Yellow vests movement
This article documents a current event. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable. The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information. (January 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The yellow vests movement or yellow jackets movement (French: Mouvement des gilets jaunes, pronounced [muvmɑ̃ de ʒilɛ ʒon]) is a grassroots political movement for economic justice that began in France in 2018. After an online petition posted in May had attracted nearly a million signatures, mass demonstrations began on 17 November. The movement is motivated by rising fuel prices, high cost of living, and claims that a disproportionate burden of the government's tax reforms were falling on the working and middle classes, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. The protesters have called for lower fuel taxes, reintroduction of the solidarity tax on wealth, a minimum wage increase, the implementation of Citizens' initiative referendums and Emmanuel Macron's resignation as President of France. The movement spans the political spectrum. According to one poll, few of those protesting had voted for Macron in the 2017 French presidential election, and many had either not voted, or had voted for far-right or far-left candidates.
|Yellow vests movement|
Gilets jaunes protests
|Part of protests against Emmanuel Macron|
A Gilets jaunes demonstration in Belfort, eastern France
|Date||17 November 2018 – present|
|Status||Ongoing, as of January 17, 2019|
|287,710 protesters (peak)|
|Death(s)||10 civilians (in France)|
~1000+ injured police officers
|Arrested||1600 people (as of 4 December 2018)|
More than 2300 (8 December 2018 alone)
The protests have involved demonstrations and the blocking of roads and fuel depots. Some of the protests developed into major riots, described as the most violent since those of May 1968. Yellow vests were chosen as a rally symbol because the igniting spark of the movement was about fuel for cars and the first protest involved roadblocks with cars, while since 2008 all French drivers are required to have high-visibility vests in their vehicles and wear them for safety when walking by the road. As a result, inexpensive, yellow, reflective vests were readily available.
Protesters with similar grievances used the yellow vest symbol in many places around the world.
The issue on which the French movement centred at first was the projected 2019 increase in fuel taxes, particularly on diesel fuel.
French President Emmanuel Macron's popularity was already low early 2018 and events later in the year such like Benalla affair didn't improve the feeling. The government method to curb budget deficit is not popular either, Macron being dubbed "président des très riches" (president of the overwealthy) and accused to rise taxes and reduce benefits and public service for common people, in favor of richest people.
In the 1950s, diesel engines were used only in heavy equipment so, to help the post-war productive effort, the French government granted lower taxes. The 1979 oil crisis prompted efforts to curb petrol use, while taking advantage of diesel fuel availability and diesel engine efficiency. The French manufacturer Peugeot has been at the forefront of diesel technology, and from the 1980s, the French government favoured this technology. A reduction in VAT taxes for corporate fleets also increased the prevalence of diesel cars in France.
The price of petrol (SP95-E10) decreased during 2018, from €1.47 per litre in January to €1.43 per litre in the last week of November.
Prices of petrol and diesel fuel increased by 15 percent and 23 percent respectively between October 2017 and October 2018. The world market purchase price of petrol for distributors increased by 28 percent over the previous year; for diesel, by 35 percent. Costs of distribution increased by 40 percent. VAT included, diesel taxes increased by 14 percent over one year and petrol taxes by 7.5 percent. The tax increase had been 7.6 cents per litre on diesel and 3.9 cents on petrol in 2018, with a further increase of 6.5 cents on diesel and 2.9 cents on petrol planned for 1 January 2019.
The taxes collected on the sale of fuel are:
- The domestic consumption tax on energy products (TICPE, la Taxe intérieure de consommation sur les produits énergétiques), which is not calculated based on the price of oil, but rather at a fixed rate by volume. Part of this tax, paid at the pump, goes to regional governments, while another portion goes to the national government. Since 2014, this tax has included a carbon component—increased each year—in an effort to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The TICPE for diesel fuel was raised sharply in 2017 and 2018 to bring it to the same level as the tax on petrol.
- Value added tax (VAT), calculated on the sum of the price excluding tax and the TICPE. Its rate has been stable at 20 percent since 2014, after having been at 19.6 percent between 2000 and 2014.
The protesters criticise Édouard Philippe's second government for making individuals liable for the bulk of the cost of the carbon tax. As the carbon tax has progressively been ramping up to meet ecological objectives, many who have chosen fossil fuel-based heating for their homes, outside of city centres—where a car is required—are displeased. President Macron attempted to dispel these concerns in early November by offering special subsidies and incentives.
Diesel prices in France increased by 16 percent in 2018, with taxes on both petrol and diesel increasing at the same time and a further tax increase planned for 2019, making diesel as expensive as petrol. President Macron is bearing the brunt of the protesters' anger for his extension of policies implemented under François Hollande's government.
Other non-union protestsEdit
One of the first known demonstrations in France against the taxation of petrol prices dates back to 1933 in Lille. The movement against tax increases also evokes the poujadism of the 1950s, which mobilised the middle classes and was articulated around a tax revolt.
The protesters claim that the fuel tax is intended to finance tax cuts for big business, with some critics such as Dania Koleilat Khatib claiming that spending should be cut instead. Macron said the goal of the administration's economic reform program is to increase France's competitiveness in the global economy, and says that the fuel tax is intended to discourage fossil-fuel use. Many of the yellow jackets are primarily motivated by economic difficulties due to low salaries and high energy prices. The majority of the yellow jacket movement wants to fight climate change, but are opposed to forcing the working class and the poor to pay for a problem caused by multinational corporations.
Origin and nature of the movementEdit
A woman from the Seine-et-Marne department started a petition on the change.org website in May 2018 that had reached 300,000 signatures by mid-October and close to a million a month later. Parallel to this petition, two men from the same department launched a Facebook event for 17 November to "block all roads" and thus protest against an increase in fuel prices they considered excessive, stating that this increase was the result of the tax increase. One of the viral videos around this group launched the idea of using yellow jackets.
The movement is organised in a leaderless, horizontal fashion. Informal leaders can emerge, but some have been rejected by other demonstrators and even threatened. According to John Lichfield, some in the movement extend their hatred of politicians even to any "would-be politicians who emerge from their own ranks". The yellow jacket movement is not associated with a specific political party or trade union and has spread largely by social media.
