The State Great Khural[a] is the unicameral parliament of Mongolia.[1] It is located in the Government Palace.

State Great Khural

Улсын Их Хурал
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Structure
Seats126
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Political groups
  • Government (118)
  •   Mongolian People's Party (68)
  •   Democratic Party (42)
  •   HUN Party (8)
  • Opposition (8)
  •   National Coalition (4)
  •   Civil Will–Green Party (4)
Elections
Parallel voting: 78 seats elected by multiple non-transferable vote in 13 multi-member constituencies and 48 by closed party lists at the national level with an electoral threshold of 4% for individual parties, 5% for a two-party coalition and 7% for coalitions of three or more parties
Last election
28 June 2024
Next election
2028
Meeting place
Government Palace, D.Sükhbaatar square 1, 6th Khoroo, Sükhbaatar District, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Website
Parliament of Mongolia website

History

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1914–1919

Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren became the chairman of the State Great Khural in February 1914, and served until his death in April 1919.[2]

1924–1960
 
The first session of Ulsyn Ikh Khural in 1924

The first Ulsyn Ikh Khural was called to session in November 1924. This body was the legislature of the Mongolian People's Republic. It delegated much of its powers to an executive committee, the Ulsyn Baga Khural (Little Khural). The Great Khural held nine sessions between November 1924 and February 1949. Following electoral reforms in 1951, the numbering of its sessions began again. The first was held in July 1951 and the third in July 1957.[3]

1960–1992

In 1960 a new constitution was adopted and the body was renamed the "People's Great Khural" (Mongolian: Ардын Их Хурал, Ardyn Ikh Khural), but the sessions were not renumbered. The fourth took place in July 1960 and the last in September 1992. In Russian and Mongolian historiography, the term "People's Great Khural" is frequently extended back to refer to the 1924–60 Khural to distinguish it from the post-1992 State Great Khural.[3]

The first free, democratic and multi-party election in Mongolia was held in 1990. Then the newly elected parliament changed the Constitution, established the State Baga Khural which replaced the People's Great Khural as the highest legislative body. This elected the first chairman, Radnaasümbereliyn Gonchigdorj, and the first Chairman of the Secretariat, Byaraa Chimed.

The State Baga Khural had 5 standing committees. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (33), The Mongolian Democratic Party (13), The Mongolian Social Democratic Party (4), The Mongolian National Progressive Party (3) won seats in the parliament. The State Baga Khural adopted 27 new laws, ratified 17 international treaties and conventions as well as made amendments to 19 laws.

1992–1996

The State Great Khural had 10 standing committees (reduced to 6 in 1995). The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (70), The Democratic Union Coalition of the Mongolian Democratic Party, The Mongolian National Progressive Party and the Green Party (4), The Mongolian Social Democratic Party (1) and one independent politician won seats. The elected chairman was Natsag Bagabandi, and the Chairman of the Secretariat was Namsrai Rechnindorj. The State Great Khural adopted 137 laws, made amendments to 142 laws, and repealed 46 laws. The parliament also ratified 40 international treaties and conventions during its term.

1996–2000

The State Great Khural had 5 standing committees in 1996–1997. This increased to 7 standing committees in 1997–2000. The Democratic Union Coalition (50), The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (25), The Mongolian Conservative United Party (1) won seats in the parliament. The elected chairman was Radnaasümbereliyn Gonchigdorj (for the second time), and the Chairman of the Secretariat was Log Tsog until 1999. The next Chairman of the Secretariat was Baasanganobo Enebish. The State Great Khural adopted 173 new laws, made amendments to 255 laws and repealed 32 laws. The parliament also ratified 71 international treaties and conventions.

2000–2004

The State Great Khural had 7 standing committees. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (72), The Democratic Union Coalition (1), The Civil Will Party – The Mongolian Green Party (1), The Motherland – The Mongolian Democratic New Socialist Party (1), one independent won a seat in the parliament. The elected chairman was Lhamsürem Enebish till 2001, and the Chairman of the Secretariat was Baasanganobo Enebish till 2001. The next chairman was Sanjbegz Tömör-Ochir, and the next Chairman of the Secretariat was Dagdankhuu Batbaatar until 2003. The third and final Chairman of the Secretariat during this term was Namsraijav Luvsanjav. The State Great Khural adopted 140 new laws, made amendments to 443 laws, and repealed 51 laws. The parliament also ratified 110 international treaties and conventions.

