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The Mongolian People's Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Нам, Mongol Ardīn Nam) is the oldest political party in Mongolia. The party's ideology consists of social democracy and was previously Marxist–Leninist. Its name is abbreviated MPP in English and МАН (MAN) in transliterated Mongolian.

Mongolian People's Party
Монгол Ардын Нам
Mongol Ardiin Nam
Chairman Miyeegombyn Enkhbold
General Secretary Dashzevge Amarbayasgalan
Founded June 25, 1920 (1920-06-25) (as MPRP)
Headquarters Ulaanbaatar
Newspaper Mongoliin Ünen
Youth wing Social Democracy Mongolian Youth Union[1]
Membership (2014) 220,000
Ideology 1991–present:
Social democracy
1920–1991:
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Political position Centre-left
International affiliation Socialist International
Progressive Alliance[2]
Colors Red and Blue
State Great Khural
65 / 76
Website
www.mpp.mn

Formerly
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
Монгол Ардын Нам
(1924–2011)

Founded in 1920, the party played an important role in the Mongolian Revolution of 1921. Following independence, it governed one-party Mongolia. In 1924, the party became the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам, Mongol Ardīn Huwĭsgalt Nam, МАХН, MAKhN) when it joined the Communist International.

In 1990, other political parties were allowed in Mongolia. The MPP remained the governing party until 1996, and returned to government in 2000–2004. From 2004 to 2008 it was part of a coalition government with the Motherland–Democracy Coalition of the Democratic and Motherland Parties. In 2008–2012 the party opted for another coalition with the Democratic Party, although the MPP had a majority in parliament. After the 2012 elections, the MPP became the opposition party in parliament.

In 2010 the party returned to its original name, dropping the word "revolutionary" and inspiring a breakaway faction to retain the long-standing name.[3][4] The MPP returned to power on June 29, 2016, electing 65 members of the 76-seat parliament.

Contents

HistoryEdit

BackgroundEdit

In 1911, Mongolia declared its independence from the Qing dynasty after over two centuries of foreign rule. Independence under the Bogd Khan did not last, since it was not recognized by its two neighbors (Russia and China) and was considered autonomous under Chinese rule.[clarification needed] In 1919 Mongolia was invaded by the Chinese Beiyang government, and by White Russian forces in 1921.

1921 revolutionEdit

During the occupation two groups, known as the Consular Hill (Konsulyn denj) and East Khuree (Züün khüree), formed as resistance movements. On June 25, 1920 the groups united as the Mongolian People's Party and decided to send seven representatives to Soviet Russia, who met with Soviet representatives in Irkutsk in August. On March 1, 1921, the party formed in Kyakhta (claiming to be Mongolia's first political party) and formed a provisional government.

On March 18 the Mongolian People's Army, under Damdin Sükhbaatar, defeated Chinese forces and took Kyakhta. In May, the White Russian Baron Ungern brought his forces north from Ikh Khuree and were defeated by joint Mongolian People's Army and Red Army forces. On June 25, 1921, the Mongolian People’s Party issued a statement to all Mongolians about its decision to liberate the capital by force. The forces entered the capital in July 6, and declared independence on July 11. Following advice from the Communist International, the party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party in 1924.[5]

Armed uprising and purgesEdit

In 1928, Mongolian politics turned sharply left and began to adhere to communist ideology. Livestock herds were forcibly collectivized, private trade and transport forbidden, and monasteries and the nobility were attacked. With state-run trade and transport unable to function, Mongolia's economy broke down; over seven million head of livestock dead, leading to widespread unrest in 1932. The uprising was quelled in October after the involvement of Mongolian and Soviet armies, tanks and planes.