The yellow vests movement has been described as a populist, grassroots movement for economic justice, opposing what it sees as the wealthy urban elite and the establishment. Many of the protesters live in tight financial circumstances, often in rural or outer-urban areas where there is "weak economic growth and high unemployment", and where depending on a car for transport is "essential, and increasingly costly". According to the BBC, "It’s no accident that cars were the spark that ignited this anger. Not needing one has become a status symbol in France. Those in city centres have a wealth of public transport to choose from, but you need to be rich enough to live in the centre of Paris or Marseille or Bordeaux".
The movement has drawn supporters from across the political spectrum. An opinion poll published by the Elabe Institute showed that in the presidential election in May 2017, 36% of the participants voted for Marine Le Pen and 28% for Jean-Luc Melenchon in the 2017 presidential elections. Five Le Monde journalists studied the yellow vests' forty-two directives and concluded that two-thirds were "very close" to the position of the "radical left" (Jean-Luc Mélenchon, Benoît Hamon, Philippe Poutou and Nathalie Arthaud), that nearly half were "compatible with" the position of the "far right" (Nicolas Dupont-Aignan and Marine Le Pen), and that all were "very far removed" from "liberal" policies (Emmanuel Macron and François Fillon). Étienne Girard, writing for Marianne, says the one figure that gathers wide support in the movement has been dead for thirty-two years: the former humourist and presidential candidate Coluche.
Some media outlets were shocked at the hostility they felt during the movement. BFM TV, for example, decided every journalist they sent out should be accompanied by a bodyguard on 8 December, because of the strong aversion the yellow jackets had shown for the network. About three weeks later, 25 yellow vests prevented Ouest-France from being delivered in parts of the Vendée and Loire-Atlantique because they did not like an editorial.
According to Stéphane Sirot, a specialist in the history of French trade unionism, the unions were hesitant to join forces with the yellow jackets because the movement included people trade unions traditionally do not represent (business owners and the self-employed) as well as people who simply did not want to negotiate. The presence of far-right elements in the movement was also off-putting to the CGT.
A significant number of misleading images and information have been circulated on social media concerning the protests. According to Pascal Froissart, the leaderless, horizontal, aspect of the movement contributes to the dissemination of disinformation, as nobody is in charge of public relations or social media messaging.
One of the goals of the Yellow Jackets is to obtain the right to direct initiative, in other words the right to petition the government at any time to propose or repeal a law, to amend the constitution or remove a public official from office. The bottom-up Swiss model of government, where referendums are frequent, has been compared to the top-down French governmental system to explain the lack of a similar movement in French-speaking Switzerland. Étienne Chouard, and a retired dentist named Yvan Bachaud, who named the RIC, were among the earliest proponents of such referenda. More recently, several politicians included the idea in their 2017 presidential platforms.
Adam Gopnik writes that gilets jaunes can be viewed as part of a series of French street protests stretching back to at least the strikes of 1995. Citing historian Herrick Chapman, he suggests General de Gaulle's centralisation of power when creating the French Fifth Republic was so excessive that it made street protests the only "dynamic alternative to government policy".
The 1 December riots in Paris were widely acknowledged to have been the most violent since May 1968. Paris-based journalist John Lichfield said that the 1968 events had a joyous side to them, largely absent from the yellow vest movement, but that both movements were similar in that they lacked recognized leaders, much as the banlieues riots of 2005 had.
According to French scholar Béatrice Giblin, comparisons between the gilets jaunes and the Bonnets Rouges—who opposed a new eco-tax in 2013—were inapt because the latter "had been taken in hand by real leaders, such as the mayor of Carhaix, or the great bosses of Brittany" whereas that was not the case for the yellow jackets.
Some have compared the yellow vests to other modern populist movements such as the Occupy movement in the United States, the Five Star Movement in Italy, and Orbanism in Hungary. Others have drawn parallels to popular revolts in late-medieval Europe like the Jacquerie, to Poujadism, to the Brownshirts, and to the French Revolution.
17 November: "Act I"Edit
The protests began on 17 November 2018, and attracted more than 300,000 people across France with protesters constructing barricades and blocking roads. John Lichfield, a journalist who witnessed the riots, described them as insurrectional.
In addition to roads, protesters also blocked as many as ten fuel depots. On this first day of protests, a 63-year-old pensioner was run over by a motorist in Le Pont-de-Beauvoisin while she was demonstrating at a roundabout at the entrance to a commercial zone. A motorcyclist died after being struck the same day by a van trying to get around a barricade. By 21 November 585 civilians had been injured, sixteen severely, and 115 police officers, three seriously.
Protests also occurred in the French overseas region of Réunion, where the situation deteriorated into looting and riots. Schools on the island were closed for three days after protesters blocked access to roads. On 21 November, President Macron ordered the deployment of troops to the island to calm the violence.
24 November: "Act II"Edit
With the protests in Paris having raised tensions the previous week, the Interior Ministry agreed to allow a gathering on 24 November at the Champ de Mars. The protests attracted 106,000 people all across France, only 8,000 of whom were in Paris, where the protests turned violent. Protesters lit fires in the streets, tore down signs, built barricades and pulled up cobblestones. Police resorted to tear gas and water cannons to disperse the protesters. On 26 November, an official estimated that the riots in Paris during the two previous days had cost up to €1.5m in damage. Two hundred additional workers were assigned to assist with the cleanup and repair work.
1 December: "Act III"Edit
A protest called "Act 3 – Macron Quits" was organised for 1 December.
Yellow jackets briefly occupied the runway at Nantes Atlantique Airport and prevented access to Nice Côte d'Azur Airport. Vinci Autoroutes reported tollbooths were blocked on 20 major arteries all across France.
In Marseille, where demonstrations have been frequent since the 5 November collapse of a building and the evacuation of the surrounding neighbourhood, an 80-year-old Algerian woman trying to close her shutters was hit by shards from a police tear gas canister, later dying while in surgery. A second motorist was killed on the third weekend after crashing his van into stopped lorries at a barricade on the Arles bypass.
More than 100 cars were burned in Paris during the protest on 1 December, and the Arc de Triomphe was vandalised. On the following Monday, Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo estimated the property damages at €3–4 million.
8 December: "Act IV"Edit
Protests turned violent for the second week in a row in Le Puy-en-Velay. Civil unrest marred the Festival of Lights in both Lyon and Saint-Étienne. The A6 motorway was again blocked north of Lyon in Villefranche-sur-Saône.
Paris experienced protests for the fourth consecutive week. Many shops were boarded up in anticipation of violence, with The Louvre, Eiffel Tower and the Paris Opera also closed. Police assembled steel fences around the Élysée Palace and deployed armoured vehicles on the streets in an attempt to limit the violence.
