A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data). It is often a type of observational study, although they can also be structured as longitudinal randomized experiments.
Longitudinal studies are often used in social-personality and clinical psychology, to study rapid fluctuations in behaviors, thoughts, and emotions from moment to moment or day to day; in developmental psychology, to study developmental trends across the life span; and in sociology, to study life events throughout lifetimes or generations. The reason for this is that, unlike cross-sectional studies, in which different individuals with the same characteristics are compared, longitudinal studies track the same people, and so the differences observed in those people are less likely to be the result of cultural differences across generations. Longitudinal studies thus make observing changes more accurate and are applied in various other fields. In medicine, the design is used to uncover predictors of certain diseases. In advertising, the design is used to identify the changes that advertising has produced in the attitudes and behaviors of those within the target audience who have seen the advertising campaign. Longitudinal studies allow social scientists to distinguish short from long-term phenomena, such as poverty. If the poverty rate is 10% at a point in time, this may mean that 10% of the population are always poor or that the whole population experiences poverty for 10% of the time. It is impossible to conclude which of these possibilities is the case by using one-off cross-sectional studies.
When longitudinal studies are observational, in the sense that they observe the state of the world without manipulating it, it has been argued that they may have less power to detect causal relationships than experiments. However, because of the repeated observation at the individual level, they have more power than cross-sectional observational studies, by virtue of being able to exclude time-invariant unobserved individual differences and also of observing the temporal order of events. Some of the disadvantages of longitudinal study are that they take a lot of time and are very expensive. Therefore, they are not very convenient.
Longitudinal studies can be retrospective (looking back in time, thus using existing data such as medical records or claims database) or prospective (requiring the collection of new data).
Cohort studies are one type of longitudinal study which sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation) and perform cross-section observations at intervals through time. However, not all longitudinal studies are cohort studies, as longitudinal studies can instead include a group of people who do not share a common event.
Longitudinal studies do not require large numbers of participants (as in the examples below). Qualitative longitudinal studies may include only a handful of participants, and longitudinal pilot or feasibility studies often have fewer than 100 participants.
|Study name||Type||Country or region||Year started||Participants||Remarks|
|45 and Up Study||Cohort||Australia||2006||267,153||The 45 and Up Study is a longitudinal study of participants aged 45 years and over in New South Wales conducted by the Sax Institute. Researchers are able to analyze Study data linked to MBS and PBS data, the NSW cancer registry, State hospitalizations, and emergency department visits and mortality data.
The Study is used by both researchers and policymakers to better understand how Australians are aging and using health services to prevent and manage ill-health and disability and guide health system decisions. 45 and Up is the largest ongoing study of healthy aging in the Southern Hemisphere.
|Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative||Panel||International||2004||n/a||–|
|Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH)||Cohort||Australia||1996||50,000||Includes four cohorts of women: born between 1921 and 1926, 1946–1951, 1973–1978 and 1989–1995|
|The Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, (JYLS)||Cohort||Finland||1968||369||The sample was drawn from 12 complete school classes. Data has been collected when the participants were 8, 14, 20, 27, 33, 36, 42 and 50 years old.|
|Building a New Life in Australia : The Longitudinal Study of Humanitarian Migrants (BNLA)||Cohort||Australia||2013||2,399||a longitudinal study of the settlement experience of humanitarian arrivals in Australia|
|Colombian Longitudinal Survey by Universidad de los Andes (ELCA)||Panel||Colombia||2010||15,363||Follows rural and urban households for increasing the comprehension of social and economic changes in Colombia|
|Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)||Cohort||United Kingdom||1991||14,000||–|
|Born in Bradford||Cohort||United Kingdom||2007||12,500||–|
|1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)||Cohort||United Kingdom||1970||17,000||Monitors the development of babies born in the UK in one particular week in April 1970|
|British Doctors Study||Cohort||United Kingdom||1951||40,701||Monitored the health of British male doctors. It provided convincing evidence of the link between smoking and cancer.|
|British Household Panel Survey||Panel||United Kingdom||1991||n/a||Modeled on the US PFID study|
|Busselton Health Study||Panel||Australia||1966||10,000||–|
|Caerphilly Heart Disease Study||Cohort||United Kingdom||1979||2,512||Male subjects (Wales)|
|Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA-ÉLCV)||Cohort||Canada||2012||1,000||Planned as a 20-year study.|
|Child Development Project||Cohort||United States||1987||585||Follows children recruited the year before they entered kindergarten in three US cities: Nashville and Knoxville, Tennessee, and Bloomington, Indiana|
|Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS)||Cohort||United States||1992||5,262||Florida|
|Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society (CHSS)||Cohort||Canada||–||5,000||Various studies, managed by the Data Center Studies on Congenital Heart Diseases|
|Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study||Cohort||New Zealand||1972||1,037||Participants born in Dunedin during 1972–73|
|Study of migrants and squatters in Rio's Favelas||Cohort||Brazil||1968||n/a||The work of Janice Perlman, reported in her book Favela (2014)|
|Footprints in Time; the longitudinal study of Indigenous children||Cohort||Australia||2008||1,680||Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in selected locations across Australia|
|Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study||Cohort||United States||1998||n/a||Study being conducted in 20 cities|
|Framingham Heart Study||Cohort||United States||1948||5,209||Massachusetts|
|Genetic Studies of Genius||Cohort||United States||1921||1,528||The world's oldest and longest-running longitudinal study|
|Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)||Panel||Germany||1984||12,000||–|
|Growing Up in Ireland (GUI)||Cohort||The Republic of Ireland||2006||8,000 children
|Growing Up in Ireland is an Irish Government-funded study of children being carried out jointly by the Economic and Social Research Institute and Trinity College Dublin. The study started in 2006 and follows the progress of two groups of children: 8,000 9-year-olds (Child Cohort/Cohort ’98) and 10,000 9-month-olds (Infant Cohort/Cohort ’08).|
|Growing Up in Scotland (GUS)||Cohort||United Kingdom||2003||14,000||Scotland|
|Health and Retirement Study||Cohort||United States||1988||22,000||–|
|Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey||Panel||Australia||2001||25,000||–|
|Grant Study||Cohort||United States||1939||268||A 75-year longitudinal study of 268 physically and mentally healthy Harvard college sophomores from the classes of 1939–1944.|
|Growing Up in Australia; the longitudinal study of Australian children||Cohort||Australia||2004||10,000||–|
|Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)||Cohort||International||1983||n/a||30 countries|
|Midlife in the United States||Cohort||United States||1983||6,500||–|
|Manitoba Follow-Up Study (MFUS)||Cohort||Canada||1948||3,983 men||Canada's largest and longest running investigation of cardiovascular disease and successful aging|
|Millennium Cohort Study (MCS)||Cohort||United Kingdom||2000||19,000||Study of child development, social stratification, and family life|
|Millennium Cohort Study||Cohort||United States||2000||200,000||Evaluation of long-term health effects of military service, including deployments|
|Minnesota Twin Family Study||Cohort||United States||1983||17,000 (8,500 twin pairs)||–|
|National Child Development Study (NCDS)||Cohort||United Kingdom||1958||17,000||–|
|National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS)||Cohort||United States||1979||NLSY79-12,686, NLSY97-approx. 9000||Includes four cohorts: NLSY79 (born 1957–64), NLSY97 (born 1980–84), NLSY79 Children and Young Adults, National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Mature Women (NLSW)|
|National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY)||Cohort||Canada||1994||35,795||Inactive since 2009|
|National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)||Cohort||United States||1971||8,837 (since 1999)||Continual since 1999|
|Pacific Islands Families Study||Cohort||New Zealand||2000||1,398||–|
|Panel Study of Belgian Households||Panel||Belgium||1992||11,000||–|
|Panel Study of Income Dynamics||Panel||United States||1968||70,000||Possibly the oldest household longitudinal survey in the US|
|Rotterdam Study||Cohort||Netherlands||1990||15,000||Focus is on inhabitants of Ommoord, a suburb of Rotterdam|
|Seattle 500 Study||Cohort||United States||1974||500||Study of the effects of prenatal health habits on human development|
|Stirling County Study||Cohort||Canada||1952||639||Long-term study epidemiology of psychiatric disorders. Two cohorts were studied (575 from 1952-1970; 639 from 1970-1992).|
|Study of Health in Pomerania||Cohort||Germany||1997||15,000||Investigates common risk factors, sub-clinical disorders and manifest diseases in a high-risk population|
|Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth||Cohort||United States||1972||5,000||Follows highly intelligent people identified by age 13.|
|Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)||Panel||Europe||2002||120,000||Multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database of micro data on health, socio-economic status and social and family networks of individuals aged 50 or over|
|Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)||Cohort||Ireland||2009||8,500||Studies health, social and financial circumstances of the older Irish population|
|New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study||–||New Zealand||2009||n/a||–|
|Seattle Longitudinal Study||Cohort||United States||1956||6,000 ||–|
|Understanding Society: The UK Household Longitudinal Study||Panel||United Kingdom||2009||100,000||Incorporates the British Household Panel Survey|
|Up Series||Cohort||United Kingdom||1964||14||Documentary film project by Michael Apted|
|Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE)||Cohort||International||2002||65,964||Studies the health and well-being of adult populations and the ageing process in six countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation and South Africa|
|Wisconsin Longitudinal Study||Cohort||United States||1957||10,317||Follows graduates from Wisconsin high schools in 1957|
|ONS Longitudinal Study||Panel||England and Wales||1974 (data from 1971)||1% sample of the population of England and Wales. The LS contains records on over 500,000 people usually resident in England and Wales at each point in time||The sample comprises people born on one of four selected dates of birth and therefore makes up about 1% of the total population. The sample was initiated at the time of the 1971 Census, and the four dates were used to update the sample at the 1981,1991 2001 and 2011 Censuses and in routine event registrations. Fresh LS members enter the study through birth and immigration and existing members leave through death and emigration.