The first wave of purges began with the 1933 Lkhümbe affair, a manufactured conspiracy linking party secretary Jambyn Lkhümbe with Japanese spy networks. Over 1,500 people were purged, many of whom were executed. Victims included Prime Minister Peljidiin Genden, who was enthusiastic about the liberalisation of the economy; in 1936, Genden was removed from power and executed in the USSR. Khorloogiin Choibalsan, a staunch ally of Joseph Stalin, gained power.

Between 1937 and 1939 a second wave of purges began, with 25,437 people officially arrested and 20,099 executed. The actual number of victims has been estimated at over 35,000 to 100,000. Over 18,000 were lamas, resulting in the virtual destruction of the Buddhist clergy. Between 1940 and 1955, those who were complicit in the earlier purges were themselves purged.

Under Choibalsan's rule, improvements in Mongolia's infrastructure, roads and communications were made with Soviet assistance and steps were taken to improve the country's literacy rate. The 11th party congress was held in December 1947, approving Mongolia's first five-year plan to intensify development of the economy, industry, animal husbandry and agriculture in stages.

In 1952 Khorloogiin Choibalsan died, and Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal gained power. Tsedenbal purged his political rivals: Dashiin Damba in 1958-59, Daramyn Tömör-Ochir in 1962, Luvsantserengiin Tsend in 1963, and the Lookhuuz-Nyambuu-Surmaajav anti-party group in December 1964. His foreign policy was marked by efforts to bring Mongolia into closer cooperation with the USSR and attempts to incorporate the country into the Soviet Union. Tsedenbal's attempts to make Mongolia the 16th Republic of the Soviet Union met strong opposition from other politicians, and he was accused of treachery. During the Sino-Soviet split Tsedenbal sided with the Soviet Union, incurring Chinese wrath. He is remembered for maintaining a path of moderate socialism during the Cold War.

1990 Democratic RevolutionEdit

In August 1984, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal was forced into retirement in a Soviet-sponsored move, allegedly due to age and mental state. Jambyn Batmönkh took power that month as the party and national leader.

The first open pro-democracy demonstration took place in front of the Youth Cultural Center in Ulaanbaatar on December 10, 1989.[6] Over the next few months the demonstration organizers founded Mongoliin Ardchilsan Kholboo (the Mongolian Democratic Union) and continued to organize demonstrations, rallies, protests and hunger, teachers' and workers' strikes[7] in the capital and the countryside calling for democracy, receiving increased support from Mongolians nationwide.[8][9]

On March 7, 1990, in Sükhbaatar Square, the Mongolian Democratic Union launched a hunger strike urging the Communists to resign. The party's politburo, the governmental authority, eventually yielded to pressure and began negotiating with the pro-democracy leaders.[10] Jambyn Batmönkh, chairman of the party's politburo, decided to dissolve it and resign on March 9, 1990.[11][12] This paved the way for Mongolia's first multi-party elections.[7]

Behind the scenes, the Party considered cracking down on the protesters and formulated a decree to be signed by party leader Batmönkh. Batmönkh opposed it, maintaining his policy of never using force (Mongolian: Хэрхэвч Хүч хэрэглэж болохгүй). According to those present, Batmönkh said "I will never sign this. We few Mongols have not yet come to the point that we will make each other's noses bleed", struck the table and left the room."[13]

In the 1990 elections, parties contended for 430 seats in the Great Khural; however, opposition parties were unable to nominate enough candidates. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party won 357 seats in the Great Khural and 31 of 53 seats in the Small Khural (which was later abolished). The new MPRP government under Dashiin Byambasüren shared power with the democrats, implementing constitutional and economic reforms and adopting a new constitution in 1992. With the collapse of the Soviet Union (which had provided significant economic aid to Mongolia until 1990), the country experienced severe economic problems. In the 1993 Mongolian presidential elections, the MPRP was defeated for the first time in its history; Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, the candidate backed by the democratic parties, received two-thirds of the vote.