10 December: Macron's televised addressEdit
In his 10 December speech to the French people in response to the movement, Macron pledged a €100 per month increase in the minimum wage in 2019, the exclusion of charges and taxes on overtime hours in 2019, and on any 2018 end-of-year bonuses paid to employees. Macron likewise announced that pensioners on low incomes would be excluded from an increase in the CSG in 2019. He stood by his replacement of the solidarity tax on wealth with increases in property taxes. The broadcast was watched by more than 23 million people, making it the most-viewed political speech in French history. After investigation, it became apparent that the minimum wage itself would not be raised by €100 a month but that those eligible would see an increase in the activity bonus paid by the CAF.
On 11 December, after having declared a state of economic and social emergency the day before, Macron invited representatives of the French banks to the Elysée to announce that the banks had agreed to freeze their prices in 2019 and to permanently limit incident-related fees to €25 a month for people in extreme financial difficulty, as determined by the Bank of France.
15 December: "Act V"Edit
In the wake of the 2018 Strasbourg attack, the government asked protesters to stay off the streets. According to the Paris prefecture estimates, there were 8,000 police for 2,200 demonstrators in Paris. The Minister of the Interior estimated that 66,000 people protested in France on 15 December. Conflict arose in Bordeaux, Toulouse, Marseille, Lyon and Paris. At the end of the day, the Interior Minister called for the roundabouts, occupied since 17 November, to be liberated.
22 December: "Act VI"Edit
Demonstrations continued throughout the country. The Ministry of the Interior announced a participation figure almost half that of the previous week with 38,600 demonstrators throughout France, including 2,000 in Paris according to the Prefecture of Police. Versailles Palace was preventively closed for the day. Éric Drouet, the 33-year-old truck driver who is one of the most followed yellow jackets on Facebook, was arrested for organising an undeclared demonstration and participating in a violent assembly. He had called on Facebook for demonstrators to meet at Versailles but then revised the call to Montmartre after it had been announced that Versailles would be closed. Authorities say that Drouet was carrying a truncheon and would be summoned in court where they would seek to prevent him from coming to Paris.
Protestors blocked border traffic to Switzerland at Cluse-et-Mijoux. They were dispersed after one hour by police. Similar operations were conducted at the Spanish, Italian, German, and Belgian borders. Two distribution platforms were blocked in Montélimar: EasyDis (Groupe Casino) and Amazon.
Overall, at least 220 people were arrested in the country, including 142 in Paris. A motorist was killed on 21 December when his car hit a truck that was stopped at a blockade in Perpignan, the tenth fatality overall.
29 December: "Act VII"Edit
In Paris, the protestors demonstrated in front of the headquarters of BFM-TV, Libération and France Télévisions. Victor Glad suggests that the same crisis of representation motivating the citizens' initiative referenda is also behind the Gilets Jaunes' criticism of the traditional media.
Demonstrations in front of Radio France, (Paris)
5 January: "Act VIII"Edit
Robespierre on the monument of the Place de la République, Paris
Protests on Boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris
According to French Ministry of the Interior, the first demonstrations of 2019 brought 50,000 people into the streets across France. A door to Rennes' city hall was damaged, while government Spokesman Benjamin Griveaux was evacuated from his office on Rue de Grenelle (Paris) through the garden, after rioters hijacked a forklift to break down the door to the Ministry. There were also skirmishes in Bordeaux, Nantes, Caen & Rennes.
Women were an important part of the movement from the beginning, both in defining its objectives and communicating at roundabouts. In the eighth week, they organized separate demonstrations in Paris, Toulouse and Caen. According to one of the organizers, the goal was to have a "channel of communication other than violence".
12 January: "Act IX"Edit
Attendance increased in the ninth straight weekend of protests, with at least 84,000 demonstrating on 12 January for economic reform across France, including 8,000 in Paris, 6,000 in Bourges, 6,000 in Bordeaux, and 2,000 in Strasbourg. Government officials deployed 80,000 security forces nationwide, vowing "zero tolerance" for violence. The CRS (riot police) resorted to tear gas in most major cities.
On the streets of Paris, protesters marching "noisily but mostly peacefully", singing the French national anthem, were met by 5,000 riot police officers, armored vehicles and barricades. Small groups of people left the designated protest route and threw projectiles at police. Around the Arc de Triomphe, riot police fired water cannon and tear gas at protesters after being hit with stones and paint. 244 people were arrested nationwide; 156 in Paris. A "massive" gas explosion caused by an apparent gas leak in a bakery in northern Paris killed four people, including two firefighters already at the scene investigating the leak, and injured dozens more. The explosions occurred early on 12 January, while Paris was under heavy guard in anticipation of the day's demostrations. The French Interior Minister told the media that "responsibility triumphed over the temptation of confrontation" and that protesters marched in Paris "without serious incident".
Adama Committee and Nuit DeboutEdit
On 29 November, François Ruffin, the founder of hard-left Fakir (fr), organised a mobilizing meeting, at which Frédéric Lordon spoke, saying "If the Nuitdeboutistes who got all wound up into deforestation and anti-specist commissions can't get moving when this happens, then they are the last of the last".
Students protesting against the government's educational reformsEdit
Angered by Macron's education reforms and plans to change the baccalauréat (a secondary-school leaving exam), students protested in cities across France. Students expressed concern that these reforms will lead to further inequalities of access to higher education between students in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas.
On 6 December, over 140 students were arrested outside a school in Mantes-la-Jolie. A video of the mass arrest—showing students kneeling with their hands behind their heads—inspired indignation. Jean-Michel Blanquer, the French Education Minister, said that although he was "shocked" by the scene, it needed to be viewed "in context". Amnesty International issued a report about the incident. On the same day, France Bleu reported that Saint-Étienne was "under siege". It was in this context that the mayor of Saint-Étienne suggested, first by tweet then by press release, that the Festival of Lights in neighbouring Lyon be cancelled to free up police in the region.
Christmas shopping seasonEdit
Overall, by mid-December, trade losses of €2 billion had been reported as a result of the blocked roundabouts leading to commercial zones and the closures of urban chains. The chain supermarkets, in particular, reported that traffic has been down significantly, estimating the overall loss at around €600 million as of 13 December.
