Society and the Human Spirit. Toronto: Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-670-89302-7.
  107. ^ Green, James (2007). The Male Herbal: The Definitive Health Care Book for Men & Boys (2nd ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: Crossing Press. ISBN 978-1-58091-175-7. Circumcision: A Common Form of Disregard for Men's Rights… Glick emphasizes that infants are persons with full civil rights, and therefore no one has the right to impose circumcision on them—not even parents.
  108. ^ Earp, Brian D. (18 February 2014). "Female genital mutilation (FGM) and male circumcision: Should there be a separate ethical discourse? (blog)". Practical Ethics. Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford. Retrieved 19 June 2018. Pdf. Alternative pdf.
  109. ^ Benatar M, Benatar D (2003). "Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision". Am J Bioeth. 3 (2): 35–48. doi:10.1162/152651603766436216. PMID 12859815. S2CID 10798287.
  110. ^ Clark PA, Eisenman J, Szapor S (December 2007). "Mandatory neonatal male circumcision in Sub-Saharan Africa: medical and ethical analysis". Med. Sci. Monit. 13 (12): RA205–13. PMID 18049444.
  111. ^ Patrick K (December 2007). "Is infant male circumcision an abuse of the rights of the child? No". BMJ. 335 (7631): 1181. doi:10.1136/bmj.39406.523762.AD. PMC 2128676. PMID 18063641.
  112. ^ Brusa M, Barilan YM (October 2009). "Cultural circumcision in EU public hospitals—an ethical discussion". Bioethics. 23 (8): 470–82. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00683.x. PMID 19076127. S2CID 205564640.
  113. ^ Zaher, Claudia (Summer 2002). "When a woman's marital status determined her legal status: a research guide on the common law doctrine of coverture". Law Library Journal. 94 (3). HeinOnline on behalf of the American Association of Law Libraries: 459–486. Pdf.
  114. ^ Ashe 2007, p. 57.
  115. ^ Messner 1997, p. 45.
  116. ^ Leachman, Gwendolyn (2013). "Legal framing". In Sarat, Austin (ed.). Studies in law. Studies in Law, Politics and Society. Vol. 61. Bingley, West Yorkshire, UK: Emerald Publishing. pp. 25–59. doi:10.1108/S1059-4337(2013)0000061005. ISBN 978-1-78190-619-4.
  117. ^ a b c Miller, Susan L. (October 2005). Victims as offenders: the paradox of women's violence in relationships. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8135-3671-2.
  118. ^ a b c Doward, Jamie (21 December 2003). "Battered men get their own refuge". The Observer. London: GMG. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  119. ^ Idriss, M. M. (2022). "Abused by the Patriarchy: Male Victims, Masculinity, "Honor"-Based Abuse and Forced Marriages". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 37 (13–14): NP11905–NP11932. doi:10.1177/0886260521997928. PMC 9251746. PMID 33631999.
  120. ^ a b c Miller, Susan L.; Lilley, Terry G.; Renzetti, Claire M.; Edleson, Jeffrey L. (2008). "Female perpetrators of intimate partner violence". Encyclopedia of interpersonal violence. SAGE Publications. pp. 257–258. ISBN 978-1-4129-1800-8.
  121. ^ Dragiewicz, Molly (2011). "Sex differences". Equality with a Vengeance: Men's Rights Groups, Battered Women, and Antifeminist Backlash. Boston: Northeastern University Press. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-55553-739-5.
  122. ^ a b c d Donileen R. Loseke; Richard J. Gelles; Mary M. Cavanaugh (2005). Current controversies on family violence. SAGE. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-7619-2106-6. Other men's rights advocacy groups use family conflict research to justify demands [...] to eliminate laws defining marital rape as a crime (the Equal Justice Foundation:
  123. ^ Citations:
  124. ^ Menzies 2007, p. 85.
  125. ^ Dragiewicz, Molly (2011). "Introduction / Booth v. Hvass". Equality with a Vengeance: Men's Rights Groups, Battered Women, and Antifeminist Backlash. Boston: Northeastern University Press. pp. 3–4, 29. ISBN 978-1-55553-739-5.
