Homelessness in the United States

Homelessness in the United States refers to the issue of homelessness in the United States, a condition wherein people lack "a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence" as defined by The McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Point-in-time single-night counts prepared by shelter providers differ greatly from federal government accounts. In 2014, approximately 1.5 million sheltered homeless people were counted.[3] The federal government statistics are prepared by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's Annual Homeless Assessment Report; as of 2018, HUD reported there were roughly 553,000 homeless people in the United States on a given night,[4] or 0.17% of the population. Annual federal HUD reports contradict private state and local reports where homelessness is shown to have increased each year since 2014 across several major American cities, with 40 percent increases noted in 2017[5] and in 2019.[6] In January 2018 the federal government statistics gave comprehensive encompassing nationwide statistics, with a total number of 552,830 individuals, of which 358,363 (65%) were sheltered in provided housing, while some 194,467 (35%) were unsheltered.[7]

Official homelessness statistics by state in 2019
Statewide homelessness population ratios as compared with the national U.S. homelessness ratio (0.17% or 171 persons per 100,000) in 2019.[1][2] Of the 9 states (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Nevada, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington) and the District of Columbia that have homelessness ratios higher than the United States as a whole, only Vermont did not also have median gross rents higher than the United States as a whole in the 2015–2019 American Community Survey 5-year estimates.
Homeless woman in Washington DC
Homeless man sleeping across the street from the Colorado State Capitol Building in Denver

Historically, homelessness emerged as a national issue in the 1870s.[8] Early homeless people lived in emerging urban cities, such as New York City. Into the 20th century, the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a substantial rise in unemployment and related social issues, distress and homelessness. In 1990, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the homeless population of the country to be 228,621 (or 0.09% of the 248,709,873 enumerated in the 1990 U.S. census) which homelessness advocates criticized as an undercount.[9][10] In the 21st century, the Great Recession of the late 2000s and the resulting economic stagnation and downturn have been major driving factors and contributors to rising homelessness rates.

In 2009 it was estimated that one out of 50 children or 1.5 million children in the United States of America would experience some form of homelessness each year.[11] There were an estimated 37,878 homeless veterans in the United States during January 2017, or 8.6 percent of all homeless adults (as compared with approximately 7 percent of the U.S. population in 2018 that were military veterans).[12][13] Just over 90 percent of homeless U.S. veterans are male.[4] Texas, California and Florida have the highest numbers of unaccompanied homeless youth under the age of 18, comprising 58% of the total homeless under 18 youth population.[14] New York City reported it had approximately 114,000 temporarily homeless school children.[15]

A 2022 study found that differences in per capita homelessness rates across the country are not due to mental illness, drug addiction, or poverty, but to differences in the cost of housing, with West Coast cities including Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, and Los Angeles having homelessness rates five times that of areas with much lower housing costs like Arkansas, West Virginia, and Detroit, even though the latter locations have high burdens of opioid addiction and poverty.[16][17]

Historical backgroundEdit

Pre-colonial and colonial periodsEdit

Following the Peasants' Revolt in England, constables were authorized under 1383 English Poor Laws statute to collar vagabonds and force them to show support; if they could not, the penalty was gaol.[18]

Vagabonds could be sentenced to the stocks for three days and nights; in 1530, whipping was added. The presumption was that vagabonds were unlicensed beggars.[18] In 1547, a bill was passed that subjected vagrants to some of the more extreme provisions of the criminal law, namely two years' servitude and branding with a "V" as the penalty for the first offense and death for the second.

Large numbers of vagabonds were among the convicts transported to the American colonies in the 18th century.[19]


The Bowery Mission at 36 Bowery in New York City, c. 1880s

Homelessness emerged as a national issue in the 1870s. There are no national figures documenting homeless people demography at this time.[8] Jacob Riis wrote about, documented, and photographed the poor and destitute, although not specifically homeless people, in New York City tenements in the late 19th century. His book, How the Other Half Lives, published in 1890, raised public awareness of living conditions in the slums, causing some changes in building codes and some social conditions.

The growing movement toward social concern sparked the development of rescue missions, such as America's first rescue mission, the New York City Rescue Mission, founded in 1872 by Jerry and Maria McAuley.[20][21] In smaller towns, there were hobos, who temporarily lived near train tracks and hopped onto trains to various destinations. Especially following the American Civil War, a large number of homeless men formed part of a counterculture known as "hobohemia" all over America.[22][23]

By the late 19th century, many American towns and cities had significant numbers of homeless people.[citation needed] In New York City, for example, there was an area known as "the Bowery." Rescue missions offering "soup, soap, and salvation", a phrase introduced by The Salvation Army,[24] sprang up along the Bowery thoroughfare, including the oldest one, The Bowery Mission. The mission was founded in 1879 by the Rev. and Mrs. A.G. Ruliffson.[25]

20th centuryEdit

1930s and 1940sEdit

Unemployed men outside a soup kitchen opened by Al Capone in Depression-era Chicago, Illinois, the US, 1931

The Great Depression of the 1930s caused a devastating epidemic of poverty, hunger, and homelessness. There were two million homeless people migrating across the United States.[26] Many lived in shantytowns they called "Hoovervilles" deriding the President they blamed for the Depression. Residents lived in shacks and begged for food or went to soup kitchens. Authorities did not officially recognize these Hoovervilles and occasionally removed the occupants for technically trespassing on private lands, but they were frequently tolerated out of necessity. When Franklin D. Roosevelt took over the presidency from Herbert Hoover, he passed the New Deal, which greatly expanded social welfare, including providing funds to build public housing. This marked the end of the Great Depression.[27]

1960s and 1970sEdit

A 1960 survey by Temple University of Philadelphia's poor neighborhoods found that 75 percent of the people that are homeless were over 45 years old, and 87 percent were white.[28]

The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 was a pre-disposing factor in setting the stage for homelessness in the United States.[29] Long term psychiatric patients were released from state hospitals into Single Room Occupancies and sent to community health centers for treatment and follow-up. Never adequately funded, the community mental health system struggled to meet patient needs[30] and many of the "deinstitutionalized" wound up living on the streets, with no sustainable support system.[31][32] In the United States, during the late 1970s, the deinstitutionalization of patients from state psychiatric hospitals was a precipitating factor which seeded the population of people that are homeless, especially in urban areas such as New York City.[33]

Great Fire of 1911 with homeless

1980s and 1990sEdit

Homeless Advocate Mitch Snyder, Actor Martin Sheen, Boston Mayor Raymond L. Flynn

The number of homeless people grew in the 1980s, as housing and social service cuts increased and the economy deteriorated. The United States government determined that somewhere between 200,000 and 500,000 Americans were then homeless.[34] There were some U.S. federal initiatives that aimed to help, end and prevent homelessness; however, there were no designated homeless-related programs in the Office of Management and Budget.[35]

The history of the United States illustrates that this was a time when there was economic distress, high unemployment, and was the period when chronic homelessness became a societal problem. In 1980, federal funds accounted for 22% of big city budgets, but by 1989 the similar aid composed only 6% of urban revenue (part of a larger 60% decrease in federal spending to support local governments).[36] It is largely (although not exclusively) in these urban areas that homelessness became widespread and reached unprecedented numbers. Most notable were cuts to federal low-income housing programs. An advocacy group claims that Congress halved the budget for public housing and Section 8 (the government's housing voucher subsidization program) and that between the years of 1980 and 1989 HUD's budget authority was reduced from $74 billion to $19 billion.[36] Such alleged changes are claimed to have resulted in an inadequate supply of affordable housing to meet the growing demand of low-income populations. In 1970 there were 300,000 more low-cost rental units (6.5 million) than low-income renter households (6.2 million). By 1985, the advocacy group claimed that the number of low-cost units had fallen to 5.6 million, and the number of low-income renter households had grown to 8.9 million, a disparity of 3.3 million units.[37]

In response to the ensuing homelessness crisis of the 1980s and after many years of advocacy and numerous revisions, President Reagan signed into law the McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act in 1987; this remains the only piece of federal legislation that allocates funding to the direct service of homeless people. The McKinney–Vento Act paved the way for service providers in the coming years. During the 1990s homeless shelters, soup kitchens, and other supportive services sprouted up in cities and towns across the nation. However, despite these efforts and the dramatic economic growth marked by this decade, homeless numbers remained high.[citation needed] It became increasingly apparent that simply providing services to alleviate the symptoms of homelessness (i.e. shelter beds, hot meals, psychiatric counseling, etc.), although needed, were not successful at solving the root causes of homelessness. The United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH), a federal agency contained in the Executive Branch, was established in 1987 as a requirement of the McKinney–Vento Act of 1987.

A 1990 survey found that most literally homeless people were unable to bathe or shower.[38]

In 1992, the National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing published a report identifying 6% of public housing as "severely distressed".[39] This led to a 5 billion dollar funding package, HOPE VI, for replacing distressed public housing with mixed-income developments.[40] The demolition of SROs was incentivized by increased real estate prices and neighborhood pressure, resulting in the teardown of more units than were initially identified. Redevelopments did not include nearly as many units of public housing as were demolished, decreasing the total stock of public housing and putting more people on the streets.[41]

21st centuryEdit

Homeless veteran in New York

Improved dataEdit

Over the past decades, the availability and quality of data on homelessness has improved considerably, due, in part, to initiatives by the United States government. Since 2007, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development has issued an Annual Homeless Assessment Report, which revealed the number of individuals and families that were homeless, both sheltered and unsheltered.[42] In 2009, there were about 643,000 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons nationwide. About two-thirds of those stayed in emergency shelters or used transitional housing programs, with the remaining living on the street in abandoned buildings or other areas not meant for human habitation. About 1.56 million people, or about 0.5% of the U.S. population, used an emergency shelter or a transitional housing program between October 1, 2008, and September 30, 2009.[43] Around 44% of homeless people were employed.[44]

According to the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's 2008 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, the most common demographic features of all sheltered homeless people are: male, members of minority groups, older than age 31, and alone. More than 40 percent of sheltered homeless people have a disability. At the same time, sizable segments of the sheltered homeless population are white, non-Hispanic (38 percent), children (20 percent), or part of multi-person households (33 percent). Approximately 68 percent of the 1.6 million sheltered homeless people were homeless as individuals and 32 percent were persons in families.[45]

In 2008 more than 66 percent of all sheltered homeless people were located in principal cities, with 32 percent located in suburban or rural jurisdictions. About 40 percent of people entering an emergency shelter or transitional housing program during 2008 came from another homeless situation (sheltered or unsheltered), 40 percent came from a housed situation (in their own or someone else's home), and the remaining 20 percent were split between institutional settings or other situations such as hotels or motels. Most people had relatively short lengths of stay in emergency shelters: 60 percent stayed less than a month, and a 33 percent stayed a week or less.[45]


Lack of available and affordable housing as a cause of homelessness was named by most of the mayors in 2004 when the United States Conference of Mayors surveyed the mayors of major cities on the extent and causes of urban homelessness. The next three causes identified by mayors, in rank order, were mental illness or the lack of needed services, substance use and lack of needed services, and low-paying jobs. The lowest ranking cause, cited by five mayors, was prisoner reentry. Other causes cited were unemployment, domestic violence, and poverty.