Fatalities and injuriesEdit
As of 22 December, 10 fatalities had been linked to the protests in France.
|17 November||1||pedestrian + car|
|19 November||1||motorbike + lorry|
|1/2 December||1||car + HGV/LGV|
|1 December||1||stray tear gas grenade (Marseille)|
|10 December||1||car + HGV/LGV|
|12/13 December||1||pedestrian + HGV/LGV|
|14 December||2||car + HGV/LGV |
car + car
|20 December||1||pedestrian + truck|
|22 December||1||car + truck |
In early december, over 800 protesters and 200 police were injured. Injuries included tens of facial trauma (jaws or even eyes) caused by police non-lethal weapon ammunitions, nicknamed flash-ball despite not being of the type, that are supposed to be fired to the torso, not to the head, and are accurate enough for this purpose.
As of 14 january, 94 seriously injured, including 14 monocular blindness and one person still in coma, had been reported 
In late November 2018, polls showed that the movement had widespread support in France (ranging from 73 to 84 percent). An opinion poll conducted after 1 December events found that 72 percent of French people supported the "gilets jaunes" and that 85 percent were opposed to the violence in Paris.
Truckers were targeted by protesters, and the industry made their displeasure with the situation known to the government in an open letter. Two labor unions, CGT and FO who had initially called on truckers to start striking on 9 December, retracted their call on 7 December, after having consulted the government and their membership.
The Minister of the Interior, Christophe Castaner, blamed Marine Le Pen, Macron's opponent in the 2017 presidential election, and her Rassemblement National party for the violence on 24 November 2018 after she had reportedly urged people to go to the Champs Élysées. Le Pen responded that letting people assemble on the Champs Élysées was the government's responsibility and accused the Minister of the Interior of trying to increase the tension to discredit the movement.
Although President Macron had been insisting that the fuel tax increases would go through as planned, on 4 December 2018 the government announced that the tax rises would be put on hold, with Prime Minister Édouard Philippe saying that "no tax deserves to endanger the unity of the nation".
On Sunday, 9 December, the Elysée called trade unions and employers' organizations to invite them to meet on Monday 10 December so Macron could "present the measures" he intended to announce later in the day. On 10 December, Macron condemned the violence but acknowledged the protesters' anger as "deep, and in many ways legitimate". He subsequently promised a minimum wage increase of €100 per month from 2019, cancelled a planned tax increase for low-income pensioners, and made overtime payments as well as end-of-year bonuses tax free. However, Macron refused to reinstate a wealth tax he scrapped upon entering into office.
Police, unlike other public sector employees, either saw their wages raised by €120–150 per month by an agreement signed on 20 December, or received an annual €300 bonus by an amendment voted into law the previous day. Nicolas Chapuis, writing for Le Monde, says this was likely due to 85% turnout in recent police union elections and the exceptional levels of activity.
Protests outside France adopting the symbolEdit
The largest "yellow vest" protest outside France was held in Taipei on 19 December. Its principal concern was tax justice. Some protests in other countries are related to the central concerns of the French movement (taxation, high-living costs, representation, and income disparity). Others are related primarily by the use of the readily-available symbol.
Riot police in Brussels were pelted with billiard balls, cobblestones and rocks on 30 November, and responded with water cannons; 60 arrests were made for disturbing the public order. Several oil depots had been blocked in Wallonia as of 16 November 2018, though protesters' attempts to block the Russian Lukoil depot in Brussels were quickly thwarted by police. Some members of the movement began working to form a party for the Belgian federal elections in 2019 under the name Mouvement citoyen belge. On 8 December, when protestors calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Charles Michel tried to breach a riot barricade, police used tear gas and water cannons to disperse the demonstrators. The protesters involved were throwing stones, flares and other objects at police, resulting in around 100 arrests.
As of 12 January, three people had lost their lives during gilets jaunes actions in Belgium: two drivers were killed mid-December when they were surprised by traffic queues caused by roadblocks and one protestor was fatally hit by a truck when his group tried to block the E25 highway between Liège and Maastricht on 11 January.
Other countries or regionsEdit
- Bulgaria: Anti-government protesters in Bulgaria began wearing high-visibility vests from 16 November.
- Canada: Relatively smaller groups of protesters wearing yellow vests in at least a dozen cities and small towns in Canada, protested against the carbon price, the endorsement of the United Nations Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM), the federal Liberal government, and a wide range of topics. The protestors have largely consisted of right-wing supporters, and have been criticized for allegedly holding discriminatory views.
- Croatia: On 15 December 2018, "Yellow Vests Croatia" held demonstrations in Zagreb, Pula and Rijeka.
- Egypt: A lawyer was detained for 15 days after posting a picture of himself wearing a high-visibility jacket in support of the protests in France. Sales restrictions on yellow reflective vests were introduced in an attempt to prevent opposition groups.
- Finland: Anti-immigration protestors, who had begun demonstrations before the rise of the yellow vests movement, have adopted the yellow vest symbol, beginning with a demonstration on 17 December.
- Germany: The yellow vests symbol was used both by the left and right-wing groups, including Pegida and Aufstehen, who demonstrated at the Brandenburg Gate and in Munich.
- Iraq: On 5 December, Yellow Jacket-inspired protesters demonstrated in Basra, Iraq, for more job opportunities and better services. They were reportedly fired upon with live ammunition.
- Ireland: On 22 December, Hundreds attended a yellow vests protest in the centre of Dublin against 'the perceived failures of the Government'.
- Israel: Economic uncertainty and corruption led to a "yellow vest" rally at the Azrieli Centre Mall in Tel Aviv on 14 December.
- Italy: The yellow vests symbol has been used by multiple protest groups in Italy. In November 2018, a pro-Italian government, anti-EU protest group launched a Facebook page with thousands of online supporters, stating it was "inspired by the French gilet jaunes". On 15 December, several thousand people wearing yellow vests marched in Rome to protest against Italy's "tough new anti-migrant law". In January 2019, the leaders of Italy's ruling government coalition announced their support for the gilet jaunes protests in France. AFP reported that it is "extremely rare for European leaders to back anti-government protesters in a fellow member state".
- Netherlands: On 1 December, a small number of "yellow vest" demonstrators protested in Dutch cities. Further demonstrations occurred on 8 December, where peaceful protesters marched through Rotterdam.
- Pakistan: Hundreds of engineers staged a day long protested at Lahore wearing yellow vests.