  126. ^ Kimmel, Michael (2010). Misframing Men: the Politics of Contemporary Masculinities. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8135-4762-6.
  127. ^ Saunders, Daniel G. (2002). "Are Physical Assaults by Wives and Girlfriends a Major Social Problem?: A Review of the Literature". Violence Against Women. 8 (12): 1424–1448. doi:10.1177/107780102237964. hdl:2027.42/90019. ISSN 1077-8012. S2CID 145578534.
  128. ^ "Richard Gelles: oh so magnanimous, and dead wrong". Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  129. ^ a b Potok, M; Schlatter S (Spring 2012). "Men's Rights Movement Spreads False Claims about Women". Intelligence Report. 145. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  130. ^ a b c Flood, Michael (December 2012). "Separated fathers and the 'fathers' rights' movement". Journal of Family Studies. 18 (2–3): 235–345. doi:10.5172/jfs.2012.18.2-3.235. S2CID 55469150. Pdf.
  131. ^ Dobash, Russell P.; Dobash, R. Emerson; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin (February 1992). "The myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence". Social Problems. 39 (1): 71–91. doi:10.2307/3096914. JSTOR 3096914. S2CID 4058660.
  132. ^ a b Kimmel, Michael S. (November 2002). "'Gender symmetry' in domestic violence: a substantive and methodological research review". Violence Against Women. 8 (11): 1332–1363. doi:10.1177/107780102237407. S2CID 74249845. Pdf.
  133. ^ a b c Rahim Kanani (9 May 2011). "The Need to Create a White House Council on Boys to Men". Forbes. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  134. ^ a b Mills, Martin; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine (8 June 2009). "Gender policies in Australia and the United Kingdom". In Martino, Wayne; Kehler, Michael; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B. (eds.). The problem with boys' education: beyond the backlash. Taylor & Francis. pp. 38–55. ISBN 978-1-56023-683-2.
  135. ^ a b Press Association (5 January 2016). "Gender gap in UK degree subjects doubles in eight years, UCAS study finds". The Guardian | Education. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  136. ^ a b c Becky Francis; Christine Skelton (27 September 2005). Reassessing gender and achievement: questioning contemporary key debates. Psychology Press. pp. 18–19, 141. ISBN 978-0-415-33324-5. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  137. ^ Clatterbaugh 1997, p. 11: "Indeed the premise of all men's rights literature is that men are not privileged relative to women... Having denied that men are privileged relative to women, this movement divides into those who believe that men and women are equally harmed by sexism and those who believe that society has become a bastion of female privilege and male degradation.
  138. ^ a b "What about tax, and father's custody rights?". The Times of India. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  139. ^ a b "FHM: For Him Minister?". BBC News. 3 March 2004. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  140. ^ a b Cheryl, Wetzstein. "Guys got it made? Think again, say advocates". Washington Times. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  141. ^ "Indian husbands want protection from nagging wives |". Reuters. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  142. ^ Manigandan KR (9 August 2009). "Boys fight for freedom!". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  143. ^ Kallenbach, Michael (16 June 2000). "Yesterday in Parliament". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  144. ^ Minister for Men. Hansard, UK Parliament. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
  145. ^ a b c d Christian Haywood; Máirtín Mac an Ghaill (1 January 2003). Men and masculinities: theory, research, and social practice. Open University Press. pp. 134–5. ISBN 978-0-335-20892-0. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  146. ^ a b Menzies 2007, p. 86.
  147. ^ Zernike, Kate (21 June 1998). "Feminism Has Created Progress, But Man, Oh, Man, Look What Else". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  148. ^ Woods, Caira M.; Applebaum, Bethany; Green, Yvonne; Kallgren, Deborah L.; Kappeler, Evelyn (2015). "Women's Health: 30 Years of Progress in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services". Public Health Reports. 130 (2): 123–127. doi:10.1177/003335491513000204. ISSN 0033-3549. PMC 4315852. PMID 25729100.
  149. ^ Berlin, Jesse A.; Ellenberg, Susan S. (9 October 2009). "Inclusion of women in clinical trials". BMC Medicine. 7 (1): 56. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-56. ISSN 1741-7015. PMC 2763864. PMID 19818115.