2004–2008

The State Great Khural had 11 standing committees as well as 8 subcommittees in 2004–2006. The number of standing committees was reduced to 7 in 2006. The seven political parties and a coalition of three parties participated in the election. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (37), the Motherland and Democracy Union (35), The Republican Party (1) and 3 independents won seats in the parliament. The elected chairman was Nambar Enkhbayar until 2005, and the Chairman of the Secretariat continued to be Namsraijav Luvsanjav. The next chairman was Tsendiin Nyamdorj until 2007. The third and final chairman during this term was Danzangiin Lundeejantsan. The State Great Khural adopted 89 new laws, made amendments to 336 laws. The parliament also ratified 38 international treaties and conventions as well as repealed 50 laws.

2008–2012

The State Great Khural had 7 standing committees and 11 subcommittees. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (46), The Democratic Party (27), The Civil Will Party (1) 8 The Green Party (1) and 1 independent won the seats in the parliament. For 5 months (May to September, 2008), Danzan Sandang-Ochir was the Chairman of the Secretariat. The elected chairman was Damdiny Demberel, and the second Chairman of the Secretariat was Tserenkhuu Sharavdorj. The State Great Khural adopted 111 new laws and made amendments to 485 laws. The parliament also ratified 59 international treaties and conventions as well as repealed 70 laws.

2012–2016

The State Great Khural had 8 standing committees and 10 subcommittees. The Democratic Party (34), The Mongolian People's Party (26), The Justice Coalition of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party – The Mongolian National Democratic Party (11), The Civil Will Party – The Green Party (2), and 3 independents won seats in the parliament. For the first time, the legislative election was held on the mixed election system by the new law. 48 seats were elected directly from 26 constituencies and 28 seats were proportionally allocated based on the number votes which the political parties won. The elected chairman was Zandaakhuu Enkhbold, and the Chairman of the Secretariat was Byambadorj Boldbaatar. For the first time in Mongolia, electronic voting machines were used for voter registration, vote counting and monitoring purposes.

2016–2020

The Mongolian People's Party (65), The Democratic Party (9), The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (1), and 1 independent won seats in the parliament.

Structure

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The structure of the main positions in the State Great Khural.

The State Great Khural is unicameral, and consists of 76 members. With mandate of no less than 57 of total members of the State Great Khural, the parliament shall be considered in existence of its powers. A member of the State Great Hural shall be an envoy of the people and shall represent and uphold the interests of all the citizens and the people. The mandate of a member of the State Great Khural shall begin with an oath taken before the State Emblem and expire when newly elected members of the State Great Khural are sworn in.

Chairman

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The Chairman is the presiding officer of the State Great Khural.

Vice-Chairman

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The vice-chairman is elected by each caucus formed by the result of an election. They serve a four-year term, but may be relieved or removed of the position, on grounds defined by law, before their term expiration.

Chairman's Council

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The Chairman's Council consists of the vice-chairman of the State Great Khural, Chairmen of the caucuses, leaders of parliamentary parties, and Chairmen of standing/temporary committees.

Functions

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Government Palace hosts State Great Khural

The State Great Khural has both legislative and oversight power in Mongolia.

Its legislative functions are mainly preparing and carrying out plenary sessions or standing committee sittings, discussing drafts of laws or other decisions of the State Great Khural and adopting, passing and the resolving processes. The State Great Khural implements its oversight powers by:

  • Hearing reports, presentations and briefings from the Cabinet and other organizations directly accountable to the State Great Khural
  • Enquiring the Prime Minister, cabinet members and executives of other organizations directly accountable to the State Great Khural, demanding responses of said enquiries, and generating debate of the responses in its sessions
  • Assessing implementation of laws and other resolutions of the State Great Khural at the cabinet and other organizations that directly accountable to the State Great Khural and generate debates at the Standing Committee sittings or if necessary at the plenary sessions
  • Delivering verdict on professional or ethical offences committed by the Prime Minister, cabinet members and those who have been appointed by the State Great Khural or executives and members of other organizations directly accountable to the State Great Khural