- Poland: On 12 December, a group of farmers blocked the A2 motorway 30 kilometers outside of Warsaw, demanding compensation for pigs they were required to slaughter, and protesting the importation of Ukrainian agricultural products unlabeled with respect to their country of origin. The agricultural minister Jan Krzysztof Ardanowski met with the protesters to explain that their demands were met already.
- Portugal: On 21 December 2018, a "Coletes Amarelos" or "Yellow Vest" rally was held under the slogan "Vamos Parar Portugal", roughly translating to "Let's Bring Portugal to a Halt".
- Russia: On 23 December 2018, "blue bucket" demonstrators at Sokolniki Park wore yellow vests at a rally against parking fee increases in Moscow.
- Serbia: A civil rights organisation "Združena akcija Krov nad glavom" started using yellow vests in its protests to oppose the eviction of a resident in the Mirijevo district of Belgrade and to show solidarity and common cause with French Yellow vest movement. Parallel to that, on 4 December, Boško Obradović, the leader of the far-right Dveri party, called for demonstrations about high fuel prices in Serbia on 8 December.
- Taiwan: The Tax and Legal Reform League, demonstrating for tax justice since December 2016, organized a yellow vests march on 19 December.
- Tunisia: A derivative group, the Gilets Rouges (Red Vests), emerged on Facebook, calling for protests against the economic situation in the country.
- United Kingdom: Right wing, pro-Brexit groups involved in small-scale protests in London and other UK cities have appropriated or "hijack[ed]" the yellow vests symbol.
- "Yellow Vest movement has launched in Australia". Courier Mail. 2 January 2019.
- Jean-Pierre Stroobants. "En Belgique, un mouvement de " gilets jaunes " se cherche un débouché politique". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Gilets jaunes : la Belgique et la Bulgarie ont elles aussi leurs Gilets jaunes". LCI (in French). 20 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- Rémi Carlier (26 December 2018). "Liban, Tunisie, Burkina Faso… les Gilets jaunes font des émules à travers le monde". France 24 (in French). Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- Sarah Rieger (8 December 2018). "Alberta yellow vest protests lack violence seen in Paris, but anti-immigration anger simmers". CBC. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- "Hrvatski Žuti prsluci: 'Nije isključeno da dođemo na adrese članova vlade'". Index.hr. 2018-12-15. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
- "Maanantaina tämä on totta Suomessa! Suomalaiset keltaliivit osoittavat mieltä eduskuntatalon edessä - "meuhkataan" hävisi facebookin äänestyksen". Talouselämä (in Finnish). 13 December 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
- "L'Allemagne se connecte au phénomène des "gilets jaunes"". RFI (in French). 28 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "'Gilets jaunes': which other countries has the French protest movement spread to?". Euronews. 5 December 2018.
- Linda Givetash (5 December 2018). "France's 'Yellow Jackets' inspire protesters in Iraq". NBC News. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "Dozens gather in Dublin for 'yellow vests' protest". Irish Times. 15 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- Hagay Hacohen (13 December 2018). "Yellow Vest protest reach Israel, rage against high living cost mounts". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
- "In Pictures: Protesters march against Italy's tough new anti-migrant law". AFP via El Arabiya. 2018-12-16. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
Several thousand people marched in Rome Saturday in protest at Italy's tough new anti-migrant law, which makes it easier to expel new arrivals. The protesters waved flags and donned yellow vests emblazoned with the slogan 'Get up! Stand Up! for your right' in a reference to the famous Bob Marley song. The new law would 'only increase the number of people without papers in Italy and force people underground', protester Kone Brahima, originally from Ivory Coast, told AFP.
- Taylor Luck (13 December 2018). "Jordanian protesters don yellow vests as demonstrations spread". The National. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- Sarah El Deeb (23 December 2018). "Lebanese, some in yellow vests, protest political gridlock". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
- Janene Pieters (10 December 2018). "Limited turnout for 'yellow vests' protests in Netherlands; only three arrests". NLtimes.nl. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "Govt-employed engineers block The Mall". Pakistan Today. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
- "Portugal's 'yellow vests' turn out for anti-government protest". Euronews. 2018-12-21. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
- Chernykh, Alexander; Buranov, Ivan (23 December 2018). "«Желтые жилеты» дошли до Сокольников ("'Yellow Vests' reach Sokolniki")". Kommersant (in Russian). Retrieved 25 December 2018.
- Neda Kurjački (6 December 2018). "Sprečeno prinudno iseljenje u Mirijevu, među aktivistima "žuti prsluci"". N1info (in Serbian).
translated title: A forced eviction in Mirievo stopped by the "yellow vest" activists
- "French 'yellow vests' spark copycat protests worldwide". Daily Sabah. 17 December 2018.
- Cheung, Eric. "'Yellow vest' protest movement spreads to Taiwan". CNN. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "'Yellow vests' reach Turkey as thousands protest cost of living". Al-Arabiya. 17 December 2018.
- "Are the Yellow Vests Spreading beyond France?". BBC. 14 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- Alexis Spire (December 2018). "Aux sources de la colère contre l'impôt". Le Monde Diplomatique (in French). Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- Jean-Gabriel Bontinck; les éditions départementales (3 December 2018). "Les radars, cibles privilégiées des Gilets jaunes". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- Alexandre Lemarié (4 December 2018). "Les 'gilets jaunes' ciblent la suppression de l'ISF, 'péché originel' de Macron". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- Rémi Bourgeot (26 November 2018). "La mondialisation a enfanté des gilets jaunes". Atlantico (in French). Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Rapoza, Kenneth (7 December 2018). "France Shows Austerity Is On Its Last Legs In Europe". Forbes. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
The gilets jaunes—the "yellow vests", so named for the safety jackets they wear to public protests—have effectively transformed a single-issue protest into the French #resistance with a long list of objections against Macron and European neoliberalism. At least for now.