  150. ^ Simon, Viviana (10 June 2005). "Wanted: Women in Clinical Trials". Science. 308 (5728): 1517. doi:10.1126/science.1115616. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 15947140.
  151. ^ Allotey, Pascale; Allotey-Reidpath, Caitlin; Reidpath, Daniel D. (11 May 2017). "Gender bias in clinical case reports: A cross-sectional study of the "big five" medical journals". PLOS ONE. 12 (5): e0177386. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1277386A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0177386. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5426670. PMID 28493948.
  152. ^ Medicine, Institute of; Practice, Board on Population Health and Public Health; Research, Committee on Women's Health (27 October 2010). Women's Health Research: Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-16337-8.
  153. ^ Farrell, Warren (2014). The Myth of Male Power: Why Men are The Disposable Sex (21st anniversary ed.). Chapter 7 (audiobook).
  154. ^ a b c Messner 1997, p. 6–7.
  155. ^ Flood, Michael; River, Jo (20 December 2017). "Men's health: A critique of men's rights and anti-feminist claims".
  156. ^ Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John L (2010). "Theorising masculinities and men's health: A brief history with a view to practice". Health Sociology Review. 19 (4): 413. doi:10.5172/hesr.2010.19.4.409. S2CID 143771206.
  157. ^ Robinson, David (2 October 2015). "Why do women live longer than men?". BBC Future.
  158. ^ Luy, M.; Gast, K. (2014). "Do women live longer or do men die earlier? Reflections on the causes of sex differences in life expectancy". Gerontology. 60 (2): 143–153. doi:10.1159/000355310. PMID 24296637. S2CID 24794334.
  159. ^ Poole, Glenn. "Homelessness is a gendered issue, and it mostly impacts men". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  160. ^ Feldman, Brett J.; Craen, Alexandra M.; Enyart, Joshua; Batchelor, Timothy; Friel, Timothy J.; Dusza, Stephen W.; Greenberg, Marna Rayl (1 February 2018). "Prevalence of Homelessness by Gender in an Emergency Department Population in Pennsylvania". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 118 (2): 85–91. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2018.023. ISSN 1945-1997. PMID 29379974.
  161. ^ "State of Homelessness: 2023 Edition" National Alliance to end homelessness
  162. ^ "Demographic Data Project: Gender and Individual Homelessness" National Alliance to End Homelessness.
  163. ^ Benatar, D (2012). The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59-60. ISBN 978-1-118-19230-6.
  164. ^ "Inmate Gender". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  165. ^ "Prisons data". Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  166. ^ "Corrective Services, Australia". 6 March 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  167. ^ "Types of Prison Inmates in Central Jails as on 31st December, 2016" (PDF). National Crime Records Bureau of India. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  168. ^ "Prison statistics (EU)". Eurostat. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  169. ^ "Study finds large gender disparities in federal criminal cases". Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  170. ^ Starr, Sonja B. (29 August 2012). "Estimating Gender Disparities in Federal Criminal Cases". University of Michigan Law and Economics Research Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. SSRN 2144002.
  171. ^ Mustard, David B. (6 March 2001). "Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the Us Federal Courts". Journal of Law and Economics. 44. Rochester, NY: 285–314. doi:10.1086/320276. S2CID 154533225. SSRN 259138.
  172. ^ Rhys H. Williams (1 January 2001). Promise Keepers and the New Masculinity: Private Lives and Public Morality. Lexington Books. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7391-0231-2. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  173. ^ Menzies 2007, p. 73.
  174. ^ a b c d Farrell & Sterba 2008, p. 49–56.
  175. ^ "Men and Women and the Criminal Justice System" (PDF). Parity UK. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  176. ^ Goodwin, Deborah (February 2019). ""Anything You Can Do, I Can Do Shorter": An Analysis of Lenient Sentencing for Female Sex Offenders in the United States". William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice. 25 (2).