The major causes of homelessness include:[46][47][48][49][50][51]

  • Lack of sufficient urban housing projects to provide safe, secure, and affordable housing to the financially underprivileged.[46] Additionally for low wage workers rents can be unaffordable in areas where their workplace is located.[47][50][51][52]
  • The deinstitutionalization movement from the 1950s onwards in state mental health systems, to shift towards 'community-based' treatment of the mentally ill, as opposed to long-term commitment in institutions.[46][47][50][51] There is disproportionally higher prevalence of mental disorders relative to other disease groups within homeless patient populations at both inpatient hospitals and hospital-based emergency departments.[53]
  • Redevelopment and gentrification activities instituted by cities across the country through which low-income neighborhoods are declared blighted and demolished to make way for projects that generate higher property taxes and other revenue, creating a shortage of housing affordable to low-income working families, the elderly poor, and the disabled.[46][47][50][51]
  • Nearly half of foster children in the United States become homeless when they are released from foster care at age 18.[54][55]
  • Natural disasters that destroy homes: hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, etc. Places of employment are often destroyed too, causing unemployment and transience.[56]
  • People who have served time in prison, have used addictive substances, or have a history of mental illness find it difficult to find employment for years at a time because of the use of computer background checks by potential employers. Also inclusive of registered sex offenders who are considered unwelcome in some metropolitan areas. See prisoner reentry.[57]
  • According to the Institution of Housing in 2005, the U.S. Government has focused 42% more on foreign countries rather than homeless Americans, including homeless veterans.[46][47][50][51]
  • People with criminal charges at large that are in hiding seeking to evade law enforcement.[46][47][50][51]
  • Adults and children who flee domestic violence.[46][47][50][51]
  • Teenagers who flee or are thrown out by parents who disapprove of their child's sexual orientation or gender identity. A 2010 study by the Center for American Progress shows that a disproportionately high number of homeless youth (between 20 and 40%) are gay and transgender.[58]
  • Complex building codes which can make it difficult to build and construct. Traditional huts, cars, and tents can be illegal, classified as substandard and may require removal by the owner or be subject to removal by the government.[46][47][50][51]
Homeless soliciting employment, Ypsilanti, Michigan
  • Foreclosures of homes, including foreclosure of apartment complexes which displaces tenants renting there.[59]
  • Evictions from rented property.[59]
  • Lack of support from friends or family.[46][47][50][51]
  • Individuals who prefer homelessness and wish to remain off the grid for political and ideological purposes. Often self-identified as gutter punks or urban survivalists. The Department of Housing and Urban Development rarely reports on this counter-cultural movement, since its adherents often refuse to participate in governmental studies and do not seek governmental assistance for ideological or political purposes.[60]
  • Lack of resources in place in the communities to help aid in prevention of homelessness before it becomes a crisis.[46][47][50][51]
  • Neoliberal policies, reforms to the welfare state and the retrenchment of the social safety net.[61][62][63][64]
  • High rents, in particular areas where individuals could pay over a third of their income on rent and related costs increase the potential of homelessness.[65]

Losing social tiesEdit

Negative interactions and experiences can create trauma that prevents an individual from ever wanting to re-establish ties. In a study on adverse childhood experiences, "Nearly nine in ten homeless adults have been exposed to at least one early traumatic experience, and more than half of homeless adults have been exposed to four or more early traumatic experiences".This high incidence reveals how many unhoused individuals have experienced trauma, often repeatedly. The unhoused population is particularly susceptible to relational poverty because they often have lost social support systems because of shame or lost access to a phone or other means to connect.

Social support can come in different forms to unhoused individuals. Ties to employment, cultural spaces, and to a community are all social ties that can have a positive effect on an unhoused individual's wellbeing. "Furthermore, social support can create positive affective states, and supportive relationships can provide individuals with access to positive social influence that can encourage healthy behaviors." See more on relational poverty.


According to the U.S. Conference of Mayors, the demand for emergency shelter in 270 U.S. cities increased 13 percent in 2001 and 25 percent in 2005.[46][47] Twenty-two percent of those requesting emergency shelter were turned away.

In response to the Great Recession in the United States, President Obama signed several pieces of legislation that addressed the homelessness crisis. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 addressed homelessness prevention, in which he allocated an additional $1.5 billion to HUD for the "Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Rehousing Program (HPRP)." The purpose of HPRP was to assist individuals and families who are otherwise healthy and not chronically homeless in escaping homelessness or preventing homelessness of the vulnerable population.[66] On May 20, 2009, President Obama signed the Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing (HEARTH) Act into Public Law (Public Law 111-22 or "PL 111-22"), reauthorizing HUDs Homeless Assistance programs. It was part of the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009. The HEARTH act allows for the prevention of homelessness, rapid re-housing, consolidation of housing programs, and new homeless categories.[67][68][69][70]

In the first year of the new decade, the Federal government launched of Opening Doors: The Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness.[71][72] Opening Doors is a publication of the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness, which worked with all Federal agencies and many state and local stakeholders on its creation and vision, setting a ten-year path for the nation on preventing and ending all types of homelessness. This plan was presented to the President and Congress in a White House Ceremony on June 22, 2010.[73]

I've got economically zero unemployment in my city, and I've got thousands of homeless people that actually are working and just can't afford housing. There's nowhere for these folks to move to.

Seattle City Council member Mike O'Brien on the explosion of homelessness on the West Coast[74]

In New York City, the number of homeless people using nightly shelter services has tripled from approximately 20,000 to more than 60,000 between January 2000 and January 2015.[75] In 2016, homelessness is considered an epidemic in several U.S. cities. "Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti and seven of the 15 City Council members announced they would declare a state of emergency and try to find $100 million to cure what has become a municipal curse."[76]

In September 2018, in MARTIN V. CITY OF BOISE, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that the city's Camping and Disorderly Conduct Ordinances violated the Eighth Amendment's prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment. Cities cannot punish homeless people for sleeping in public when the homeless shelters are full.[77]

During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, mass job loss and unemployment led to fears of mass evictions as tenants became unable to pay rent.[78] According to US government sources, homelessness has increased drastically, particularly in the US West as real estate shortages drove up rents even higher, when people from already lower income levels were laid off from their jobs and evicted from existing housing. The estimates for homeless persons in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic range from 600,000 to 1.5 million people, making the US the worst affected industrialized country with regard to unhoused individuals. Local city governments in California and Oregon have started to intensify anti-homelessness campaigns in 2020, with limited success as local citizens reported extensive sprawls of homeless people in parks and public areas, creating unsanitary conditions with negative effects on small businesses.[79][80] As of March 2021, there was an estimated 6.4 million American households that were behind on rent.[81]

Due to COVID, the Department of Housing and Urban Development's 2021 report to Congress on the state of homelessness in the United States was unable to perform an accurate count of unsheltered homeless individuals. Instead, the report focused on point-in-time counts of sheltered homeless peoples.[82]

Insufficient housingEdit

In a new book titled “Homelessness is a Housing Problem,” Clayton Page Aldern (a policy analyst and data scientist in Seattle) and Gregg Colburn (an assistant professor of real estate at the University of Washington’s College of Built Environments) studied per capita homelessness rates across the country along with what possible factors might be influencing the rates and found that high rates of homelessness are caused by shortages of affordable housing, not by mental illness, drug addiction, or poverty. [16][17]

They found that mental illness, drug addiction and poverty occur nationwide, but not all places have equally expensive housing costs.[16]: 1 One example cited is that two states with high rates of opioid addiction, Arkansas and West Virginia, both have low per capita rates of homelessness, because of low housing prices.[16]: 1 [17]: 1 With respect to poverty, the city of Detroit is one of the poorest cities, yet Detroit's per capita homelessness rate is 20% that of West Coast cities like Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego. [16]: 1 [17]: 1

Definitions and categoriesEdit

The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development acknowledges four categories of people who qualify as legally homeless: (1) those who are currently homeless, (2) those who will become homeless in the imminent future, (3) certain youths and families with children who suffer from home instability caused by a hardship, and (4) those who suffer from home instability caused by domestic violence.[83]

According to the Stewart B. McKinney Act, 42 U.S.C. § 11301, et seq. (1994), a person is considered homeless if they "lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence and ... has a primary nighttime residency that is: (A) a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations... (B) an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or (C) a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings." Human Rights Watch (2010) identified emancipated teenagers in California as a new homeless population.[citation needed]

Homeless veteransEdit

Marines and Sailors sort and organize hundreds of clothing items at the New England Center for Homeless Veterans. The service members spent the day serving meals and eating with many of Boston's veterans during Boston Navy Week. Boston Navy Week is one of 15 signature events planned across America in 2012. The eight-day long event commemorates the Bicentennial of the War of 1812, hosting service members from the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard and coalition ships from around the world. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Marco Mancha/Released)

Homeless veterans are persons who have served in the armed forces who are homeless or living without access to secure and appropriate accommodation. By HUD point-in-time measurements, there were an estimated 37,252 homeless veterans in the United States during January 2020; or 8 percent of all homeless adults. Just over 8 percent of homeless U.S. veterans are female.[84]

Throughout the 21st century, homeless service providers and the Federal government have been able to reduce chronic homelessness and homelessness among Veterans with targeted efforts and interagency cooperation on initiatives like the HUD-VASH program.[85] Indeed, the prominent role of the Department of Veterans Affairs and its joined up approach to veteran welfare help to distinguish the US response to veteran homelessness internationally.[86]

Youth homelessnessEdit

Homeless children in the United States:[87] The number of homeless children reached record highs in 2011,[88] 2012,[89] and 2013[90] at about three times their number in 1983.[89][needs update]