Elections

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Elections are held every four years to elect all members of the State Great Khural. Before 2023 the election used plurality-at-large voting in all 26 multi-member constituencies to elect 76 members[citation needed]. On May 31, 2023, Mongolia’s parliament approved a constitutional amendment that increased the number of seats from 76 to 126. The method of election was also changed to parallel voting[4] with 78 seats elected by multiple non-transferable vote in 13 multi-member constituencies and 48 by closed list proportional representation at the national level with an electoral threshold of 4% for individual parties, 5% for a two-party coalition and 7% for coalitions of three or more parties.[5][6] To qualify for proportional seats, parties and coalitions must also have candidates running in at least half of the seats in each constituency. Party lists must adhere to the zipper system, while the overall gender ratio of candidates for a party must not be greater than 70:30 or less than 30:70. A voter turnout of 50% is required for the result in a constituency to be considered valid, or another round of voting must be held for that constituency.[6][7]

To vote, a Mongolian citizen must be 18 years or older, and live in Mongolia. Any person over 25 is eligible to be elected. New elections are held if the Khural is dissolved, if two-thirds of members vote for dissolution, if the President dissolves the Khural, or if the President or half the Cabinet resigns.

Sessions

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The main organizational form of the State Great Khural is the session. According to the Article 27 of the Constitution, regular sessions of the State Great Khural convene in every six months for not less than 50 working days. Session consists of plenary sessions, exclusive or joint Standing Committee sittings and caucus meetings. The four types of sessions are:

  • Inauguration session - Convenes, by the President's convocation, within 30 days after the election.
  • Regular session - Autumn session commences on 1 October, and the spring session commences on 5 April each year.
  • Extra ordinary session - Convenes at the demand of greater than one third of the members of the State Great Khural, or on the initiative of either the President or the Chairman of the State Great Khural.
  • Emergency session - Convenes within 72 hours of the President's proclamation of state of emergency or war.

Committees

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The State Great Khural shall have standing committees dealing with specific fields of public policy. The Standing committees are composed of 10-19 members and shall be convened on Tuesday and Wednesday each week. The subcommittee is affiliated with and deals with specific issues within the standing committee. The State Great Khural shall set up temporary committees for reviewing specific issues, making proposals and submitting reports to the plenary sessions.

Party caucuses

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A party/coalition with 8 or more seats must establish a party caucus. Independents and members of several parties may choose to join a caucus, but may not establish their own. Each caucus must elect a leader, which is then reported to the chairman. The decision to establish a caucus, along with its membership roster, must be submitted within 24 hours of the Chairman's election. The Chairman will then announce these decisions at the plenary session of the State Great Hural.

List of term compositions

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  supermajority   majority   plurality/coalition   largest minority

Election Composition
(at commencement)
Speaker Prime Minister Opposition Leader MPRP
MPP
MDP
DUC
DP
Third parties Independent
1990 (State Little Khural)
13:6:31





(State Great Khural)
17:48:358




Radnaasümbereliin Gonchigdorj Dashiin Byambasüren
(MPRP)
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
(MDP)
L(31)
G(358)
L(13)
G(17)
L(6)
G(10)
L(-)
G(38)
1992 4:2:70




Natsagiin Bagabandi Puntsagiin Jasrai
(MPRP)
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
(MDP)
70 4 1 1
1996 50:1:25




Radnaasümbereliin Gonchigdorj Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan (1996-98)
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (1998)
Janlavyn Narantsatsralt (1998-99)
Nyam-Osoryn Tuyaa (1999)
Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal (1999-00)
(DUC)
Nambaryn Enkhbayar (1996-97)
Natsagiin Bagabandi (1997)
Nambaryn Enkhbayar (1997-00)
(MPRP)
25 50 1 -
2000 1:3:72




Lhamsuren Enebish (2000-01)
Sanjbegz Tumur-Ochir (2001-04)
Nambaryn Enkhbayar
(MPRP)
Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal (2000)
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (2000-2002)
Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan (2002-2004)
(DP)
72 1 2 1
2004 34:4:36




Nambaryn Enkhbayar (2004-05)
Tsendiin Nyamdorj (2005-07)
Danzangiin Lundeejantsan (2007-08)
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (2004-06)
(DP)
Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (2006-07)
Sanjaagiin Bayar (2007-08)
(MPRP)
36 34 1 3
2008 28:3:45