  177. ^ Stephen Blake Boyd; W. Merle Longwood; Mark William Muesse, eds. (1996). Redeeming men: religion and masculinities. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-664-25544-2. In contradistinction to profeminism, however, the men's rights perspective addresses specific legal and cultural factors that put men at a disadvantage. The movement is made up of a variety of formal and informal groups that differ in their approaches and issues; Men's rights advocates, for example, target sex-specific military conscription and judicial practices that discriminate against men in child custody cases.
  178. ^ a b Benatar, D (2012). The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 35. ISBN 978-1-118-19230-6.
  179. ^ Persson, Alma; Sundevall, Fia (22 March 2019). "Conscripting women: gender, soldiering, and military service in Sweden 1965–2018". Women's History Review. 28 (7): 1039–1056. doi:10.1080/09612025.2019.1596542. ISSN 0961-2025.
  180. ^ Koranyi, Balazs; Fouche, Gwladys (14 June 2014). Char, Pravin (ed.). "Norway becomes first NATO country to draft women into military". Reuters. Oslo, Norway. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  181. ^ a b Martin Binkin (1993). Who will fight the next war?: the changing face of the American military. Brookings Institution Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-8157-0955-8. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  182. ^ a b Carelli, Richard (23 March 1981). "Supreme Court to begin hearing male-only military draft case". Toledo Blade. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  183. ^ Rostker v. Goldberg at Cornell University Law School.
  184. ^ "Like it or not, gender equality may soon come to the US military draft". Vox. 15 June 2016.
  185. ^ a b c d e f Cannold, Leslie (July–August 2008). "Who's the father? Rethinking the moral 'crime' of 'paternity fraud'". Women's Studies International Forum. 31 (4): 249–256. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2008.05.011. Pdf. Archived 24 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  186. ^ a b c Majumber, Mary Anderlik (12 September 2005). "Disestablishment Suits". In Mark A. Rothstein; Thomas H. Murray; Gregory E. Kaebnick (eds.). Genetic Ties and the Family: The Impact of Paternity Testing on Parents and Children. JHU Press. pp. 172–79. ISBN 978-0-8018-8193-0.
  187. ^ a b c Salah, Anna (14 December 2005). "Teens may be forced to have paternity test". Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  188. ^ a b c Shepherd, Tory (6 June 2012). "Men flock online for 'peace of mind' paternity tests". Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  189. ^ "Who's your daddy?". Philadelphia Daily News. 5 October 2005. "I think the best solution is DNA testing at birth," said Glenn Sacks, a syndicated radio talk-show host who focuses on men's issues
  190. ^ Dayton, Leigh (12 November 2008). "Fathers 'disrupt debate on DNA'". The Australian. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  191. ^ Horrin, Adele (30 June 2005). "The myth behind paternity fraud". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
  192. ^ Marinos, Sarah (2 December 2012). "What you need to know about paternity tests". Herald Sun. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  193. ^ Henry, Ronald K. (Spring 2006). "The Innocent Third Party: Victims of Paternity Fraud". Family Law Quarterly of the American Bar Association. 40 (1).
  194. ^ Brotman, Barbara (30 October 1992). "Sex Contract Shares Intimate Knowledge". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  195. ^ Michael Kimmel (1992), "Anti-Feminism", in Michael S. Kimmel; Amy Aronson (eds.), Men and Masculinities: A Social, Cultural and Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO (published 2003), pp. 35–37, ISBN 978-1-57607-774-0, retrieved 23 December 2011
  196. ^ Farrell 1994, p. 161.
  197. ^ "Men's rights activist: Feminists have used rape 'as a scam'". Al Jazeera America. Al Jazeera. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  198. ^ Lonsway Archambault Lisak, Dr.Kimberlya ., Sgt . Joanne, Dr. David (2009). "False Reports: Moving Beyond the Issue to Successfully Investigate and Prosecute Non-Stranger Sexual Assault" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  199. ^ FBI, Federal Bureau of Investigation (1996). "Crime Index Offenses Reported" (PDF).
  200. ^ Kelly, Liz; Regan, Linda; Lovett, Jo (2005). A gap or a chasm?: Attrition in reported rape cases (PDF). London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. ISBN 978-1-84473-555-6. 293. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2011.