The number of homeless children in the US grew from 1.2 million in 2007 to 1.6 million in 2010. The US defines homelessness as "individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence," per McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act.[91] The number of homeless children reached record highs in 2011,[88] 2012,[89] and 2013[90] at about three times their number in 1983.[89] An "estimated two million [youth] run away from or are forced out of their homes each year" in the United States.[92]

One out of 50 children or 1.5 million children in United States of America will be homeless each year.[11] In 2013 that number jumped to one out of 30 children, or 2.5 million.[93]

Texas, California and Florida have the highest numbers of unaccompanied homeless youth under the age of 18; comprising 58% of the total homeless under 18 youth population [14]

Street children in the United States tend to stay in the state, 83% do not leave their state of origin.[94] If they leave, street children are likely to end up in large cities, notably New York City; Los Angeles; Portland, Oregon; and San Francisco.[95] Street children are predominantly Caucasian and female in the United States, and 42% identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT).[96]

The United States government has been making efforts since the late 1970s to accommodate this section of the population.[97] The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act of 1978 made funding available for shelters and funded the National Runaway Switchboard. Other efforts include the Child Abuse and Treatment Act of 1974, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act.[98] There has also been a decline of arrest rates in street youth, dropping in 30,000 arrests from 1998 to 2007. Instead, the authorities are referring homeless youth to state-run social service agencies.[99]

In 2020, the National Center for homeless Education reported that over 1.5 million students in the U.S. public education system experienced homelessness during their 2017 and 2018 school year.[100]

LGBTQ+ youthEdit

According to a survey, Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, one in four teens that participated in this survey who identify as gay or lesbian are homeless. Various sources report between 20 percent and 40 percent identify as LGBT. Research shows that a disproportionate number of homeless youth in the United States identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender, or LGBT.[101]

A homeless camp in Eugene, Oregon, 2013

Homeless familiesEdit

The topic of homeless families first emerged in the United States during the 1980s when social welfare programs were being cut and high rates of income inequality, child poverty, and the lack of affordable housing were becoming an issue. The issue of homeless families came back in 2009 after the Recession, which replicated the same issues from the 80s.[102] The 2000s saw a new population of those experiencing homelessness: families with children. While an emerging problem at the beginning of the decade,[103] the problem continued to persist through 2010. At the close of the decade the trend continued unabated, with the number of individuals in homeless families increasing from 431,541 in 2007 to 535,447 in 2009.[85] Though the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) conducts an annual Point-in-Time count of homeless people, including homeless families, its methodology has been criticized for under-reporting the number of homeless families. HUD reported that the number of homeless families decreased by 2% from 2017 – 2018, and by 23% from 2007 – 2018. However, 85% of local services for homeless people reported an increase during the same time. While HUD reported 111,592 homeless minors in 2018, the United States Department of Education reported 1.3 million homeless minors in the 2016 – 2017 school year.[104]

As of 2019, the state of New York had the greatest number of homeless families, at 15,901. California had the second-greatest number of homeless families, at 7,044, followed by Massachusetts at 3,766. Wyoming had the fewest, at 37.[105]

Homeless women with childrenEdit

Another study discovered that the three biggest risk factors that contributed to family homelessness in the United States are: ethnicity, lack of resources (specifically funds), and young children/pregnancy.[106] There is also a strong correlation between homeless families and households run and financed by a single female, especially one from a minority group and with at least two children.[106] Single-income families, especially those below the federal poverty line, have a harder time finding housing than other families, especially given the limited affordable housing options. Homeless families do not always take refuge in shelters, but being homeless also does not necessarily mean living on the streets. Homeless women with children are more likely to live with family or friends than those without children, and this group is treated with higher priority by both the government and society.[107] Homeless mothers have a much higher prevalence of depression, at 40 – 85%, compared to 12% in women of all socioeconomic groups. Homeless mothers also have higher rates of substance use, anxiety disorders, and PTSD. Nearly all of them (92%) experience physical or sexual abuse.[104]

Chronic homelessnessEdit

Changes in different types of homelessness in the U.S. between 2011 and 2020

As recently as 2017 across the United States, on any given night, there are approximately 85,000 chronically homeless people can be found sleeping on the streets or in shelters.[108] A chronically homeless individual is defined as an unaccompanied person who has been homeless for a consecutive year (or four or more periods of homelessness within the last three years) with a disability preventing them from working.[109] This definition was expanded in 2009 due to the HEARTH act to include families who were experiencing prolonged or repeating homelessness due to a disabled parent. Leaving these individuals to remain on the streets can cost taxpayers up to $50,000 per year for a single chronically homeless individual by them cycling in and out of treatment facilities, jails, hospitals and other institutional care facilities.[108] Since 2007 the number of chronically homeless individuals has decreased by 33% with Utah even reporting to have achieved an end to chronic homelessness.[108]

Episodic homelessnessEdit

An episodic homeless person is someone that has experienced three instances of homelessness within a given year. After four instances within a year, they are classified as chronically homeless.[2] Episodic homelessness usually afflicts younger people that are fighting health issues or addiction.

Transitional homelessnessEdit

Transitional homelessness is a type of homelessness that's a result of a major life change or catastrophic event.[3] Those life events could include losing a job, a medical condition, divorce, domestic abuse, and more. It is likely that people who are experiencing episodic homelessness to be young and end up staying in shelters for a brief period.

Hidden homelessnessEdit

Hidden homelessness is the one that goes unreported and undocumented. Individuals who are classified as such are temporarily living with others with no guarantees for the long term.[7]

The community of homeless people in the United States is aided by governmental and non-governmental organizations. According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, in 2017, the number of people experiencing homelessness in unsheltered locations increased for a second straight year by 9% between 2016 and 2017.[110] This issue is partly caused by a lack of affordable housing and is exacerbated by the criminalization of behaviors associated with homelessness. This problem is also costly for the country in supporting these individuals. Multiple studies have demonstrated success in reducing the homeless population as well as its harmful financial and societal effects by providing these individuals with a combination of housing without preconditions and supportive care. These studies include the 2014 Housing first implementation of the Department of Veterans Affairs National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans[111] and a study performed through Brown University.[112]


Homeless individuals report a lack of affordable housing as the number one reason for becoming homeless.[113]

The two main types of housing programs provided for homeless people are transitional and permanent housing. Transitional housing programs are operated with one goal in mind—to help individuals and families obtain permanent housing as quickly as possible. Transitional housing programs assist homeless for a fixed amount of time or until they are able to obtain housing on their own and function successfully in the community, or whichever comes first.[114][115][116]

Some shelters and associated charitable foundations have bought buildings and real estate to develop into permanent housing for homeless people in lieu of transitional Housing.[117]

The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development and Veterans Administration have a special Section 8 housing voucher program called VASH (Veterans Administration Supported Housing), or HUD-VASH, which gives out a certain number of Section 8 subsidized housing vouchers to eligible homeless and otherwise vulnerable US armed forces veterans.[118] The HUD-VASH program has been successful in housing many homeless veterans.[119]

As of 2018, the number of U.S. citizens residing in their vehicles because they cannot find affordable housing has "exploded", particularly in cities with steep increases in the cost of living such as Seattle, Los Angeles, Portland, and San Francisco.[120][121] Bloomberg reported in November 2018 that the wealthiest cities in the U.S., in particular those in the Western states, are experiencing a homelessness crisis driven largely by stagnant wages and "skyrocketing rents".[122]

In 2019, Google had pledged one billion USD into funding 20,000 homes over the next decade throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.[123] The Bay Area is booming with economically successful people who end up driving up the price of housing and increases the divide between the people who need the housing and the new houses being built.[124] In particular, the metropolitan area of San Francisco has some of the most expensive real estate in the United States.[125]

Housing FirstEdit

The Housing First approach recognizes that housing is one of the most impactful social determinants of health that affect those experiencing homelessness.[126][127][128] Housing First has been met with success since its initial implementations in 2009 by providing relatively no strings-attached housing to homeless people with substance use disorder problems or mental health issues. Housing First allows homeless men and women to be taken directly off the street into private community-based apartments, without requiring treatment first. This allows homeless people to return to some sense of normalcy, from which it is believed that they are better-poised to tackle their addictions or sicknesses. The relapse rate through these types of programs is lower than that of conventional homeless programs.[129][130]

Housing First was initiated by the federal government's Interagency Council on Homelessness. It asks cities to come up with a plan to end chronic homelessness under the assumption that if homeless people are given independent housing immediately with some social and financial support, then there will be reduced needs for emergency homeless shelters.[131][132]

The Housing First approach is currently being used in Chicago, Illinois, in the Better Health Through Housing (BHH) Collaborative.The BHH Collective began in 2015 as an initiative in Chicago, Illinois, between BHH and University of Illinois Hospital to provide frequent homeless emergency department patients.[133] The housing was paid for by the hospital and federal housing subsidies. The program also provides the individuals with case managers, specialized health services based on the individual's needs, and other services they need.[133] BHH Collective aims to address the connection between housing and health by providing supportive housing to homeless individuals in order to improve the health of homeless people and address homelessness at the same time.[134]

Comprehensive health careEdit

In 2002, as a part of his FY2003 budget, President Bush made "ending chronic homelessness in the next decade a top objective." The bi-partisan, congressionally mandated, Millennial Housing Commission, in its Report to Congress in 2002, included ending chronic homelessness in 10 years among its principal recommendations. By 2003, the Interagency Council on Homelessness had been re-engaged and charged with pursuing the President's 10-year plan. The Administration has recently undertaken some collaborative efforts to reach its goal of ending chronic homelessness in 10 years. On October 1, 2003, the Administration announced the award of over $48 million in grants aimed at serving the needs of the chronically homeless through two initiatives. The "Ending Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing"[135] initiative was a collaborative grant offered jointly by HUD[136] and the Department of Labor (DOL).[137]

Addressing homeless health is difficult in a traditional healthcare setting due to the complex nature of the needs of homeless people and the multitude of health consequences they face.[138] In 2003–04, the proposed Bringing America Home Act was intended to provide comprehensive treatment for many homeless mental and substance use disorder patients - it has not been passed or funded.[139]

Tailored care approachEdit

Homeless patients tend to be patients with multiple burdens of "medical, mental health, and substance use problems".[140][141] The Tailored Care approach recognizes the unique situation of homeless people and seeks to provide specialized care to the homeless community.[128]

This approach has been used in the government-sponsored Health Care for the Homeless Model (HCH Model).[140] Each HCH project is federally funded and works as federally qualified health centers that work at the intersection of multiple disciplines. These health centers usually provide their patients access to health services such as primary care, mental health services, and addiction services as well as social services such as after-jail services and case management.[140][141] However, there is no set structure that each health center needs to follow—each health center has the agency to provide a variety of services based on their networks and connections with the local neighborhood, government, or community but are not mandated to do so except for providing primary care.[140]