The Democratic Union Coalition, co-led by Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj as chairman of the Democratic Party, won the 1996 parliamentary elections for the first time.[14] In 2000, 2004 and 2008, the MPRP won the legislative elections and was the ruling party. It formed two coalition governments with the Democratic Party, from 2004 to 2008 and 2008 to 2012. In 2003, the MPRP joined the Socialist International.

The 2008 Parliamentary elections were especially controversial, with the MPRP accused of vote-rigging. Protests against the results turned violent on 1 July, and a riot broke out at MPRP headquarters which was half-heartedly addressed by authorities; the party headquarters was destroyed by fire. After the riots, a five-day state of emergency was declared by President Nambaryn Enkhbayar for the first time in Mongolia's history.[15] Five civilians died during the emergency; four were shot, and the fifth allegedly died from carbon-monoxide poisoning.[16][17] The Mongolian Minister of Justice estimated that 220 civilians and 108 service members were injured. With the situation tense, the MPRP decided to admit the Democratic Party into the government and formed a coalition. The party demolished its headquarters and built its Independence Palace Mongolian: Тусгаар тогтнолын ордон with government subsidies and donations from party members; the building became fully operational on November 26, 2011.[18][19]

In the 2009 Mongolian presidential election, Democratic Party candidate Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj defeated MPRP candidate and incumbent president Nambaryn Enkhbayar.[20][21] In January 2012, the Democratic Party decided to leave the coalition government before the June parliamentary elections. In the 2012 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Party defeated the MPP; the MPP became the opposition, with 26 seats in parliament.[22] In the 2012 local elections in Ulaanbaatar, the provinces and districts, the MPP was defeated for the first time in Mongolia's history.[23] In the 2013 Mongolian presidential election, the Democratic Party candidate and incumbent president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj again defeated the MPP candidate.[24]

The MPP returned to power in 2016, winning an 85-percent majority of parliamentary seats.[25] Prime Minister Chimed Saikhanbileg and parliament chairman Zandaakhuu Enkhbold were defeated,[26] with the MPP's Jargaltulga Erdenebat elected to succeed Saikhanbileg.[27]

Name restorationEdit

 
Former logo of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, later adapted by a new party

The restoration of the party name to the Mongolian People’s Party had been at the core of discussions among party members and at party congresses since 1990. In 2010 it was extensively deliberated at all party levels, resulting on 81.3 percent of the membership supporting the restoration of the Mongolian People’s Party name and 10.7 percent of the membership wanting to deliberate the matter during the 26th party congress. The decision to restore the party's original name was approved by 99.3 percent of the delegates to the 26th party congress. At the congress, the party’s political ideology was refocused from democratic socialism to social democracy.

After the MPRP restored its original name, former Mongolian president and MPRP chairman Nambaryn Enkhbayar founded a new political party in 2010. Enkhbayar received permission to use the name Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party for his new party from the Supreme Court of Mongolia on June 24, 2011.[28][29]

LeadersEdit

Election resultsEdit

Presidential electionsEdit

Election Candidate Votes Percentage Result
1993 Lodongiyn Tudev 397,061 40.1% Lost
1997 Natsagiin Bagabandi 597,573 62.5% Elected
2001 Natsagiin Bagabandi 581,381 59.2% Elected
2005 Nambaryn Enkhbayar 495,730 54.20% Elected
2009 Nambaryn Enkhbayar 520,948 48.07% Lost
2013 Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene 520,380 41.97% Lost
2017 Miyeegombyn Enkhbold 497,067 44.85% Lost

Legislative electionsEdit

Election Seats won Votes Share Result Leader
1992
70 / 76
1,719,257 56.9%  70 seats; Governing party Puntsagiin Jasrai
1996
26 / 76
408,977 40.5%  46 seats; Opposition Puntsagiin Jasrai
2000
72 / 76
517,746 51.6%  47 seats; Governing party Nambaryn Enkhbayar
2004
36 / 76
517,443 48.23%  36 seats; Grand Coalition Nambaryn Enkhbayar
2008
45 / 76
914,037 52.67%  8 seats; Governing party Sanjaagiin Bayar
2012
26 / 76
353,839 31.31%  19 seats; Opposition Sükhbaataryn Batbold
2016
65 / 76
636,316 45.69%  39 seats; Governing party Miyeegombyn Enkhbold