  201. ^ "Abstracts Database - National Criminal Justice Reference Service". Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  202. ^ a b Kay, Katty (18 September 2018). "The truth about false assault accusations by women". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  203. ^ Newman, Sandra (11 May 2017). "What kind of person makes false rape accusations?". Quartz. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  204. ^ "UK Government Web Archive" (PDF). Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  205. ^ a b "False Accusations". National Coalition For Men. 11 January 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  206. ^ Lisak, David; Gardinier, Lori; Nicksa, Sarah C.; Cote, Ashley M. (December 2010). "False allegations of sexual assault: an analysis of ten years of reported cases". Violence Against Women. 16 (12): 1318–1334. doi:10.1177/1077801210387747. ISSN 1552-8448. PMID 21164210. S2CID 15377916.
  207. ^ Lisak, David; Gardinier, Lori; Nicksa, Sarah C.; Cote, Ashley M. (1 December 2010). "False Allegations of Sexual Assualt [sic]: An Analysis of Ten Years of Reported Cases". Violence Against Women. 16 (12): 1318–1334. doi:10.1177/1077801210387747. ISSN 1077-8012. PMID 21164210. S2CID 15377916.
  208. ^ Gross, Bruce (Spring 2009). "False Rape Allegations: An Assault On Justice" Archived 2018-06-19 at the Wayback Machine. The Forensic Examiner
  209. ^ Ashe 2007, p. 60.
  210. ^ Wykes, Maggie; Welsh, Kirsty (2009). Violence, Gender and Justice. London: SAGE. pp. 29–37. ISBN 978-1-4129-2336-1.
  211. ^ Diduck, Allison; O'Donovan, Katherine, eds. (2007). Feminist Perspectives on Family Law. London: Routledge. pp. 160–164. ISBN 978-1-135-30963-3.
  212. ^ Dunphy 2000, p. 142 excerpt: "The conservative and unashamedly patriarchal nature of the men's rights lobby ... is well illustrated by some statements by one of its self-proclaimed spokesmen in the UK, Roger Whitcomb .. he reserved particular anger for the House of Lords ruling on marital rape in 1991 ('a long-standing feminist dream')".
  213. ^ Segal, Lynne (1994). Straight Sex: Tethinking the Politics of Pleasure. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-520-20001-2. It is there that 7 February has been declared International Men's Day by the men's rights groups, celebrated in Kansas City in 1994 as a day for campaigning against the legal recognition of 'marital rape'...
  214. ^ "Why men's rights activists are against inclusion of marital rape". First Post. 6 February 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013. excerpt: "The Government has not included marital rape in its anti-rape ordinance appealing that it is a complex issue that involves multiple stakeholders... mens rights activists are constantly clamouring that Section 498(A), the Domestic Violence Act is being misused"
  215. ^ Wallen, Joe; Lateef, Samaan (2 February 2022). "Men's rights activists protest introduction of marital rape law in India". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  216. ^ Millar, Stuart A (2002). "Marital Rape – What a Can of Worms!". Strike at the Root. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  217. ^ Farrell 1994, p. 338:"Spousal rape legislation is blackmail waiting to happen. If a man feels he needs to file for divorce, his wife can say 'If you do, I'll accuse you of spousal rape.' Spousal rape legislation is worse than government-as-substitute-husband. It's government in the bedroom"
  218. ^ "Spousal Rape Laws". CNN. 31 July 1992. Tom Williamson, President National Coalition of Free Men: "I don't think that there should be anything called marital rape laws. I don't deny that the elements involved with rape can occur in a marriage. They certainly do. But the problem with the concept of having something called marital rape is that it makes every man vulnerable in a bad situation to blackmail. It makes them vulnerable to false accusations for a variety of motivations that we know exists"
  219. ^ Young, Cathy (1 August 1994). "Complexities cloud marital rape case; William Hetherington has spent nine years in a Michigan prison, but proclaims his innocence – controversial case that pits one person's word against another in accusations of spousal rape". Insight on the News. Much of his support has come from men's rights organizations and conservative Christian groups, which tend to argue that a crime such as marital rape should not be on the books because consent to sex is part of the marriage covenant.