Employment opportunities can be useful in providing financial stability to homeless individuals, however estimates of unemployment within the homeless population range from 57% to 90%.[142] However, many homeless individuals have difficulty in finding work due to mental health or addiction issues.[143][144]

Public librariesEdit

Public libraries can and often do significantly assist with the issues presented by homelessness. In many communities, the library is the only facility that offers free computer and internet access, so this is where many people experiencing homelessness go to locate services for basic needs such as healthcare, education, and housing. Library computers are also necessary for building a resume, searching for open jobs in the area, and completing job applications.[145]

The news article and video entitled, "SF library offers Social Services to Homeless,"[146] speaks about the San Francisco library having a full-time social worker at the library to reduce and help homeless patrons. It mentions that Leah Esguerra, who is a psychiatric social worker, has a usual routine which is done by making her rounds to different homeless patrons and greeting them to see if she could help them. She offers help in different forms that could range from linking patrons with services or providing them with mental health counseling. She also supervises a 12-week vocational program that culminates in gainful employment in the library for the formerly homeless (Knight, 2010).[147] The changes have garnered positive results from all patrons. Since this service started, staff at the library stated that they have noticed a drop in inappropriate behavior. The addition of Social Workers in the library has multiple benefits as they can assist with issues such as education; emergency services (food, clothing, housing, and crisis support); employment; family matters; health improvement (including health insurance); immigration; and support groups for men, women, and teens.[148]

The San Jose University Library became one of the first academic libraries to pay attention to the needs of homeless people and implement changes to better serve this population. In 2007, the merged University Library and Public Library made the choice to be proactive in reaching out. Collaborations with non-profit organizations in the area culminated in computer classes being taught, as well as nutrition classes, family literacy programs, and book discussion groups.[149] After eighteen months, the library staff felt they still were not doing enough and "analyzed program participation trends supplemented by observation and anecdotes" in order to better understand the information needs of homeless people. When it was understood that these needs are complex, additional customer service training was provided to all staff who were interested.[149] Once the staff more fully understood the needs of homeless people, it was determined that many programs in place already, with a few minor adjustments, would be helpful to homeless people. For example, the providing book clubs have proven to be very effective bridges between librarians and homeless people.[150] Programs were tailored to meet these needs. Additional changes implemented included temporary computer passes and generous in-house reading space to counteract the policies in place that may prevent a homeless person from obtaining a library card.[149]

The Dallas Public Library started "Coffee and Conversation" which is part of their Homeless Engagement Initiative. The staff hopes these bimonthly events between staff and homeless patrons will help them better serve the homeless people population in Dallas.[151] They also sponsor Street View podcast, a library produced podcast featuring the stories and experiences of the city's homeless population. Guests often include social service providers.[152]

In May 1991, Richard Kreimer, a homeless man in Morristown, N.J. sued the local public library and the Town of Morristown for expelling him from the library after other patrons complained about his disruptive behavior and pungent body odor. He later won the case and settled for $250,000.[153][154]

Effects of homelessnessEdit


The downtown partnership in Nashville, Tennessee, conducted a census on businesses. Sixty percent of respondents identified that public inebriates, transients and vagrants affect their employees, clients and customers. Businesses were solicited to identify issues that need to be addressed; transients and panhandlers ranked amongst the top five issues.[155]

Audio DeterrentsEdit

Two 7-Eleven locations — one in Sacramento, California, and one in Portland, Oregon — briefly employed a high-pitched noise maker to repel panhandlers and vagrants.[156] In Portland, a local news source (750 KXL) described the sidewalk in front of the Downtown Portland 7-Eleven as being transformed from "barely walkable" to clean and orderly for the first time in years, after the repelling device was installed by the building's owner, Standard Insurance Company. The manager of the 7-Eleven told reporters he would see as many as a dozen transients simultaneously loitering in front of his store,[157] and that this loitering adversely affected his business. The building's owner issued a statement that the goal was to protect the "safety of their employees, tenants, and guests in a location that has been consistently plagued by public drug use and menacing behavior."[158]

A manager for a 7-Eleven in Modesto, California, also attested to the effectiveness of sound for deterring undesirable activity, commenting that "Once the music started, the riffraff left."[159]

The McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance ActEdit

Homelessness has a tremendous effect on a child's education. Education of homeless youth is thought to be essential in breaking the cycle of poverty. The McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act mandates equal opportunity to a free public education to homeless students. This act is supposed to break down the barriers homeless students have to receiving an education. These barriers include residency restriction, medical record verification, and transportation issues. Once a student surpasses these barriers, they are still subject to the stigma of being homeless, and the humiliation they feel because of their situation. Some families do not report their homelessness, while others are unaware of the opportunities available to them. Many report that maintaining a stable school environment helps the students because it is the only thing that remains normal.[160] Many homeless students fall behind their peers in school due to behavioral disorders, and lack of attendance in school.[161]

Since the United States housing bubble collapse, there has been a rise in the number of homeless students. NAEHCY or the National Association for the Education of Homeless for Children and Youth, has reported a 99% increase in homeless students within a three-month period (San Diego).[162]

Of 1,636 schools, 330 reported no increase, 847 reported an increase of half, and 459 reported an increase of 25 percent or more. Due to underfunding many school districts are struggling to provide the necessary services to support homeless students, as mandated in the provisions of the McKinney–Vento Act, such as rising transportation needs and the greater range and usefulness of services. Wisconsin Rapids Public Schools Homeless Liaison Heather Lisitza says:

One of the biggest challenges our district faces is providing transportation to students who are experiencing homelessness. There are few approaches that our district can utilize to provide transportation for these students. Our city has only one taxi cab service and no public bus system. Our cab company is small and simply cannot fulfill all of our transportation requests. When it's possible, we add students to existing bus routes or set up a contractual agreement with the student's parent/guardian. However, there have been many situations where none of these options have worked. Another challenge our district faces is providing proper outer-wear for students who are homeless. Being that we live in central Wisconsin and have long, cold winters, all students need proper outerwear to go outside. Proper outerwear includes snow boots, hat, mittens, snow pants, and a winter jacket that has a working zipper or buttons on it. This expense adds up quickly and is hard to provide to the increasing number of homeless students.[162]

This is especially worrisome since homeless students are 1) 1.5 times more likely to perform below grade level in reading; 2) 1.5 times more likely to perform below grade level in spelling; and 3) 2.5 times more likely to perform below grade level in math.[162] There are a few worries that there will be false reports of homeless students, but mostly it is not an issue.[160]


Various laws have both directly and indirectly criminalized people that are homeless[163] and people attempting to feed homeless people outdoors.[164] At least 31 cities have criminalized feeding people that are homeless.[165][166]

In 2014, the United Nations Human Rights Committee criticized the United States for the criminalization of homelessness, noting that such "cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment" is in violation of international human rights treaty obligations.[167][168][169] A 2018 report by Philip Alston, the U.N. Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, found that homeless persons have effectively been criminalized in many cities around the United States, and noted that "punishing and imprisoning the poor is the distinctively American response to poverty in the twenty-first century."[170]


In August 2012, a federal district judge in Philadelphia ruled that laws prohibiting serving food to homeless people outdoors were unconstitutional.[171]

On June 19, 2014, the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit struck down a 1983 ordinance in the city of Los Angeles which "bans people from living in cars or recreational vehicles on city streets or in parking lots" as being "unconstitutionally vague ... Unlike other cities, which ban overnight parking or sleeping in vehicles, Los Angeles' law prohibits using cars as 'living quarters; both overnight and 'day-by-day, or otherwise.'"[172]

Homeless rights advocates are pushing for "Right to Rest" bills in several states in 2015, which would overturn laws that target homeless people for sitting, eating, and sleeping in public places.[173]

In 2018, in Martin v. Boise the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled that city ordinances banning sleeping outside cannot be enforced if there are not enough shelter beds available in the city.[174]

Crimes against homeless peopleEdit

Since the 1990s, there has been a growing number of violent acts committed upon people experiencing homelessness. The rate of such documented crimes in 2005 was 30% higher than of those in 1999.[175] Some teens engage in this activity as a source of amusement.[176] CNN reported in 2007 that such incidents were on the rise.[176]

The Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism (CSHE) at California State University, San Bernardino in conjunction with the NCH found that 155 homeless people were killed by non-homeless people in "hate killings", while 76 people were killed in all the other traditional hate crime homicide categories such as race and religion, combined.[177]

Various studies and surveys indicate that homeless people have a much higher criminal victimization rate than the non-homeless, but that most incidents never get reported to authorities. A 2007 study found that the number of violent crimes against homeless people is increasing.[177][178] In 2013, there were 109 attacks on homeless people, a 24 percent increase on the previous year, according to the NCH. Eighteen people died as a result of the attacks. In July 2014, three boys 15, 16 and 18, were arrested and charged with beating to death two homeless men with bricks and a metal pole in Albuquerque.[179]

As in other countries, criminals—both individuals and organized groups—sometimes exploit homeless people, ranging from identity theft to tax and welfare scams.[180][181][182] Homeless people, and homeless organizations, are also known to be accused or convicted of frauds and scams. These incidents often lead to negative impressions of homeless people by the general public.[183]


Homelessness is a public welfare and health epidemic within the United States. Any period of homelessness is associated with adverse health consequences.[184] These adverse health consequences are associated with poor living conditions and a lack of access to treatment facilities. Due to living in extreme poverty it is unlikely for an individual or a family to have a healthcare plan. These healthcare plans are important in obtaining treatment for illnesses or injury from treatment facilities. Without it, individuals and families are left to deal with their ailments themselves or endure further financial burden by receiving treatments without a health insurance plan. Respiratory infections and outbreaks of tuberculosis and other aerosol transmitted infections have been reported. Homeless intravenous drug users are at an increased risk of contracting HIV, and hepatitis B and C infections.