- "The Yellow Vests: Who they are and why their tax protest is a big deal". The Mercury News. Associated Press. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- Gilets Jaunes (29 November 2018). "Les revendication des gilets jaunes" (in French). France Bleu. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Nossiter, Adam (2 December 2018). "'Yellow Vests' Riot in Paris, but Their Anger Is Rooted Deep in France". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Hundreds arrested as police clash with 'Yellow Vest' protesters in Paris". France24. AP, Reuters. 2 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Rodriguez, Cecilia (2 December 2018). "Riots In Paris: 'Yellow Vests' Violence, Vandalism And Chaos Hitting Tourism". Forbes. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Almost 100 injured during French fuel protests". Irish Times. 2 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Yellow vest protesters clash with police in Paris, in pictures". The Telegraph. 1 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "The violence, burning and looting wasn't just in Paris on Saturday". The Local. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Willsher, Kim (4 December 2018). "Gilets Jaunes protests in France to continue despite fuel tax U-turn". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "France yellow vest protests: Macron promises wage rise". BBC. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- Durand, Anne-Aël (5 December 2018). "Pourquoi il est compliqué de geler les tarifs réglementés de l'électricité". Le Monde. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Macron Promises Minimum Wage Hike And Tax Cuts To End 'Yellow Vest' Protests". NPR. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- "Gilets jaunes – Le ministre de l'Intérieur indique que le pics de manifestants s'est élevé à 282710 manifestants, atteint vers 17 heures". France Info (in French). Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Gilets jaunes: 2891 blessés depuis le début du mouvement".
- Staff, Our Foreign (2018-12-22). "Driver killed in accident at Yellow Vest roadblock in southern France". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
- "Gilets jaunes: quel est le bilan officiel des morts, blessés, et interpellés depuis le début du mouvement?". Libération. 4 December 2018.
- Nossiter, Adam (2018-11-24). "Tear Gas and Water Cannons in Paris as Grass-Roots Protest Takes Aim at Macron". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
- Rascouet, Angelina; Viscusi, Gregory (2018-12-22). "France's Yellow Vest Protests Abate as Fewer Take to Streets". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
Protests led by the grassroots Yellow Vest movement abated across France on Saturday, a signal that a call to mobilize for a sixth straight weekend failed to maintain the momentum.
- Viscusi, Gregory (2018-12-10). "Why People in Yellow Vests Are Blocking French Roads". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
What started in November as a grassroots movement against plans to hike gas taxes has spiraled into widespread anger about the rising cost of living and discontent with French President Emmanuel Macron.
- Petrequin, Samuel (2018-12-16). "Yellow vest protesters still block French traffic circles". AP News. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
Yellow vest protesters occupied dozens of traffic roundabouts across France on Sunday even as their movement for economic justice appeared to be losing momentum on the fifth straight weekend of protests.
- McKay, Hollie (2018-12-16). "France's 'yellow vest' protesters rage on for fifth weekend". Fox News. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
The movement, which is largely seen as a rallying cry for economic justice from France’s working class, takes its name from the yellow safety vests French motorists are mandated to keep in their vehicles.
- Petrequin, Samuel (2018-12-16). "Yellow vest protesters still block French traffic circles". AP News. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
- "Priscillia Ludosky, une Martiniquaise derrière les gilets jaunes". France-Antilles (in French). 20 November 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
Ce mardi soir, cette dernière comptabilisait plus de 938 325 signataires sur internet.
- Aline Leclerc. "Gilets jaunes: anatomie d'une journée de colère". Le Monde. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- Willsher, Kim (16 November 2018). "'Gilets jaunes' protesters threaten to bring France to a standstill". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- Smith, Saphora (27 November 2018). "The Champs-Élysées in Paris became a blazing battleground. Here's why". NBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- Aurélie Dianara (30 November 2018). "We're With the Rebels". The Jacobin. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- France 24, "‘Yellow Vests’ open a new front in the battle: Popular referendums", 17/12/2018
- Michel Rose; Luke Baker (6 December 2018). "No leader, lots of anger: can France's 'yellow vests' become a political force?"". Reuters. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Who Are France's Yellow Vest Protesters, And What Do They Want?". NPR.org. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
All French motorists are required by law to carry yellow roadside safety vests in their vehicles. Protesting drivers donned their obligatory yellow vests and created roadblocks around France. Now anyone joining the protests wears the yellow vest, regardless of whether they are motorists.
- Friedman, Vanessa (2018-12-04). "The Power of the Yellow Vest". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
- Mark Lynas (31 December 2018). "Why President Macron's U-turn is a warning for climate leaders". CNN. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
The immediate cause of the protests? The carbon taxes on petrol and diesel that Macron had only recently touted as evidence of French leadership on mitigating climate change.
- "Diesel: les raisons d'une " exception culturelle " française". Les Echos (in French). 10 April 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- "Prix des carburants : l'essence à son plus bas de 2018, le diesel poursuit aussi sa baisse". LCI.
- "Prix à la pompe: la part du brut, la part des taxes". Le Point (in French). AFP. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "'Shame' on Paris protesters, says Macron". BBC News. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Macron stands by fuel taxes". Energy Reporters. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Furious French drivers to block roads in fuel price protest, but are they right to?". The Local. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "Lettre ouverte au Premier Ministre Edouard PHILIPPE". OTRE (in French). 20 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "Emmanuel Macron promet des aides pour le chauffage et le carburant". Le Figaro (in French). 6 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- Eva Tapiero; Matthew Robinson; Laura Smith-Spark. "French fuel protests leave 1 dead, dozens injured". CNN. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "Opération escargot contre le permis à point". Archives-imagesplus.tv (in French). Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Lough, Richard; Carraud, Simon (4 December 2018). "France's Macron hunts for way out of 'yellow vest' crisis". Reuters. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Viscusi, Gregory (3 December 2018). "Macron Fights on Two Fronts as French, German Risks Collide". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Adam Nossiter (2 December 2018). "'Yellow Vests' Riot in Paris, but Their Anger Is Rooted Deep in France". New York Times. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- Atkin, Emily (10 December 2018). "France's Yellow Vest Protesters Want to Fight Climate Change". The New Republic. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Rubin, Alissa J.; Sengupta, Somini (6 December 2018). "'Yellow Vest' Protests Shake France. Here's the Lesson for Climate Change". The New York Times.
There is little doubt among scientists and economists — many of whom are in Poland for the current round of climate negotiations — that putting a price on carbon is essential in the effort to reduce fossil fuel dependence. . . . [However many] analysts say the French tax was not politically deft, falling hardest on people outside French cities who were already feeling the pain of stagnating incomes and who do not have the same mass transportation options as urban residents.
- Leonardo Bianchi (20 November 2018). "Chi sono i 'gilet gialli', la versione francese dei Forcone". Vice (in Italian). Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- John Lichfield (3 December 2018). "Never before have I seen blind anger like this on the streets of Paris". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Henry Mance (6 December 2018). "Barricades in Paris make Brexit bankers think again". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 December 2018. (Registration required (help)).