  220. ^ Nielsen, Kenneth Bo; Waldrop, Anne, eds. (2014). Women, Gender and Everyday Social Transformation in India. London: Anthem Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-78-308269-8.
  221. ^ a b Pandey, Vineeta (8 March 2010). "Husbands can't get away with marital rape: Government". DNA. Archived from the original on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2012. no relationship will work if these rules are enforced.
  222. ^ Dhillon, Amrit (1 November 2006). "Women confident law will end culture of abuse". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 11 October 2012. The All India Harassed Husbands Association protested last week at the law. 'It gives such grossly disproportionate rights to women that men won't want to get married,' said member Akhil Gupta
  223. ^ Gotell, Lise (2016). "Sexual Violence in the 'Manosphere': Antifeminist Men's Rights Discourses on Rape". International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy. 5 (2): 65–80. doi:10.5204/ijcjsd.v5i2.310.
  224. ^ Smith, Helen (2013). "Chapter 2". Men on Strike: Why Men Are Boycotting Marriage, Fatherhood, and the American Dream-And Why It Matters. New York: Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-675-0.
  225. ^ Janet Bloomfield (31 May 2014). "Let's Talk About Reproductive Rights And Why Men Should Have Them Too". Thought Catalog. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  226. ^ Higdon, Michael J. (14 February 2011). "Fatherhood by Conscription: Nonconsensual Insemination and the Duty of Child Support". University of Tennessee Legal Studies. 139. SSRN 1761333.
  227. ^ "Arizona Is Requiring A Male Statutory Rape Victim To Pay Child Support". Business Insider. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  228. ^ Farrell, Warren (2001). "Chapter 1". The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are The Disposable Sex. New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 978-0-425-18144-7.
  229. ^ Traister, R (13 March 2006). "Roe for men?". Salon. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  230. ^ "U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, case No. 06-11016" (PDF).
  231. ^ Jessica Valenti (2012). Why Have Kids?: A New Mom Explores the Truth About Parenting and Happiness. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 103–5. ISBN 978-0-547-89261-0. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  232. ^ Farrell 1994, p. 350.
  233. ^ "Teen Suicide Statistics". Adolescent Teenage Suicide Prevention. 2001. Retrieved 11 April 2006.
  234. ^ Harriss, Louise; Hawton, Keith; Zahl, Daniel (January 2005). "Value of measuring suicidal intent in the assessment of people attending hospital following self-poisoning or self-injury". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 186 (1): 60–66. doi:10.1192/bjp.186.1.60. ISSN 0007-1250. PMID 15630125.
  235. ^ "Data & Statistics - Lifeline Australia".
  236. ^ "Facts about suicide in Australia".
  237. ^ "Mens health".
  238. ^ a b Schrijvers, Didier L.; Bollen, Jos; Sabbe, Bernard G.C. (2012). "The gender paradox in suicidal behavior and its impact on the suicidal process – Journal of Affective Disorders". Journal of Affective Disorders. 138 (1–2): 19–26. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.03.050. PMID 21529962.
  239. ^ "Section 3: Gun Ownership Trends and Demographics". Pew Research Center. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  240. ^ Gavanas, Anna (2004). "Introduction". Fatherhood politics in the United States: masculinity, sexuality, race and marriage. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-252-02884-7. Despite their claims of victimhood, men's and fathers' rights advocates are usually white, middle-class, heterosexual men who tend to overlook their institutional and socioeconomical advantages in work and the family...
  241. ^ Coston, Bethany M.; Kimmel, Michael (2013). "White men as the new victims: reverse discrimination cases and the men's rights movement". Nevada Law Journal. 13 (2): 368–385. Where are the Men's Rights guys when it comes to 'other' men? Men's Rights is almost entirely a movement of angry, straight, white men.
  242. ^ Mason, Christopher P. (2006). "Introduction". Crossing into manhood: a men's studies curriculum. Youngstown: Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-934043-30-1.
  243. ^ Goldberg, Stephanie B. (February 1997). "In all its variations, the fathers' rights movement is saying one thing...: Make Room for Daddy". ABA Journal. 83 (2): 48–52. JSTOR 27839422. View online. Also available via HeinOnline.