[185] The close living spaces of areas such as Skid Row in California provide an environment in which infectious diseases can spread easily. These areas with a high concentration of homeless individuals are dirty environments with little resources for personal hygiene. It was estimated in a report to congress that 35% of homeless were in unsheltered locations not suitable for human habitation.[186]

There is a bidirectional relationship between homelessness and poor health.[187] Homelessness exacts a heavy toll on individuals and the longer individuals experience homelessness, the more likely they are to experience poor health and be at higher risk for premature death.[188] Health conditions, such as substance use and mental illness, can increase people's susceptibility to homelessness. Conversely, homelessness can further cause health issues as they come with constant exposure to environmental threat such as hazards of violence and communicable diseases. Homeless people have disproportionately high rates of poly substance use, mental illness, physical health problems and legal issues/barriers in attaining employment.[189]

Large number of homeless people work but few homeless people are able to generate significant earnings from employment alone.[190] Physical health problems also limit work or daily activities which are barriers to employment. Substance use is positively associated with lower work level but is negatively related to higher work level.[191] Those with physical health problems are substantially more likely than those with mental health problems to be in the more generous disability programs. Substance use disorders are also a barrier to participation in disability programs. Rates of participation in government programs are low, and people with major mental disorders have low participation rate in disability programs.[192]

Children's healthEdit

There are risks to seeking refuge in shelters, which are heightened and more noticeable for children. Such risks include health problems such as malnutrition from lack of access to food with nutritional content, behavioral problems associated with coping, social insecurity from growing up in an unstable environment, and mental illnesses such as PTSD and trauma.[193]

Mother's healthEdit

Just as children who come from homeless families are at a higher risk of developing behavioral, mental, and physical health problems than their peers, their mothers are also at a higher risk especially in developing mental illnesses.[194] There are many things that contribute to why homeless women are at a higher rate of developing a mental illness compared to the general population, but there has been a reoccurring theme among studies focused on this issue.[195]

Mental healthEdit

Homeless individuals report mental illness as being the number three reason for becoming or staying homeless.[113] Such illnesses are often closely linked with the fourth reason—substance use—and therefore it is generally accepted that both of these issues should be treated simultaneously. Although many medical, psychiatric, and counseling services exist to address these needs, it is commonly believed that without the support of reliable and stable housing such treatments remain ineffective. Furthermore, in the absence of a universal healthcare plan, many of those in need cannot afford such services.

Situations in specific U.S. cities and statesEdit

Public attitudesEdit

Many advocates for homeless people contend that a key difficulty is the social stigma surrounding homelessness. Many associate a lack of a permanent home with a lack of a proper bathroom and limited access to regular grooming. Thus, people that are homeless become "aesthetically unappealing" to the general public. Research shows that "physically attractive persons are judged more positively than physically unattractive individuals on various traits... reflecting social competence."[196]

In addition to the physical component of stigmatization exists an association of homeless people with mental illness. Many people consider the mentally ill to be irresponsible and childlike and treat them with fear and exclusion, using their mental incapacitation as justification for why they should be left out of communities.[197]

A common misconception persists that many individuals who panhandle are not actually homeless, but actually use pity and compassion to fund their lifestyles, making up to $20 an hour and living luxurious lives.[198] This exception to the rule seems more prevalent due to media attention, but in reality, only a few cases exist.[199]

Public opinion surveys show relatively little support for this view, however. A 1995 paper in the American Journal of Community Psychology concluded that "although the homeless are clearly stigmatized, there is little evidence to suggest that the public has lost compassion and is unwilling to support policies to help homeless people."[200] A Penn State study in 2004 concluded that "familiarity breeds sympathy" and greater support for addressing the problem.[201]

A 2007 survey conducted by Public Agenda, a non-profit organization that helps leaders and their citizens navigate through complex social issues, found that 67 percent of New Yorkers agreed that most homeless people were without shelter because of "circumstances beyond their control," including high housing costs and lack of good and steady employment. More than one-third (36 percent) said they worried about becoming homeless themselves, with 15 percent saying they were "very worried." 90 percent of New Yorkers believed that everyone has a right to shelter, and 68 percent believed that the government is responsible for guaranteeing that right to its citizens. The survey found support for investments in prevention, rental assistance and permanent housing for homeless people.[202]

Public Agenda has also concluded, however, that the public's sympathy has limits. In a 2002 national survey, the organization found 74 percent say the police should leave a homeless person alone if they are not bothering anyone. In contrast, 71 percent say the police should move homeless people if they are keeping customers away from a shopping area and 51 percent say homeless people should be moved if they are driving other people away from a public park.[203]

Statistics and demographicsEdit

Completely accurate and comprehensive statistics are difficult to acquire for any social study, but especially so when measuring the ambiguous hidden, and erratic reality of homelessness. All figures given are estimates. In addition, these estimates represent overall national averages; the proportions of specific homeless communities can vary substantially depending on local geography.[204]

Annual Homeless Assessment Report to CongressEdit

US yearly timeline of people experiencing homelessness, 2007-2020[205]

Perhaps the most accurate, comprehensive, and current data on homelessness in the United States is reported annually by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress (AHAR), released every year since 2007. The AHAR report relies on data from two sources: single-night, point-in-time counts of both sheltered and unsheltered homeless populations reported on the Continuum of Care applications to HUD; and counts of the sheltered homeless population over a full year provided by a sample of communities based on data in their Management Information Systems (HMIS).[45][205]

Other statisticsEdit

Homeless children in the United States.[91] The number of homeless children reached record highs in 2011,[206] 2012,[89] and 2013[207] at about three times their number in 1983.[89][needs update]

Total numberEdit

Over the course of the year (October 2009 – September 2010), the 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report found that 1,593,150 individuals experienced homelessness[208][209] Most were homeless temporarily. The chronically homeless population (those with repeated episodes or who have been homeless for long periods) decreased from 175,914 in 2005 to 123,833 in 2007.[210] According to the 2017 AHAR (Annual Homeless Assessment Report) about 553,742 people experienced homelessness, which is a 1% increase from 2016.[211]

Familial compositionEdit

According to the NCHWIH report:[212]

  • 51.3% are single males.
  • 24.7% are single females.
  • 23% are families with children—the fastest growing segment.
  • 5% are minors unaccompanied by adults.
  • 39% of the total homeless population are children under the age of 18.

Marital statusEdit

According to the 2014 NCHWIH report:[212]

  • 24% are married.
  • 76% are single.
  • 67.5% are single males within the single percentage.
  • 32.5% are single females within the single percentage.

Race and ethnicityEdit

Homeless tent city in Skid Row, Los Angeles. The 2019 count found 58,936 homeless people living in Los Angeles County.[213]

According to the 2010 SAMHSA report, Among all sheltered individuals over the course of a year (October 2009-September 2010):[208] Gender, Age, Race/Ethnicity

  • 41.6% are White, Non-Hispanic
  • 9.7% are White, Hispanic
  • 37% are Black/African-American
  • 4.5% are other single races;
  • 7.2% are multiple races

According to the 2014 NCHWIH report:[212]

  • 42% are African American (over-represented 3.23× compared to 13% of general population).
  • 38% are Caucasian (under-represented 0.53× compared to 72% of general population).
  • 20% are Hispanic (over-represented 1.25× compared to 16% of general population).
  • 4% are Native American (over-represented 4× compared to 1% of general population).
  • 2% are Asian-American (under-represented 0.4× compared to 5% of general population).

Mental healthEdit

According to the 2010 SAMHSA report:[208]

  • 26.2% of all sheltered persons who were homeless had a severe mental illness
  • About 30% of people who are chronically homeless have mental health conditions.

According to analyses of data from the 1996 NSHAPCxiv:[214]

  • Over 60% of people who are chronically homeless have experienced lifetime mental health problems

Substance useEdit

According to the 2010 SAMHSA report:[208]

  • 34.7% of all sheltered adults who were homeless had chronic substance use issues
  • About 50% of people who are chronically homeless had co-occurring substance use problems.

According to analyses of data from the 1996 NSHAPCxiv:[214]

  • Over 80% have experienced lifetime alcohol and/or drug problems


According to the 1996 Urban Institute findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (UIHAC) report[215]

  • 53% have less than a high school education
  • 21% have completed high school
  • 27% have some education beyond high school.


According to the 1996 UIHAC report:[215]

  • 44 percent did paid work during the past month. Of these:
  • 20 percent worked in a job lasting or expected to last at least three months.
  • 25 percent worked at a temporary or day labor job.
  • 2 percent earned money by peddling or selling personal belongings.

A 2010 longitudinal study of homeless men conducted in Birmingham, Alabama, found that most earned an average of ninety dollars per week while working an average of thirty hours per week[216]


According to the 2010 SAMHSA report:[208]

  • 71% reside in central cities.
  • 21% are in suburbs.
  • 9% are in rural areas.

According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development:[217]


According to the 2010 SAMHSA report:[208] Research on shelter use in New York City and Philadelphia concluded that

  • People experiencing transitional homelessness constitute 80% of shelter users
  • People experiencing episodic homelessness comprise 10% of shelter users.

In New York City

  • Transitionally homeless individuals experience an average of 1.4 stays over a 3-year period, for a total of 58 days on average over the 3 years.
  • Episodically homeless individuals, on average, experience 4.9 shelter episodes over a 3-year period totaling 264 days with an average length of stay of 54.4 days.

Data from the 1996 NSHAPC show that about 50% of people who were homeless were experiencing their first or second episode of homelessness, which typically lasted a few weeks or months to one year.


According to the 2017 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report:[218]

  • 60.5% are male.
  • 39% are female.
  • 0.4% are transgender
  • 0.2% do not identify as male, female, or transgender.


According to the 2017 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report:[218]

  • 20.7% are under 18.
  • 9.7% are 18–24.
  • 69.6% are over 24.