Thus, the LS represents a continuous sample of the population of England and Wales, rather than a sample taken at a one-time point only. It now includes records for over 950,000 study members.
In addition to the census records, the individual LS records contain data for events such as deaths, births to sample mothers, emigrations and cancer registrations.
Census information is also included for all people living in the same household as the LS member. However, it is important to emphasize that the LS does not follow up household members in the same way from census to census.
Support for potential users and more information available at CeLSIUS
|Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS)||Panel||Scotland||1991||The Scottish Longitudinal Study comprises 5.3% sample of the Scottish population, holds records on approximately 274,000 individuals using 20 random birthdates.||The SLS is a large-scale linkage study built upon census records from 1991 onwards, with links to vital events (births, deaths, marriages, emigration); geographical and ecological data (deprivation indices, pollution, weather); primary and secondary education data (attendance, Schools Census, qualifications); and links to NHS Scotland ISD datasets, including cancer registrations, maternity records, hospital admissions, prescribing data and mental health admissions. The research potential is considerable. The SLS is a replica of the ONS Longitudinal Study but with a few key differences: sample size, commencement point and the inclusion of certain variables.
The SLS is supported and maintained by the SLS Development & Support Unit with a safe-setting at the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh.
Further information and support for potential users is available at SLS-DSU
|Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS)||Panel||Northern Ireland||2006||The Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study comprises about 28% of the Northern Ireland population (approximately 500,000 individuals and approximately 50% of households).||The NILS is a large-scale, representative data-linkage study created by linking data from the Northern Ireland Health Card Registration system to 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011 census returns and to administrative data from other sources. These include vital events registered with the General Register Office for Northern Ireland (such as births, deaths, and marriages) and the Health Card registration system migration events data. The result is a 30-year-plus longitudinal data set which is regularly being updated. In addition to this rich resource, there is also the potential to link further Health and Social care data via distinct linkage projects (DLPs).
The NILS is designed for statistics and research purposes only and is managed by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency under Census legislation. The data are de-identified at the point of use; access is only from within a strictly controlled ‘secure environment’ and governed by protocols and procedures to ensure data confidentiality.
|Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS)|
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- Carlson, Neil and et al. "Psychology the Science of Behavior", p. 361. Pearson Canada, United States of America
- van der Krieke, Lian; Blaauw, Frank J.; Emerencia, Ando C.; Schenk, Hendrika M.; Slaets, Joris P.J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.; de Jonge, Peter; Jeronimus, Bertus F. (August 2016). "Temporal Dynamics of Health and Well-Being". Psychosomatic Medicine: 1. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000378. PMID 27551988.
- Cherry, Kendra. "What Is Longitudinal Research?". experiments. About.com guide. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- "What is the difference between a Panel Study and a Cohort Study?". Academia Stack Exchange. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Wood, Jennifer P; Connelly, Denise M; Maly, Monica R (16 August 2010). "'Getting back to real living': a qualitative study of the process of community reintegration after stroke". Clinical Rehabilitation. 24 (11): 1045–1056. doi:10.1177/0269215510375901. PMID 20713436.
- Freeman, Joshua R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Roy, Amrita; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Healy, Andrew J. (August 2018). "A pilot longitudinal study of anti-Müllerian hormone levels throughout gestation in low risk pregnancy". Health Science Reports. 1 (8): e53. doi:10.1002/hsr2.53. PMC 6266452.
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- Colombian Longitudinal Survey by Universidad de los Andes (ELCA)
- Encuesta Longitudinal Colombiaba de la Universidad de los Andes – ELCA 2013
- "Busselton Health Study – Past Projects – BPMRI". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
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- "Child Development Project – Developmental Pathways to Adjustment and Well-being in Early Adulthood – Center for Child & Family Policy – Duke University". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Favela: Longitudinal Multi-Generational Study of migrants and squatters in Rio’s Favelas, 1968-2014
- "Overview of Footprints in Time – The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) – Department of Social Services, Australian Government". Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Growing Up in Scotland, Study design
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- Panel Study of Belgian Households
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