Mongolian People's Party
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The Mongolian People's Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Нам, MAH; Mongol Ardīn Nam, MAN, Mongolian pronunciation: [mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ ärdiŋ näm], 1920–1931;[note 1] 1931–1941: Mongol Aradyn Nam) is the oldest political party in Mongolia. The party's ideology today is that of social democracy.
|Secretary General||Dashzegviin Amarbayasgalan|
|Founded||June 25, 1920(as MPRP)|
|Student wing||Social Democracy Mongolian Student's Union|
|Youth wing||Social Democracy Mongolian Youth Union|
|Women's wing||Social Democracy Mongolian Women's Union|
|International affiliation||Socialist International|
|State Great Khural|
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Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам
Founded as a communist Marxist–Leninist party in 1920, it played an important role in the Mongolian Revolution of 1921. Following independence, it governed one-party Communist Mongolia. In 1924, the party became the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам, Mongol Ardīn Huwĭsgalt Nam[note 2] Mongol Ardiin Khuv'sgalt Nam; МАХН, MAKhN, (Mongolian pronunciation: [mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ ärdiŋ xuvəsɢɑ̆ɮt näm]), when it joined the Communist International. As the MPRP, the party was organized on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist Vladimir Lenin which entails democratic and open discussion on policy on the condition of unity in upholding the agreed upon policies. The highest body of the MPRP was the Party Congress, convened every fifth year. When the Party Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body, but since they met normally only once a year, most duties and responsibilities are vested in the Politburo and its Standing Committee. The party's leader has held the offices of General Secretary. The party formerly had the Marxism-Leninism ideology, featured the writings of the German philosopher Karl Marx and Lenin, formally introduced in 1929 by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in which the industries in Mongolia were nationalized and a planned economy was implemented.
Following the Mongolian Revolution of 1990, other political parties were legalised in Mongolia. The MPP remained the governing party until 1996 and returned to government from 2000 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, it was part of a coalition government with the Motherland–Democracy Coalition of the Democratic and Motherland Parties. In 2008–2012, the party opted for another coalition with the Democratic Party, although the MPP had a majority in the Mongolian legislature. After the 2012 election, the MPP became the opposition party in parliament. In 2010, the party returned to its original name, dropping the word "revolutionary" and inspiring a breakaway faction to retain the long-standing name.
The MPP returned to power on 29 June 2016, electing 65 members of the 76-seat parliament. The party retained its majority at the eighth parliamentary elections held on June 24, 2020, winning 62 out of 76 seats. The victory marks the first time in Mongolia's 30-year democratic history that a single party has retained an absolute majority in consecutive elections.
In 1911, Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing dynasty after over two centuries of foreign rule, but independence under the Bogd Khan did not last since it was not recognized by its two neighbors (Russia and China) and was considered autonomous under Chinese rule.[clarification needed] In 1919, Mongolia was invaded by the Chinese Beiyang government and by White Russian forces in 1921.
During the occupation two groups, known as the Consular Hill (Konsulyn denj) and East Khuree (Züün khüree), formed as resistance movements. On June 25, 1920, the groups united as the Mongolian People's Party and decided to send seven representatives to Soviet Russia, who met with Soviet representatives in Irkutsk in August. On March 1, 1921, the party formed in Kyakhta (claiming to be Mongolia's first political party) and formed a provisional government.
On March 18, the Mongolian People's Army under Damdin Sükhbaatar defeated Chinese forces and took Kyakhta. In May, the White Russian Baron Ungern brought his forces north from Ikh Khuree and were defeated by joint Mongolian People's Army and Red Army forces. On June 25, 1921, the Mongolian People’s Party issued a statement to all Mongolians about its decision to liberate the capital by force. The forces entered the capital on July 6 and declared independence on July 11. Following advice from the Communist International, the party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party in 1924.
Armed uprising and purgesEdit
In 1928, Mongolian politics turned sharply left and began to adhere to communist ideology. Livestock herds were forcibly collectivized, private trade and transport forbidden and monasteries and the nobility were attacked. With state-run trade and transport unable to function, Mongolia's economy broke down—over seven million head of livestock dead, leading to widespread unrest in 1932. The uprising was quelled in October after the involvement of Mongolian and Soviet armies, tanks and planes.
The first wave of purges began with the 1933 Lkhümbe affair, a manufactured conspiracy linking party secretary Jambyn Lkhümbe with Japanese spy networks. Over 1,500 people were purged, many of whom were executed. Victims included Prime Minister Peljidiin Genden, who was enthusiastic about the liberalisation of the economy. In 1936, Genden was removed from power and executed in the Soviet Union. Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a staunch ally of Joseph Stalin, gained power.