See alsoEdit




  1. ^ "Homelessness Statistics by State – United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH)". United States Interagency Council on Homelessness. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  2. ^ a b Annual Population Estimates Program Estimates (Report). Population Estimates Program. United States Census Bureau. 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Here are 10 New Facts About Sheltered Homelessness in America". National Alliance to End Homelessness. November 10, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
  4. ^ a b The 2018 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. December 2018. Authors: Meghan Henry, Anna Mahathey, Tyler Morrill, Anna Robinson, Azim Shivji, and Rian Watt, Abt Associates. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).
  5. ^ "Seattle's homeless population went up 44% in the last two years". Q13 FOX News. December 6, 2017.
  6. ^ Cowan, Jill (June 5, 2019). "Homeless Populations Are Surging in Los Angeles. Here's Why". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
  7. ^ a b www.whitehouse.gov
  8. ^ a b Kusmer, Kenneth (2002). Down And Out, On the Road: The Homeless in American History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ Fulwood III, Sam (April 13, 1991). "Census Workers Count 228,621 Homeless Across U.S." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  10. ^ "1990 Fast Facts - History - U.S. Census Bureau". United States Census Bureau.
  11. ^ a b "Facts and Figures:The Homeless". PBS. June 26, 2009.
  12. ^ Schaeffer, Katherine (April 5, 2021). "The changing face of America's veteran population". Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  13. ^ Vespa, Jonathan E. (2020). Those Who Served: America's Veterans From World War II to the War on Terror (PDF) (Report). American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  14. ^ a b "The 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment report (AHAR) to Congress" (PDF). The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. p. 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  15. ^ Shapiro, Eliza (March 15, 2020). "New York City Public Schools to Close to Slow Spread of Coronavirus". The New York Times.
  16. ^ a b c d e Warth, Gary (July 11, 2022). "Cause of homelessness? It's not drugs or mental illness, researchers say". Los Angeles Times. In their University of California Press book “Homelessness is a Housing Problem,” authors Clayton Page Aldern and Gregg Colburn looked at various contributing issues of homelessness, including mental illness and addiction, and the per capita rate of homelessness around the country. By looking at the rate of homeless per 1,000 people, they found communities with the highest housing costs had some of the highest rates of homelessness, something that might be overlooked when looking at just the overall raw number of homeless people.
  17. ^ a b c d Greenstone, Scott (March 22, 2022). "Is homelessness a housing problem? Two Seattle experts make their case in new book". The Seattle Times. But when Colburn compared cities with high and low numbers of homelessness based on poverty, drug use and mental health treatment factors, there was a clear answer that housing plays an outsize role in homelessness — and most academics have agreed on it for a while. It just hasn’t been embraced by the general public yet.
  18. ^ a b Marjorie Keniston McIntosh (1998). Controlling Misbehavior in England,1370–1600. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89404-3.
  19. ^ Convict Voyages (1): Overview, by Anthony Vaver, Early American Crime, January 6, 2009
  20. ^ "New York City Rescue Mission website". Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  21. ^ History of the New York Rescue Mission Archived November 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Depastino, Todd, "Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America", Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2003. ISBN 0-226-14378-3. (Interview with Todd Depastino)
  23. ^ "Riding the Rails". PBS. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
  24. ^ Salvation Army, "History of The Salvation Army Social Services of Greater New York" Archived January 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "The history of The Bowery Mission, Mont Lawn Camp, and Mont Lawn City Camp | The Bowery Mission". Bowery.org. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  26. ^ Overproduction of Goods, Unequal Distribution of Wealth, High Unemployment, and Massive Poverty Archived February 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, From: President's Economic Council
  27. ^ KENNEDY, DAVID M. "What the New Deal Did." Political Science Quarterly, vol. 124, no. 2, [The Academy of Political Science, Wiley], 2009, pp. 251–68, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25655654.
  28. ^ "The men on skid row: A study of Philadelphia's homeless man population", Department of Psychiatry, Temple University School of Medicine, November 1960.
  29. ^ Rochefort DA (1984). "Origins of the "Third psychiatric revolution": the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963". J Health Polit Policy Law. 9 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1215/03616878-9-1-1. PMID 6736594. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
  30. ^ "Kennedy's vision for mental health never realized", USA Today, October 20, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2018 https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/10/20/kennedys-vision-mental-health/3100001/
  31. ^ Feldman S (June 1983). "Out of the hospital, onto the streets: the overselling of benevolence". Hastings Cent Rep. 13 (3): 5–7. doi:10.2307/3561609. JSTOR 3561609. PMID 6885404.
  32. ^ Borus JF (August 1981). "Sounding Board. Deinstitutionalization of the chronically mentally ill". N. Engl. J. Med. 305 (6): 339–42. doi:10.1056/NEJM198108063050609. PMID 7242636.
  33. ^ Scherl DJ, Macht LB (September 1979). "Deinstitutionalization in the absence of consensus". Hosp Community Psychiatry. 30 (9): 599–604. doi:10.1176/ps.30.9.599. PMID 223959. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012.
  34. ^ Joint Hearing op. cit., May 1984, p. 32 IUD Office for Policy Development and Research, A Report to the Secretary on the Homeless and Emergency Shelters, May 1, 1986.
  35. ^ "Programs | Funding & Programs | United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH)". Usich.gov. Archived from the original on August 2, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
  36. ^ a b Common Dreams: Urban Suffering Grew Under Reagan Archived May 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ National Housing Institute: Reagan's Legacy: Homelessness in America Archived October 27, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Link, Bruce; Phelan, Jo; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Stueve, Ann; Moore, Robert; Susser, Ezra (1995). "Lifetime and five-year prevalence of homelessness in the United States: New evidence on an old debate". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 65 (3): 347–354. doi:10.1037/h0079653. PMID 7485420.
  39. ^ National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing (U, National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing (US) Staff, & National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing (US). (1992). The final report of the National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing: A report to the Congress and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Commission.
  40. ^ Popkin, S. J. (2004). A decade of HOPE VI: Research findings and policy challenges.
  41. ^ False, H. O. P. E. (2002). a Critical Assessment of the HOPE VI Public Housing Redevelopment Program. Prepared by the National Housing Law Project, Poverty & Race Research Action Council, Sherwood Research Associates, and Everywhere and Now Public Housing Residents Organizing Nationally Together. Oakland, CA: National Housing Law Project.
  42. ^ "First Annual Homelessness Assessment Report" (PDF). Huduser.org.
  43. ^ "HUD 5th Annual Homelessness Assessment Report to Congress" (PDF). Huduser.org. June 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  44. ^ Employment and Homelessness. National Coalition for the Homeless, July 2009.
  45. ^ a b c U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, "The Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress (2008)", July 2009
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k United States Conference of Mayors, "A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: a 27-city survey", December 2001.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities" (PDF). December 2005. pp. 63–64. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 30, 2008.
  48. ^ "Survey Cities Say Lack of Federal Commitment to Hurricane Evacuees Will Strain Local Limited Resources" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 13, 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  49. ^ "Survey Cities Say Lack of Federal Commitment to Hurricane Evacuees Will Strain Local Limited Resources". Archived from the original on November 12, 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Vanneman, Reeve, "Main Causes of Homelessness" Archived August 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, University of Maryland
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cf. Levinson, Encyclopedia of Homelessness, article entry on Causes of Homelessness: Overview by Paul Koegel, pp. 50–58.
  52. ^ Center for Housing Policy: Paycheck to Paycheck Archived April 24, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Karaca Z (AHRQ), Wong H (AHRQ), Mutter R (AHRQ). "Characteristics of Homeless and Non-Homeless Individuals Using Inpatient and Emergency Department Services", 2008. HCUP Statistical Brief #152. March 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.
  54. ^ Piasecki, Joe."Throwaway kids: Thousands of area foster children leave county care for a dangerous and desperate life on the streets", Pasadena Weekly, June 22, 2006.
  55. ^ Fagan, Kevin, "Saving foster kids from the streets", San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday, April 11, 2004.
  56. ^ Amland, Bjoehn. "Natural Disasters Displaced 42 Million In 2010; Climate Change Could Be Factor, Experts Say". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  57. ^ National Reentry Resource Center, Travis, J. 2000. But They All Come Back: Rethinking Prisoners Reentry. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. NCJ 181413.
  58. ^ Quintana, Nico S.; Josh Rosenthal & Jeff Krehely (June 21, 2010). "Gay and Transgender Youth Homelessness by the Numbers". Center for American Progress. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  59. ^ a b Treves, Gabe. "More Than 38 Percent of Foreclosed Homes in California are Rentals:Over 200,000 Tenants Directly Affected". California Progress Report. Archived from the original on January 5, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  60. ^ Willick, Jason (October 22, 2012). "Homeless by Choice". The Daily Californian. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  61. ^ Lyon-Callo, Vincent (2004). Inequality, Poverty, and Neoliberal Governance: Activist Ethnography in the Homeless Sheltering Industry. University of Toronto Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4426-0086-7.
  62. ^ Wacquant, Loïc (2009). Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity. Duke University Press. pp. 52, 90, 93. ISBN 978-0822344223.
  63. ^ Collins, Victoria E.; Rothe, Dawn L. (2019). The Violence of Neoliberalism: Crime, Harm and Inequality. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 9781138584778.
  64. ^ Berdayes, Vicente; Murphy, John W., eds. (2016). Neoliberalism, Economic Radicalism, and the Normalization of Violence. Springer. p. 27. ISBN 978-3-319-25169-1.
  65. ^ Shoot, Brittany (December 14, 2018). "Higher Rents Correlate to Higher Homeless Rates, New Research Shows". Fortune. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  66. ^ United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, "Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program" Archived February 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ National Alliance to End Homelessness, "Summary of HEARTH Act" Archived February 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, June 8, 2009
  68. ^ "The HEARTH Act – An Overview" Archived October 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, Washington, D.C.
  69. ^ National Coalition for the Homeless, "NCH Public Policy Recommendations: HUD McKinney-Vento Reauthorization", Washington, D.C., September 14, 2009
  70. ^ "HUD Press Release, December 1, 2010". Portal.hud.gov:80. December 1, 2010. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