  244. ^ Kimmel, Michael S. (2006). "From anxiety to anger since the 1990s: the "Self-Made Man" becomes "Angry White Man"". Manhood in America: a cultural history (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-19-518113-5.
  245. ^ "Christina Hoff Sommers can't take a single line of criticism". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  246. ^ Blake, Mariah (11 August 2014). "The men's rights movement and the women who love it". Mother Jones. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  247. ^ Koziol, Michael (25 January 2020). "Men's rights activist honoured for service to gender equity". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  248. ^ a b c "The Feminist Leader Who Became a Men's-Rights Activist". The Atlantic. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  249. ^ Cassens Weiss, Debra (14 July 2020). "Prominent men's rights lawyer is shot and killed outside his home". ABA Journal. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  250. ^ Licas, Eric (12 July 2020). "Men's rights activist fatally shot in front of home in San Bernardino Mountains". The San Bernardino Sun. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  251. ^ Aviles, Gwen (13 July 2020). "Men's rights attorney Marc Angelucci's fatal shooting prompts investigation". NBC News. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  252. ^ Nemko, Marty (17 July 2014). "Men, power, money, and sex". Psychology Today. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  253. ^ "Herbert Goldberg Obituary - Visitation & Funeral Information". Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  254. ^ "Difficult Women by Helen Lewis review – a history of feminism in 11 fights". The Guardian. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  255. ^ Ferguson, Moira; Katrak, Ketu H.; Miner, Valerie (2014) [originally published 1996]. "Feminism and Antifeminism: From Civil Rights to Culture Wars". In Clark, VèVè; Nelson Garner, Shirley; Higonnet, Margaret; Katrak, Ketu (eds.). Anti-feminism in the Academy. Routledge. pp. 35–66. doi:10.4324/9781315865898-10 (inactive 7 February 2024). ISBN 978-1-317-95907-6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of February 2024 (link)
  256. ^ Worth, Carolyn (1979). "Scream Quietly or The Neighbours will Hear — Erin Pizzey, (Penguin Books, Gt. Bt., 1974. Reprinted, with a postcript, in Pelican Books 1979) 149 pp. Price $2.75". Children Australia. 4 (4): 45–46. doi:10.1017/s0312897000016453. ISSN 1035-0772. S2CID 163740372.
  257. ^ "Domestic violence activist Erin Pizzey 'flabbergasted' to be made a CBE". Jersey Evening Post. 29 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  258. ^ a b "Bettina Arndt will not be stripped of her Order of Australia honour". SBS News. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  259. ^ See e.g.:
  260. ^ Goldwag, A (Spring 2012). "Leader's Suicide Brings Attention to Men's Rights Movement". Intelligence Report. 145. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  261. ^ Shira Tarrant (11 February 2013). Men Speak Out: Views on Gender, Sex, and Power. Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-135-12743-5. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  262. ^ Lodhia, Sharmila (1 August 2014). ""Stop importing weapons of family destruction!": cyberdiscourses, patriarchal anxieties, and the men's backlash movement in India". Violence Against Women. 20 (8): 905–936. doi:10.1177/1077801214546906. ISSN 1552-8448. PMID 25238869. S2CID 538128.
  263. ^ Blake, Mariah. "Mad Men: Inside the men's rights movement—and the army of misogynists and trolls it spawned". Mother Jones. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  264. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (3 June 2014). "A Men's Rights Group Crowdfunded $25,000 for Extra Security Because of 'Bullies'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  265. ^ a b c Mann, Ruth M. (2008). "Men's Rights and Feminist Advocacy in Canadian Domestic Violence Policy Arenas" (PDF). Feminist Criminology. 3 (1): 44–75. CiteSeerX doi:10.1177/1557085107311067. S2CID 145502648.
  266. ^ a b Flood, Michael (March 2010). ""Fathers' rights" and the defense of paternal authority in Australia". Violence Against Women. 16 (3): 328–347. doi:10.1177/1077801209360918. PMID 20133921. S2CID 206667283. Pdf. Archived 6 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine


Further reading