Between 1937 and 1939, a second wave of purges began, with 25,437 people officially arrested and 20,099 executed. The actual number of victims has been estimated at over 35,000 to 100,000. Over 18,000 were lamas, resulting in the virtual destruction of the Buddhist clergy. Between 1940 and 1955, those who were complicit in the earlier purges were themselves purged.
Under Choibalsan's rule, improvements in Mongolia's infrastructure, roads and communications were made with Soviet assistance and steps were taken to improve the country's literacy rate. The 11th party congress was held in December 1947, approving Mongolia's first five-year plan to intensify development of the economy, industry, animal husbandry and agriculture in stages.
In 1952, Khorloogiin Choibalsan died and Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal gained power. Tsedenbal purged his political rivals: Dashiin Damba in 1958–1959, Daramyn Tömör-Ochir in 1962, Luvsantserengiin Tsend in 1963 and the Lookhuuz-Nyambuu-Surmaajav anti-party group in December 1964. His foreign policy was marked by efforts to bring Mongolia into closer cooperation with the Soviet Union and attempts to incorporate the country into the Soviet Union. Tsedenbal's attempts to make Mongolia the 16th Republic of the Soviet Union met strong opposition from other politicians and he was accused of treachery. During the Sino-Soviet split, Tsedenbal sided with the Soviet Union, incurring Chinese wrath. He is remembered for maintaining a path of moderate socialism during the Cold War.
1990 Democratic RevolutionEdit
In August 1984, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was forced into retirement in a Soviet-sponsored move, allegedly due to age and mental state. Jambyn Batmönkh took power that month as the party and national leader.
The first open pro-democracy demonstration took place in front of the Youth Cultural Center in Ulaanbaatar on December 10, 1989. Over the next few months, the demonstration organizers founded Mongoliin Ardchilsan Kholboo (the Mongolian Democratic Union) and continued to organize demonstrations, rallies, protests and hunger, teachers' and workers' strikes in the capital and the countryside calling for democracy, receiving increased support from Mongolians nationwide.
On March 7, 1990 in Sükhbaatar Square, the Mongolian Democratic Union launched a hunger strike urging the Communists to resign. The party's politburo, the governmental authority, eventually yielded to pressure and began negotiating with the pro-democracy leaders. Jambyn Batmönkh, chairman of the party's politburo, decided to dissolve it and resign on March 9, 1990. This paved the way for Mongolia's first multi-party elections.
Behind the scenes, the party considered cracking down on the protesters and formulated a decree to be signed by party leader Batmönkh. Batmönkh opposed it, maintaining his policy of never using force (Mongolian: Хэрхэвч Хүч хэрэглэж болохгүй). According to those present, Batmönkh said "I will never sign this. We few Mongols have not yet come to the point that we will make each other's noses bleed", struck the table and left the room.
In the 1990 elections, parties contended for 430 seats in the Great Khural, but opposition parties were unable to nominate enough candidates. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party won 357 seats in the Great Khural and 31 of 53 seats in the Small Khural (which was later abolished). The new MPRP government under Dashiin Byambasüren shared power with the democrats, implementing constitutional and economic reforms and adopting a new constitution in 1992. With the collapse of the Soviet Union (which had provided significant economic aid to Mongolia until 1990), the country experienced severe economic problems. In the 1993 Mongolian presidential elections, the MPRP was defeated for the first time in its history—Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, the candidate backed by the democratic parties, received two-thirds of the vote.
The Democratic Union Coalition, co-led by Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj as chairman of the Democratic Party, won the 1996 parliamentary elections for the first time. In 2000, 2004 and 2008, the MPRP won the legislative elections and was the ruling party. It formed two coalition governments with the Democratic Party, from 2004 to 2008 and 2008 to 2012. In 2003, the MPRP joined the Socialist International.
The 2008 parliamentary elections were especially controversial, with the MPRP accused of vote-rigging. Protests against the results turned violent on July 1 and a riot broke out at MPRP headquarters which was half-heartedly addressed by authorities—the party headquarters was destroyed by fire. After the riots, a five-day state of emergency was declared by President Nambaryn Enkhbayar for the first time in Mongolia's history. Five civilians died during the emergency: four were shot and the fifth allegedly died from carbon-monoxide poisoning. The Mongolian Minister of Justice estimated that 220 civilians and 108 service members were injured. With the situation tense, the MPRP decided to admit the Democratic Party into the government and formed a coalition. The party demolished its headquarters and built its Independence Palace (Mongolian: Тусгаар тогтнолын ордон) with government subsidies and donations from party members; the building became fully operational on November 26, 2011.