  71. ^ "Opening Doors" (PDF). Usich.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
  72. ^ USICH, "Opening Doors: Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness.
  73. ^ Barbara Poppe (June 16, 2010). "Opening Doors | The White House". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved June 19, 2012 – via National Archives.
  74. ^ "Homeless explosion on West Coast pushing cities to the brink". CBS Sacramento. November 5, 2019.
  75. ^ "Home". Coalition For The Homeless. March 24, 2017. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  76. ^ "Bill Boyarsky: Finally Acknowledging the Obvious, Los Angeles Moves to Declare a State of Emergency on Homelessness". Truthdig.com. March 9, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  77. ^ "MARTIN V. CITY OF BOISE" (PDF). cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov. 2018.
  78. ^ "'A Homeless Pandemic' Looms As 30 Million Are At Risk Of Eviction". NPR. August 10, 2020.
  79. ^ "How Many People in the United States Are Experiencing Homelessness?". prb.org. Retrieved 29. April 2021
  80. ^ "Hiding Homelessness: The Transcarceration of Homelessness" California Law Review. Retrieved 29. April 2021.
  81. ^ "Temporary Halt in Residential Evictions in Communities With Substantial or High Transmission of COVID-19 To Prevent the Further Spread of COVID-19". Federal Register. August 6, 2021. Retrieved December 12, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  82. ^ "HUD 2021 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report to Congress" (PDF).
  83. ^ The rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) pursuant to the McKinney-Vento Homelessness Assistance Act of 1987, as amended by the Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing (HEARTH) Act of 2009, codified at 42 U.S.C. § 11301 et. seq.
  84. ^ "HUD 2020 Annual Homelessness Assessment Report to Congress" (PDF).
  85. ^ a b "The 2009 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress" (PDF). Husueser.org. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  86. ^ Wilding, Mark. (2020). The Challenges of Measuring Homelessness among Armed Forces Veterans: Service Provider Experiences in England, European Journal of Homelessness, 14(1): 107-122.
  87. ^ The National Center on Family Homelessness (December 2011). "America's Youngest Outcasts 2010" (PDF). State Report Card on Child Homelessness. The National Center on Family Homelessness. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 22, 2016. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  88. ^ a b Andrew Mach (December 13, 2011). "Homeless children at record high in US. Can the trend be reversed?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  89. ^ a b c d e f "State of the Homeless 2012" Coalition for the Homeless, June 8, 2012.
  90. ^ a b Petula Dvorak (February 8, 2013). "600 homeless children in D.C., and no one seems to care". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 12, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  91. ^ a b Bassuk, E.L., et al. (2011) America's Youngest Outcasts: 2010 Archived March 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (Needham, MA: The National Center on Family Homelessness) page 20
  92. ^ Flowers (2010), p. 1
  93. ^ David Crary and Lisa Leff (November 17, 2014). New Report: Child Homelessness on the Rise in US. The Associated Press. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
  94. ^ Flowers (2010), p. 53
  95. ^ Flowers (2010), p. 55
  96. ^ Flowers (2010), p. 48
  97. ^ Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L. (April 26, 2018). Runaway and Homeless Youth: Demographics and Programs (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  98. ^ Flowers (2010), p. 161
  99. ^ Flowers (2010), p. 65
  100. ^ Garrand, Danielle (February 4, 2020). "There are more homeless students in the U.S. than people living in Dallas". CBS News. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  101. ^ Judge, Caitlin "Casey" (2015) "Thrown Away for Being Gay: The Abandonment of LGBT Youth and Their Lack of Legal Recourse," Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality: Vol. 3 : Iss. 2 , Article 5. Available at: https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/ijlse/vol3/iss2/5
  102. ^ Grant, Roy (2013). "Twenty-Five Years of Child and Family Homelessness: Where Are We Now?". American Journal of Public Health. 103 Suppl 2: e1–10. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301618. PMC 3969115. PMID 24148055.
  103. ^ "FACS | Homeless Children, Poverty, Faith and Community: Understanding and Reporting the Local Story". Akron, Ohio: Facsnet.org. March 26, 2002. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
  104. ^ a b Bassuk, Ellen L.; Hart, Jacqueline A.; Donovan, Effy (2020). "Resetting Policies to End Family Homelessness". Annual Review of Public Health. 41: 247–263. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094256. PMID 31675480.
  105. ^ "Total Family Households Experiencing Homelessness". United States Interagency Council on Homelessness. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  106. ^ a b Buckner, John. "Homeless Families and Children" (PDF). Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research.
  107. ^ Nooe, Roger (2016). "Life Experiences and Vulnerabilities of Homeless Women: A Comparison of Women Unaccompanied Versus Accompanied by Minor Children, and Correlates With Children's Emotional Distress". Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless. 11 (3): 215–231. doi:10.1023/A:1015741613230. S2CID 68809897.
  108. ^ a b c United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2017). Ending chronic homelessness in 2017. Retrieved from https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Chronic_Homelessness_in_2017.pdf
  109. ^ United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2010). Supplemental document to the federal strategic plan to prevent and end homelessness: June 2010. Retrieved from https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/BkgrdPap_ChronicHomelessness.pdf
  110. ^ "The 2017 annual homeless assessment report to congress part 1: Point-in-time estimates of homelessness" (PDF).
  111. ^ "Housing first implementation brief" (PDF).
  112. ^ Brown, Molly M.; Jason, Leonard A.; Malone, Daniel K.; Srebnik, Debra; Sylla, Laurie (2016). "Housing first as an effective model for community stabilization among vulnerable individuals with chronic and nonchronic homelessness histories". Journal of Community Psychology. 44 (3): 384–390. doi:10.1002/jcop.21763.
  113. ^ a b City Mayors Society: Big U.S. Cities Report Steep Rise in Hunger and Homelessness.
  114. ^ Burt, Martha R., "Characteristics of Transitional Housing for Homeless Families Final Report", Urban Institute, Washington, D.C., September 7, 2006,
  115. ^ Dordick, Gwendolyn A. (March 2002). "Recovering from Homelessness: Determining the 'Quality of Sobriety' in a Transitional Housing Program". Journal Qualitative Sociology. 25 (1): 7–32. doi:10.1023/A:1014331106267. S2CID 141672718.
  116. ^ Karash, Robert L., "The Graduate" Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Spare Change News, Boston, March 11, 2010
  117. ^ Kooker, Naomi R., "Pine St. adds to permanent housing holdings", Boston Business Journal, November 3, 2006.
  118. ^ VHA Office of Mental Health. "The Department of Housing and Urban Development and VA's Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) Program". .va.gov. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
  119. ^ Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A. (November 2013). "Homeless veterans in supported housing: Exploring the impact of criminal history". Psychological Services. 10 (4): 452–8. doi:10.1037/a0032775. PMID 24079354.
  120. ^ Berr, Johnathan (July 31, 2018). "More Americans are forced to "reside" in their vehicles". CBS MoneyWatch. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  121. ^ Quinn, Mattie (July 24, 2018). "'It's the New Form of Affordable Housing': More People Are Living in Their Cars". Governing. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  122. ^ Buhayar, Noah; Deprez, Esmé E (November 20, 2018). "The Homeless Crisis Is Getting Worse in America's Richest Cities". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  123. ^ Nieva, Richard (June 18, 2019). "Google pledges $1 billion toward Bay Area housing crisis". CNet. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  124. ^ Burt, Martha R.; Aron, Laudan Y.; Lee, Edgar (2001). Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter Or Affordable Housing?. The Urban Institute. ISBN 9780877667018.
  125. ^ Zraick, Karen (June 30, 2018). "San Francisco Is So Expensive, You Can Make Six Figures and Still Be 'Low Income'". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  126. ^ Clary, Amy (January 2017). "Federal and State Collaboration to Improve Health Through Housing" (PDF). National Academy for State Health Policy.
  127. ^ Sandel, Megan; Desmond, Matthew (December 19, 2017). "Investing in Housing for Health Improves Both Mission and Margin". JAMA. 318 (23): 2291–2292. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.15771. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 29090312. S2CID 43106924.
  128. ^ a b Tsai, Jack; Gelberg, Lillian; Rosenheck, Robert A. (September 2019). "Changes in Physical Health After Supported Housing: Results from the Collaborative Initiative to End Chronic Homelessness". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 34 (9): 1703–1708. doi:10.1007/s11606-019-05070-y. ISSN 0884-8734. PMC 6712193. PMID 31161570.
  129. ^ Abel, David, "For the homeless, keys to a home: Large-scale effort to keep many off street faces hurdles", Boston Globe, February 24, 2008.
  130. ^ Karash, Robert L., "Housing Lost, Housing Regained, Housing Kept" Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Spare Change News, Boston, February 25, 2010.
  131. ^ Graves, Florence; Sayfan, Hadar, "First things first: 'Housing first,' a radical new approach to ending chronic homelessness, is gaining ground in Boston", Boston Globe, Sunday, June 24, 2007.
  132. ^ Roncarati, Jill (June 2008). "Homeless, housed, and homeless again" (PDF). Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. 21 (6): 56. doi:10.1097/01720610-200806000-00090. PMID 18619107. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 30, 2008.
  133. ^ a b Kuehn, Bridget M. (March 5, 2019). "Hospitals Turn to Housing to Help Homeless Patients". JAMA. 321 (9): 822–824. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.21476. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 30758505. S2CID 73419698.
  134. ^ "Center for Housing and Health". housingforhealth.org. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  135. ^ "U.S. Department of Labor – ODEP – Office of Disability Employment Policy – Ending Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing Projects". Dol.gov. September 29, 2003. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
  136. ^ "Locating New Page". Hud.gov. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  137. ^ "United States Department of Labor". Dol.gov. March 23, 2017. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  138. ^ O'Toole, Thomas P.; Johnson, Erin E.; Aiello, Riccardo; Kane, Vincent; Pape, Lisa (March 31, 2016). "Tailoring Care to Vulnerable Populations by Incorporating Social Determinants of Health: the Veterans Health Administration's "Homeless Patient Aligned Care Team" Program". Preventing Chronic Disease. 13: 150567. doi:10.5888/pcd13.150567. ISSN 1545-1151. PMC 4825747. PMID 27032987.
  139. ^ "Bringing America Home Act (2003 - H.R. 2897)". GovTrack.us. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  140. ^ a b c d Zlotnick, Cheryl; Zerger, Suzanne; Wolfe, Phyllis B. (December 2013). "Health Care for the Homeless: What We Have Learned in the Past 30 Years and What's Next". American Journal of Public Health. 103 (S2): S199–S205. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301586. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 3969140. PMID 24148056.
  141. ^ a b Koh, Howard K.; O'Connell, James J. (December 27, 2016). "Improving Health Care for Homeless People". JAMA. 316 (24): 2586–2587. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.18760. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 28027356.
  142. ^ "National Coalition for the Homeless". www.nationalhomeless.org. Retrieved March 15, 2022.
  143. ^ Poremski, Daniel; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Lemieux, Ashley J.; Stergiopoulos, Vicky (February 1, 2016). "Persisting Barriers to Employment for Recently Housed Adults with Mental Illness Who Were Homeless". Journal of Urban Health. 93 (1): 96–108. doi:10.1007/s11524-015-0012-y. ISSN 1468-2869. PMC 4794459. PMID 26666250.