- Walt, Vivienne (30 November 2018). "'There Is an Atmosphere of Civil War.' France's Yellow Jackets Are Driving Fury at Macron". Time. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- Fareed Zakaria (13 December 2018). "The new dividing line in Western politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- Lucy Williamson (14 December 2018). "The gilets jaunes". BBC News. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Bell, Melissa (2019-01-14). "Macron vowed to fight the populists. Now he's being engulfed by them". CNN. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
- "France's Macron hunts for way out of 'yellow vest' crisis". Reuters. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Les Français, les gilets jaunes et les mesures annoncées par Edouard Philippe. Sondage ELABE pour BFMTV, 5 December 2018
- Mathilde Damgé; Anne-Aël Durand; Maxime Vaudano; Jérémie Baruch; Pierre Breteau (4 December 2018). "Sur un axe de Mélenchon à Le Pen, où se situent les revendications des 'gilets jaunes'?". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Étienne Girard (10 December 2018). "Ni Macron, ni Mélenchon, ni Le Pen : les gilets jaunes votent… Coluche". Marianne (in French). Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Frédéric Lordon (5 December 2018). "Fin de monde?". La pompe à phynance (in French). Le Monde Diplomatique. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
Depuis les grèves de 1995, la conscience de ce que les médias censément contre-pouvoirs sont des auxiliaires des pouvoirs, n’a cessé d’aller croissant.
- Enguérand Renault (7 December 2018). ""Gilets jaunes" : les rédactions prennent des mesures pour assurer la sécurité des journalistes". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 13 December 2018.
Chaque journaliste sur le terrain est accompagné d'un agent de sécurité, souligne Hervé Béroud, le directeur général de la chaîne. Cet agent est à même d'évaluer la dangerosité de la situation et d'intervenir en cas d'agression du journaliste.
- François Chrétien (27 December 2018). "Loire-Atlantique. Ce journal que des Gilets jaunes ont empêché de paraître" (in French). Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Alexander Hurst (7 January 2019). "The Ugly, Illiberal, Anti-Semitic Heart of the Yellow Vest Movement". New Republic. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- Margaux Baralon (19 November 2018). "Comment les "gilets jaunes" ont bouleversé les codes de la contestation". Europe1 (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- Blandine Le Cain (30 November 2018). "Les 'gilets jaunes', un mouvement sans leader dans lequel les 'fake news' prospèrent". Le Figaro (in French).
- Marie-Hélène Miauton (6 December 2018). "Des «gilets jaunes» helvétiques: impossible!". Le Temps (in French). Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "Le système politique suisse ausculté par la France et les "gilets jaunes"". Radio Télévision Suisse (in French). 18 December 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- Vincent Glad (2 January 2019). "Gilets jaunes Histoire du RIC, un cri du peuple". Liberation (in French). Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Romain Bruny (18 March 2017). "La VIe République : une idée qui fait son chemin". France 24 (in French). Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Jacob Hamburger (3 January 2019). "France's Yellow Vests: A Test for the Populist Left". Dissent. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "VIDEO. Qu'est-ce que le RIC, la revendication-phare des gilets jaunes ?". 2018-12-18.
- Adam Gopnik (6 December 2018). "The Yellow Vests and Why There Are So Many Street Protests in France". the New Yorker. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
[T]he rhetoric of the movement, with its insistence that there is a globalized élite that, by manipulating finance and capital, are undoing French civilization, rhymes ominously with the classic forms of French right-wing nationalism, including indigenous French anti-Semitism.
- Emmanuel Fansten; Willy Le Devin; Ismaël Halissat (2 December 2018). "Paris:émeutes inédites depuis 68". Libération (in French).
- Béatrice Giblin; Guillaume Erner (14 November 2018). "Qui sont les gilets jaunes?". Franceculture.fr (in French). Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- John Lichfield (14 December 2018). "Why are France's Yellow Jackets so angry?". Politico Europe. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Gilets bruns? Contre la montée «des fachos», BHL lance le hashtag #SoutienAuPresidentMacron". RT France (in French). 7 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Bernard-Henri Lévy (December 5, 2018). "Will the Yellow Vests Reject the Brown Shirts". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Gilets jaunes – Le ministre de l'Intérieur indique que le pics de manifestants s'est élevé à 282710 manifestants, atteint vers 17 heures". France TV (in French). 6 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- Max Parry (4 January 2019). "Why France's Yellow Vest Protests Are Ignored by "The Resistance" in the U.S." Counterpunch. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- Ben McPartland (20 November 2018). "LATEST: French police dislodge fuel protesters as movement wanes (for now)". The Local. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- John Lichfield (2 December 2018). "ANALYSIS: The savage violence in Paris was not a protest, it was an insurrection". The Local. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "France's 'yellow vest' protesters block access to fuel depots". France 24. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
- Serge Pueyo (17 November 2018). "Gilets jaunes: qui était Chantal, morte écrasée sur un barrage" (in French). Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "" Gilets jaunes " : un troisième mort en marge du mouvement". Le Monde (in French). 2 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "" Gilets jaunes " : barrages, casse et " sévérité " promise par l'Etat : le point sur la journée de mercredi" (in French). Le Monde. 21 November 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "French troops deployed amid protests on Reunion island". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- Willsher, Kim (24 November 2018). "French 'gilets jaunes' protests turn violent on the streets of Paris". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Willsher, Kim (26 November 2018). "Macron: Paris protest 'battle scenes' could hurt France's image". the Guardian. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Gilets Jaunes: Protesters warn of ports disruption". Connexionfrance.com. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- Z.L. (1 December 2018). "Incidents à Strasbourg, préfecture assiégée au Puy-en-Velay: 75 000 Gilets jaunes en France". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Flora Chaduc (2 December 2018). "Gilets jaunes à Lyon : mobilisation sur le TEO, l'A6 fermée vers Lyon". Lyon Capitale (in French). Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Aurélie Dianara (2 December 2018). "One dead as France considers state of emergency over protests". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "" Sang sur les mains ". À Marseille, des milliers de manifestants en colère réclament la démission du maire". OuestFrance (in French). 15 November 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "France fuel protests: 80-year-old woman killed in her home". BBC. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Marseille. L'IGPN saisie après la mort d'une octogénaire blessée par une grenade". Ouest France (in French). 3 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Sofiane Aissaoui (9 December 2018). "Gilets jaunes : flambée des violences à Lyon, au Puy-en-Velay et à Saint-Etienne". France3 Regions (in French). Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- F.L. (8 December 2018). "Gilets jaunes: l'autoroute A6 fermée à hauteur de Villefranche-sur-Saône". France3 (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- Claire Mayer (9 December 2018). "'Gilets jaunes' à Bordeaux : 'Tout a basculé en une heure'". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 13 January 2018.