In the 2009 Mongolian presidential election, Democratic Party candidate Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj defeated MPRP candidate and incumbent president Nambaryn Enkhbayar. In January 2012, the Democratic Party decided to leave the coalition government before the June parliamentary elections. In the 2012 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Party defeated the MPP; the MPP became the opposition, with 26 seats in parliament. In the 2012 local elections in Ulaanbaatar, the provinces and districts, the MPP was defeated for the first time in Mongolia's history. In the 2013 Mongolian presidential election, the Democratic Party candidate and incumbent president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj again defeated the MPP candidate.
The MPP returned to power in 2016, winning an 85-percent majority of parliamentary seats. Prime Minister Chimed Saikhanbileg and parliament chairman Zandaakhuu Enkhbold were defeated, with the MPP's Jargaltulga Erdenebat elected to succeed Saikhanbileg.
The restoration of the party name to the Mongolian People’s Party had been at the core of discussions among party members and at party congresses since 1990. In 2010, it was extensively deliberated at all party levels, resulting on 81.3 percent of the membership supporting the restoration of the Mongolian People’s Party name and 10.7 percent of the membership wanting to deliberate the matter during the 26th party congress. The decision to restore the party's original name was approved by 99.3 percent of the delegates to the 26th party congress. At the congress, the party’s political ideology was refocused from democratic socialism to social democracy.
After the MPRP restored its original name, former Mongolian president and MPRP chairman Nambaryn Enkhbayar founded a new political party in 2010. Enkhbayar received permission to use the name Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party for his new party from the Supreme Court of Mongolia on June 24, 2011.
Landslide victory in the 2020 electionsEdit
Mongolian People's Party won a landslide victory in a parliamentary election on June 24, 2020. The party's election platform has six chapters and addresses population income, economic policy, governance, green development policy, Ulaanbaatar city development, and regional development policy. The election result marks the first time a single party has retained an absolute majority in consecutive elections. Previously the Mongolian People’s Party and the Democratic Party had taken turns wielding a majority in the State Great Khural or were compelled to form coalition governments.
- Soliin Danzan (1921)
- Ajvaagiin Danzan (1922–1924)
- Tseren-Ochiryn Dambadorj (1924–1928)
- Bat-Ochiryn Eldev-Ochir (1928–1930)
- Peljidiin Genden (1928–1932)
- Dorjjavyn Luvsansharav (1932–1937)
- Banzarjavyn Baasanjav (1936–1940)
- Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (1940–1954; 1958–1984)
- Dashiin Damba (February–April 1940; 1954–1958)
- Jambyn Batmönkh (1985–1990)
- Gombojavyn Ochirbat (1990–1991)
- Büdragchaagiin Dash-Yondon (1991–1996)
- Natsagiin Bagabandi (February–June 1997)
- Nambaryn Enkhbayar (1997–2005)
- Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (2005–2007)
- Sanjaagiin Bayar (2007–2009)
- Sükhbaataryn Batbold (2010–2012)
- Ölziisaikhany Enkhtüvshin (2012–2013)
- Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (2013–2017)
- Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh (2017–2021)
- Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene (2021–current)
|1993||Lodongiyn Tudev||397,061||40.1%||Lost N|
|2013||Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene||520,380||41.97%||Lost N|
|2017||Miyeegombyn Enkhbold||497,067||44.85%||Lost N|
State Great Khural electionsEdit
176 / 295
|1st||Sole legal party|
192 / 295
|16||1st||Sole legal party|
178 / 233
|14||1st||Sole legal party|
207 / 267
|29||1st||Sole legal party|
216 / 270
|9||1st||Sole legal party|
234 / 287
|18||1st||Sole legal party|
252 / 297
|18||1st||Sole legal party|
282 / 336
|30||1st||Sole legal party|
328 / 354
|46||1st||Sole legal party|
344 / 370
|16||1st||Sole legal party|
346 / 370
|2||1st||Sole legal party|
358 / 430
70 / 76
25 / 76
72 / 76
36 / 76
45 / 76
26 / 76
65 / 76
62 / 76
Little Khural electionsEdit
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- ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠣᠴᠢᠷ
- ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ
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- Official website (in Mongolian)