Damdiny Demberel Sanjaagiin Bayar (2008-09)
Sükhbaataryn Batbold (2009-12)
(MPRP→MPP)
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (2008)
Norovyn Altankhuyag (2008-12)
(DP)
45 28 2 1
2012 31:16:25




Zandaakhüügiin Enkhbold Norovyn Altankhuyag (2012-14)
Dendeviin Terbishdagva (2014)
Chimediin Saikhanbileg (2014-16)
(DP)
Ölziisaikhany Enkhtüvshin (2012-13)
Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (2013-16)
(MPP)
25 31 13 3
2016 9:2:65




Miyeegombyn Enkhbold (2016-19)
Gombojavyn Zandanshatar (2019-20)
Jargaltulgyn Erdenebat (2016-17)
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh (2017-20)
(MPP)
Sodnomzunduin Erdene
(DP)
65 9 1 1
2020 11:3:62




Gombojavyn Zandanshatar Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
(MPP)
Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene
(MPP)
Sodnomzunduin Erdene
(DP)
62 11 2 1
2024 42:16:68




Dashzegviin Amarbayasgalan Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene
(MPP)
Luvsannyamyn Gantömör
(DP)
68 42 16 0

Legislation

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Stage 1

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The party caucuses or standing committees shall make draft legislation and decide whether to submit it for discussion at the plenary sessions of the State Great Khural. The State Great Khural will then decide whether to discuss the draft legislation. If they decide to discuss it, it shall send the drafts to standing committees to prepare for the first discussion. If they decide not to discuss legislation drafts, then it shall be sent back to its initiators.

Stage 2

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The standing committee shall prepare a legislation draft for the first discussion and shall submit its proposal and conclusion to the State Great Khural. At this stage, party groups are allowed to make comments about the draft. Opinions and proposals of all parties shall be included in the standing committee conclusions. After the voting at the plenary session, drafts shall be sent back to the standing committees for the preparation of the final discussion.

Stage 3

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The standing committees shall include conclusions from the first discussion to the original draft and shall make presentations about the first discussion. They shall also make the introduction of a draft to the State Great Khural. At this stage, the standing committees are allowed to request a re-voting regarding the draft. The draft shall be discussed, voted and fully adopted by the State Great Hural. If the draft is not fully adopted, it shall be sent back to the law initiators.

The standing committees shall prepare the final versions of the legislation drafts and other resolutions of the State Great Khural. The standing committees shall make the introduction of the final versions of the legislation and other resolutions to the State Great Khural. After the introduction of the final versions of the legislations and other resolutions at the State Great Khural, the Chairman of the State Great Hural shall sign the final versions within three working days. The signed legislations and other resolutions of the State Great shall be submitted to the President of Mongolia within 24 hours. If the president vetoes the legislations, the issue shall be discussed again at the State Great Khural. The legislation shall be considered valid after the publication of the legislations in the 'State Information' bulletin.

Latest election

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Preliminary results showed the ruling Mongolia People's Party had won a narrow and reduced majority[8] in the Khural, which allowed Prime Minister Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene to publicly claim victory. The Democratic Party also gained 42 seats, an increase from the 2020 election.[9] The full official results were presented by the GEC on 1 July 2024.[10]

 
PartyConstituencyProportionalTotal
seats
+/–
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
Mongolian People's Party3,619,95038.6550509,48235.011868+6
Democratic Party3,135,98833.4826438,50630.131642+31
HUN Party636,6486.802151,11110.3868+7
National Coalition291,1663.11075,1965.1744New
Civil Will–Green Party269,5822.88073,0065.0244+4
New United Coalition255,8712.73069,6824.7900
Truth and Right Party208,7172.23040,7832.8000
Civil Movement Party153,6241.64020,4431.4000
Republican Party116,5611.24019,6351.3500
The Civic Unity Party86,0830.92013,7330.9400
People's Power Party106,6881.14010,6140.7300
Good Democratic Citizens United Party42,9610.4606,1040.4200
Motherland Party52,8030.5605,6210.3900
Liberte Party45,7300.4904,7380.3300
People's Majority Governance Party30,7600.3303,6190.2500
For the Mongolian People Party35,1830.3803,4610.2400
Mongolian Liberal Democratic Party2320.0002,8200.1900
United Patriots Party2130.0002,1680.1500
Mongolian Social Democratic Party7,7890.0801,5310.1100
Mongol Conservative Party21,1770.2301,4850.1000
Freedom Implementing Party26,2560.2801,4500.1000
Independents222,9572.3800–1
Total9,366,939100.00781,455,188100.0048126+50
Valid votes1,455,18899.68
Invalid/blank votes4,6420.32
Total votes1,459,830100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,089,9352,089,93569.85
Source: Ikon, Ikon, Parliament