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.nam.mn/
  2. ^ "Participants - Progressive Alliance". progressive-alliance.info. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
  3. ^ Mongolia’s oldest party restores its original name, Business Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, 5 November 2010.Retrieved: May 12, 2011.
  4. ^ Yuriy Humber (May 14, 2012). "Former Mongolian President Granted Bail After Hunger Strike". Businessweek. 
  5. ^ Simons, William B., ed. (1980). The Constitutions of the Communist World. Brill Publishers. p. 256. ISBN 9028600701. 
  6. ^ G., Dari (5 December 2011). "Democracy Days to be inaugurated". news.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Ahmed and Norton, Nizam U. and Philip (1999). Parliaments in Asia. London: Frank Cass & Co.Ltd. p. 143. ISBN 0-7146-4951-1. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  8. ^ Baabar (16 November 2009). "Democratic Revolution and Its Terrible Explanations". baabar.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "Mongolia Celebrates 20th Anniversary of Democratic Revolution". The International Republican Institute. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  10. ^ Wilhelm, Kathy (12 March 1990). "Mongolian Politburo resigns en masse". The Free Lance Star. Fredericksburg, VA. p. 4. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Entire Mongolian Politburo resigns". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS. 12 March 1990. pp. 8A. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  12. ^ Ch., Munkhbayar (13 March 2013). "What was the Mongolian democratic revolution?". dorgio.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  13. ^ B. and R., Enkhtuul and Oyun. "Batmönkh's widow A. Daariimaa:If my husband was working as a professor, he would have been alive today". Zuunii Medee (Century News). Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  14. ^ Lawrence, Susan V. (14 June 2011). "Mongolia: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  15. ^ Mongolia: MPRP building in flames, president declares emergency. Mongolia Web News. 2008-07-01.
  16. ^ 5,000 người Mông Cổ tràn ngập thủ đô đòi giải tán quốc hội (in Vietnamese)
  17. ^ Tsedevdamba, Oyungerel (17 July 2008). "A young man with an American dream was among the state-of-emergency victims in Ulaanbaatar". oyungerel.org. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  18. ^ B., Ganbileg (30 November 2011). "Fully opened MPP building's elevator is prohibited to run (in Mongolian)". 24tsag.mn. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  19. ^ "Who is who of MPP reformers (in Mongolian)". info.mn. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "Mongolia Profile". BBC. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  21. ^ Enkhbayar, Roland-Holst, Sugiyarto, Shagdar, David and Guntur (September 2010). "Mongolia's investment priorities from a national development perspective" (PDF). berkeley.edu. p. 9. Retrieved 25 June 2013. 
  22. ^ "Mongolia's State Great Hural (the Parliament)". parliament.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  23. ^ G., Dashrentsen (1 July 2013). "A party that is defeated in five elections in row is dissolved". baabar.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Incumbent Mongolian president wins 2nd term on pro-Western, anti-graft platform". The Washington Post. Washington. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  25. ^ Diplomat, Peter Bittner, The. "Mongolian People’s Party Routs Democratic Party in Parliamentary Elections". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2017-06-15. 
  26. ^ Edwards, Terrence (30 June 2016). "Mongolian opposition wins landslide, voters fed up with hard times". Reuters. Retrieved 16 July 2016. 
  27. ^ "Interview: Chinese premier's visit to open new chapter for China-Mongolia ties, further ASEM development -- ambassador". People Republic of China. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016. 
  28. ^ Supreme Court of Mongolia
  29. ^ "Former MPRP is reborn and former President named chairman". Business-Mongolia.com. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 

External linksEdit