  144. ^ Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Pollio, David (April 8, 2011). "Employment Status and Income Generation Among Homeless Young Adults". Youth & Society. 44 (3): 385–407. doi:10.1177/0044118x11402851. ISSN 0044-118X. S2CID 144438463.
  145. ^ "How Libraries Are Adapting To Help Homeless Find Jobs, Health Services". The Huffington Post. February 24, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  146. ^ Tyler, Carolyn (May 24, 2010). "San Francisco library offers social services to homeless | abc7news.com". Abclocal.go.com. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
  147. ^ Knight, H. (January 11, 2010). Library adds social worker to assist homeless. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 17, 2010
  148. ^ Blank, Barbara (November 28, 2015). "Public Libraries Add Social Workers and Social Program". www.socialworker.com. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  149. ^ a b c Collins, L.; Howard, F.; Miraflor, A. (2009). "Addressing the needs of the homeless: A San Jose Library partnership approach". The Reference Librarian. 50 (1): 109–116. doi:10.1080/02763870802546472. S2CID 62328396.
  150. ^ "THE PROBLEM IS NOT THE HOMELESS". Library Journal. 136: 30–34. 2011 – via ebscohost.
  151. ^ Sandi Fox, "From nurses to social workers, see how public libraries are serving the homeless", PBS NEWSHOUR, January 28, 2015
  152. ^ Dallas Public Library, "What is the library doing to address the issue of homelessness?", Booked Solid, October 16, 2014
  153. ^ "Homeless Man Sues Library, Police, Wins $250,000". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. March 10, 1992.
  154. ^ "Kreimer v. Morristown". www.ahcuah.com. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  155. ^ "Downtown census shows 43,000 workers; parking, transients biggest concerns". Nashville Business Journal. April 5, 2004. Retrieved May 20, 2019. On the negative side, 60 percent also said that public inebriates, transients and vagrants affect their employees, clients and customers.
  156. ^ Niemietz, Brian (January 31, 2019). "Shoppers divided over a 7-Eleven that keeps homeless people away with high-pitched sounds". New York Daily News. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  157. ^ Haas, Elise (January 31, 2019). "Homeless deterrent? 7-Eleven using high-pitched noise". KOIN. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  158. ^ Dean, Jacob (January 31, 2019). "Store Using Sound To Fight Homeless On Sidewalk". FM News 101 KXL. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  159. ^ Gilmour, Jared (January 31, 2019). "High-pitched noise at Portland 7-Eleven was 'to keep homeless people away,' clerk says". Charlotte Observer.
  160. ^ a b Abramson, Larry, "Amid Foreclosures, A Rise In Homeless Students", All Things Considered program, NPR, September 30, 2008.
  161. ^ Nieves, Evelyn, "In Tough Times, Ranks of Homeless Students Rising: School districts find unprecedented increase in numbers of homeless students across US", Associated Press, December 19, 2008
  162. ^ a b c Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip, "The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness" Archived February 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth (NAEHCY), December 2008
  163. ^ Barbara Ehrenreich (August 10, 2011) "How America criminalised poverty" The Guardian
  164. ^ Baylen Linnekin (June 9, 2012) "Bans on Feeding the Homeless Are Discriminatory and Unconstitutional" Reason.org
  165. ^ Robbie Couch (November 3, 2014). Fort Lauderdale Passes Law That Restricts Feeding Homeless People. The Huffington Post. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  166. ^ Richard Luscombe (November 5, 2014). 90-year-old among Florida activists arrested for feeding the homeless. The Guardian. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  167. ^ Ed Pilkington (March 13, 2014). US criticised by UN for human rights failings on NSA, guns and drones. The Guardian. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  168. ^ Wilson Dizard (March 27, 2014). U.N. slams U.S. for torture, NSA spying. Al Jazeera America. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  169. ^ U.N. Human Rights Committee Calls U.S. Criminalization of Homelessness "Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading" Archived August 24, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. The National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, March 27, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  170. ^ Alston, Philp (May 4, 2018). "Report of the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights on his mission to the United States of America". OHCHR. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  171. ^ Isaiah Thompson (August 16, 2012) "City's homeless feeding ban takes a beating in judge's opinion" City Paper Archived June 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  172. ^ Dolan, Maura; Maura Holland (June 19, 2014). "U.S. appeals court overturns L.A. ban on homeless living in vehicles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  173. ^ Renee Lewis (February 24, 2015). Slap by Florida cop highlights need for homeless rights, say advocates. Al Jazeera America. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
  174. ^ Greenstone, Scott (September 6, 2019). "How a federal court ruling on Boise's homeless camping ban has rippled across the West". Idaho Statesman. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  175. ^ National Coalition for the Homeless: A Dream Denied.
  176. ^ a b "Teen 'sport killings' of homeless on the rise - CNN.com". CNN. May 16, 2007. Archived from the original on May 16, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  177. ^ a b National Coalition for the Homeless, Hate, "Violence, and Death on Main Street USA: A report on Hate Crimes and Violence Against People Experiencing Homelessness, 2006" Archived April 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, February 2007.
  178. ^ "Archived copy". hosted.ap.org. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  179. ^ "Police arrest three teenagers for hammering homeless to death". Albuquerque News.Net. Archived from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  180. ^ "Three Arrested in Medicaid Fraud Scheme Targeting Homeless". Attorney General Pam Bondi News Release. March 17, 2017. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  181. ^ Robyn Andrews (August 8, 2017). "Warning: Beware of Scams from Companies Claiming to Represent the FIHSH Conference – Please Read". Florida Coalition for the Homeless (FCH). Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  182. ^ Kevin Wendolowski (2014). "Fighting fraudsters who target homeless in scams". Fraud Magazine (September–October). Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  183. ^ Nicholas Confessore (November 24, 2009). "Homeless Organization Is Called a Fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  184. ^ Fusaro, Levy (2018). "Racial and Ethnic Disparities". Demography. 55 (6): 2119–2128. doi:10.1007/s13524-018-0717-0. PMC 7665902. PMID 30242661. S2CID 52315072.
  185. ^ Roy, L.; Crocker, A. G.; Nicholls, T. L (2014). "Criminal Behavior and Victimization Among Homeless". Psychiatr Serv. 65 (6): 739–50. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201200515. PMID 24535245. S2CID 26616742.
  186. ^ Henry, M.; Morrill, T. "The 2018 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress" (PDF). HUD Exchange.
  187. ^ Lippert, Adam M.; Lee, Barrett A. (2015). "Stress, Coping, and Mental Health Differences among Homeless People". Sociological Inquiry. 85 (3): 343–374. doi:10.1111/soin.12080.
  188. ^ Quigley JM, et al. (2001). Homelessness in California. Public Policy Institute of California (Report). S2CID 153541613.
  189. ^ Fitzpatrick, Kevin Michael (2013). Poverty and Health: A Crisis Among America's Most Vulnerable [2 volumes]: A Crisis among America's Most Vulnerable. ABC-CLIO. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4408-0264-5.
  190. ^ Zuvekas, Samuel H.; Hill, Steven C. (2000). "Income and employment among homeless people: the role of mental health, health and substance abuse". The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. 3 (3): 153–163. CiteSeerX doi:10.1002/mhp.94. PMID 11967451.
  191. ^ "Baggett, Travis P, and Darlene M Jenkins. "Chapter 6." Poverty and Health: A Crisis among America's Most Vulnerable, vol. 1, ABC-CLIO, LLC" (PDF).
  192. ^ "Affordable housing, homelessness, and mental health: What heath [sic] care policy needs to address. - Free Online Library". www.thefreelibrary.com.
  193. ^ Hernandez, Debra. "Services to Homeless Students and Families: The McKinney-Vento Act and Its Implications for School Social Work Practice". Children & Schools.
  194. ^ Gültekin, Laura (2014). "Voices From the Street: Exploring the Realities of Family Homelessness". Journal of Family Nursing. 20 (4): 390–414. doi:10.1177/1074840714548943. PMC 4422334. PMID 25186947.
  195. ^ Swick, Kevin (2004). "The Dynamics of Families who are Homeless. Implications for Early Childhood Educators". Childhood Education. 80 (3): 116–121. CiteSeerX doi:10.1080/00094056.2004.10522786. S2CID 146556848.
  196. ^ "Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness, A Sociocultural Perspective", Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1986.
  197. ^ Corrigan, PW; Watson, AC (2002). "Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness". World Psychiatry. 1 (1): 16–20. PMC 1489832. PMID 16946807.
  198. ^ Sanders, Hannah. "Panhandling in West Michigan: Report finds many are not homeless". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  199. ^ Keyes, Scott. "Everything You Think You Know About Panhandlers Is Wrong". Think Progress. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  200. ^ Link BG, Schwartz S, Moore R, et al. (August 1995). "Public knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about homeless people: evidence for compassion fatigue". Am J Community Psychol. 23 (4): 533–55. doi:10.1007/BF02506967. PMID 8546109. S2CID 26492219.
  201. ^ American Sociological Association: "Exposure to the Homeless Increases Sympathetic Public Attitudes" Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, press release, March 22, 2004.
  202. ^ Public Agenda: "Compassion, Concern and Conflicted Feelings: New Yorkers on Homelessness and Housing", 2007, accessed July 8, 2016.
  203. ^ Public Agenda: "Knowing It by Heart: Americans Consider the Constitution and its Meaning", 2002, retrieved July 8, 2016.
  204. ^ Karash, Robert L., "Who is Homeless? The HUD Annual Report to Congress and Homelessness Pulse Project" Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Spare Change News, Boston, June 18, 2010
  205. ^ a b The 2020 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress. January 2021. Authors: Meghan Henry, Tanya de Sousa, Caroline Roddey, Swati Gayen, and Thomas Joe Bednar, Abt Associates. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).
  206. ^ "Homeless children at record high in US. Can the trend be reversed?" Christian Science Monitor, December 13, 2011
  207. ^ "600 homeless children in D.C., and no one seems to care" Washington Post, February 8, 2013
  208. ^ a b c d e f "Current Statistics on the Prevalence and Characteristics of People Experiencing Homelessness in the United States" (PDF). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. May 10, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2007.
  209. ^ "How Many People Experience Homelessness?". nationalhomeless.org. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  210. ^ "U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development". Hud.gov. Archived from the original on August 6, 2008.
  211. ^ "Resources" (PDF). www.hudexchange.info. 2017.
  212. ^ a b c National Coalition for the Homeless Who is homeless?, Published by the National Coalition for the Homeless (NCHWIH) Archived April 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  213. ^ "Los Angeles County homeless population rises 12% to nearly 60,000". USA Today. June 4, 2019.
  214. ^ a b "The 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients: A Comparison of Faith-Based and Secular Non-Profit Programs" (PDF). Urban Institute. 1996.
  215. ^ a b "Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve – Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients". Urban Institute. 1999.
  216. ^ Wasserman, J. A., & Clair, J. M. (2010). At Home On The Street . Boulder, Colorado: Lyne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
  217. ^ "Los Angeles: Why tens of thousands of people sleep rough". BBC News. September 19, 2019.
  218. ^ a b "The 2017 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress DECEMBER 2017." The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Community Planning and Development. https://www.hudexchange.info/resources/documents/2017-AHAR-Part-1.pdf. page 9.


External linksEdit