Incumbents who lost re-election

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Members of Parliament who lost re-election[11][12]
MP Seat First elected Party New MP New party
Gombojavyn Zandanshatar Bayankhongor 2004[b] Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Amgalangiin Adiyaasüren Bayankhongor 2020 Democratic Party Not applicable
Dulamdorjiin Togtokhsüren Övörkhangai 2016 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Sodnomyn Chinzorig Övörkhangai 2016 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Gochoogiin Ganbold Övörkhangai 2020 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Tsedendambyn Tserenpuntsag Zavkhan 2020 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Baljinnyamyn Bayarsaikhan Zavkhan 2020 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Shirnenbanidiin Adishaa Khovd 2020 Democratic Party Not applicable
Chimediin Khürelbaatar Uvs 2008 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Damdinsürengiin Önörbolor Selenge 2020 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Purev-Ochiryn Anujin Songino Khairkhan 2020 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Nayantain Ganibal Sükhbaatar 2020 Democratic Party Not applicable
Tömörtogoogiin Enkhtüvshin Dornogovi 2020 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Batsükhiin Saranchimeg Bayanzürkh 2016 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Gompildoogiin Mönkhtsetseg Dundgovi
Govisümber
2016 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
Mönkhöögiin Oyuunchimeg Chingeltei 2016 Mongolian People's Party Not applicable
  1. ^ Mongolian: Улсын Их Хурал, romanizedUlsiin Ih Hural, ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ, pronounced [oɬˈsiŋ ɪç ˈχʊɾɐ̆ɮ]; lit. "State Great Assembly"
  2. ^ Zandanshatar lost his seat in 2012 but was re-elected through a election in 2016

See also

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Notes

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References

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  1. ^ Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 40
  2. ^ "УБХ, УИХ-ын дарга нарын хөрөг зураг - Мэдээллийн дэлгэрэнгүй - Parliament". www.parliament.mn.
  3. ^ a b Alan J. K. Sanders (ed.), "Hural, Little" and "Hural, State Little", in Historical Dictionary of Mongolia, 2nd ed. (Scarecrow Press, 2003), p. 161.
  4. ^ "Concerns Over Foreign Meddling Rise in Mongolia's Elections". Mongolia Weekly. 25 July 2023. Retrieved 25 July 2023.
  5. ^ "Some new regulations on parliamentary elections". montsame. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
  6. ^ a b Smith, Marissa. "Parliamentary Elections 2024: Yet Another New Election System". Mongolia Focus. University of British Columbia. Retrieved 19 April 2024.
  7. ^ "Mongolians vote amid anger over corruption, sluggish economy". Al Jazeera. 28 June 2024. Retrieved 28 June 2024.
  8. ^ Adiya, Amar (28 June 2024). "Mongolia Election 2024: MPP Wins Third Term, But Majority Reduced". Mongolia Weekly. Retrieved 5 July 2024.
  9. ^ "Mongolia's governing party wins only a slim majority in parliamentary election, early results show". Associated Press. 29 June 2024. Archived from the original on 30 June 2024. Retrieved 29 June 2024.
  10. ^ "МОНГОЛ УЛСЫН СОНГУУЛИЙН ЕРӨНХИЙ ХОРОО". МОНГОЛ УЛСЫН СОНГУУЛИЙН ЕРӨНХИЙ ХОРОО (in Mongolian). Retrieved 5 July 2024.
  11. ^ "2020 Election: Ruling Mongolian People's Party wins 62 of 76 parliament seats". MONTSAME News Agency. Retrieved 3 July 2024.
  12. ^ ""Өвдөг шороодсон" гишүүн, сайд нар". ikon. 29 June 2024. Archived from the original on 29 June 2024. Retrieved 2 July 2024.
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