En fin de soirée, les rues de Bordeaux se sont embrasées. Parmi les fauteurs de troubles, plus de « gilets jaunes », mais des casseurs venus profiter de la tension. ... Dans son quartier populaire et familial, d’impressionnants feux étaient allumés, deux agences bancaires saccagées et un camion incendié. ... l'Apple Store de la rue Sainte-Catherine était pillé par une centaine de casseurs.
- "France's 'yellow vests' clash with police in Paris". Reuters. 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- "French police use armoured vans and tear gas in bid to quell Paris protests". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- Emmanuel Macron (10 December 2018). "Verbatim: Le discours d'Emmanuel Macron face aux "gilets jaunes"". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- Pierre Dezeraud (11 December 2018). "Audiences: 23 millions de personnes devant l'intervention d'Emmanuel Macron". PureMedia (in French). Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Damien Durand (11 December 2018). "Macron: 100€ de plus pour le Smic? Pourquoi c'est faux". France Soir (in French). Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- "Gel des tarifs bancaires et plafonnement des frais d'incidents : ce qu'a demandé Emmanuel Macron aux banquiers". LCI (in French). 11 December 2018.
- Kim Willsher (15 December 2018). "Gilets jaunes protesters take to the streets of Paris for fifth weekend". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- "" Gilets jaunes " : mobilisation en forte baisse avec environ 66 000 manifestants en France". Le Monde (in French). 15 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- "France's 'yellow vests' block borders ahead of Christmas". AFP.com. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
- "« Gilets jaunes » : un mort et une mobilisation en demi-teinte pour l'« acte VI »" (in French). Le Monde. 22 December 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- Kabir Chibber (21 December 2018). "Versailles, which survived the French revolution, is closing for the latest protests". Quartz. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "Le "gilet jaune" Éric Drouet, interpellé samedi, sera jugé ultérieurement" (in French). L'Obs. 23 December 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
- ML; LT (22 December 2018). "Haut-Doubs: des gilets jaunes ralentissent la circulation à la frontière suisse". France 3 (in French).
- "Gilets jaunes: des blocages aux frontières avec l'Espagne, l'Italie et l'Allemagne". Le Parisien (in French). 22 December 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "Gilets jaunes : Amazon bloqué, situation toujours tendue à Montélimar". Le Dauphiné (in French). 22 December 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
- "EN DIRECT - Gilets jaunes : Castaner dénonce les manifestants "animés par la haine des institutions"". LCI (in French). Retrieved 2018-12-22.
- Jérôme Mornière (30 December 2018). "Acte VII des Gilets jaunes : de la violence et des scènes surréalistes à Rouen". 76actu (in French). actu.fr. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Vincent Glad (4 January 2019). "Gilets jaunes: Je te BFM, moi non plus". Liberation (in French). Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Police must end use of excessive force against protesters and high school children in France". Amnesty International.
- Adam Nossiter (5 January 2019). "Violence Surges as Yellow Vests Attack French Government Ministry". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- Thibaut Lehut; France Bleu; France Blue Pays d'Auvergne. "DOCUMENT - Les gilets jaunes publient une liste de revendications" (in French).
les gilets jaunes ... ont publié une liste de revendications sur les [sic] internet, à l'initiative d'une manifestante de la Sarthe.
- Raphaël Tual (28 November 2018). "Les femmes Gilets jaunes en première ligne à Rouen : « Les petits contrats, c'est pour nous »". actu.fr (in French). Retrieved 9 January 2018.
- Le Monde; AFP (6 January 2019). "Des centaines de femmes « gilets jaunes » manifestent dans plusieurs villes de France". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 9 January 2019.
- "Yellow vests knock out 60% of all speed cameras in France". BBC. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- ""Gilets jaunes" : la moitié des radars automatiques de France ont été mis hors service". Europe1 (in French). 10 December 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Paul Carcenac (12 January 2019). "«Gilets jaunes»: forte mobilisation pour «l'acte IX», au moins 84.000 manifestants". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 13 January 2019.
"Montpellier ... Les casseurs [sic] ont répliqué à des caillassages par des tirs de bombes lacrymogènes.
- De Clercq, Geert; Paone, Antony (2019-01-12). "Yellow vest protests hit with police water cannon, tear gas in Paris". Reuters. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- "French 'yellow vests' rally in fresh round of protests". AFP via Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- "Paris gas leak explosion leaves 4 dead amid 'yellow vest' protests". AP via CNBC. 2019-01-12. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
- Hadrien Mathoux (30 November 2018). "Des gilets jaunes au comité Adama : François Ruffin tente une laborieuse "convergence des luttes"". Marianne (in French). Retrieved 4 December 2018.
Si les Nuit deboutistes qui se sont passionnés dans les commissions antispécistes ou déforestation ne bougent pas quand il se passe ça, alors ils sont les derniers des derniers.
- "French government fears 'major violence'". BBC News. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- Eric Nunès (20 September 2018). "Parcoursup: retour sur une réforme explosive". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "Les lycéens contre la réforme du bac". La Nouvelle République (in French). 1 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
'On demande une égalité entre les lycées ruraux et les grands lycées urbains. Ils ont des options qu’on ne peut pas avoir ici', explique Anthony, élève de terminale L, l’un des initiateurs de la mobilisation.
- zbeul (7 December 2018). "Contre ParcourSup et la réforme du bac : grève et manifestation vendredi 7 décembre". rebellyon.info. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
c’est un bac par établissement de part l’importance du contrôle continu. Un bac de centre-ville aisé n’aura plus la même valeur qu’un bac de banlieue ou rurale.
- "France : tollé après l'interpellation massive de lycéens à Mantes-la-Jolie". France 24 (in French). 7 December 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Battaglia, Mattea; Couvelaire, Louise (6 December 2018). "La vidéo de l'interpellation collective de dizaines de lycéens à Mantes-la-Jolie provoque de vives réactions". Le Monde.fr (in French). Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- "Paris protests 'created a monster'". BBC News. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- "Douze interpellations à Saint-Etienne en marge des manifestations lycéennes". France Bleu (in French). 6 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
La ville est en état de siège depuis ce jeudi matin avec la manifestation des lycéens dans toute la ville.
- Florent Deligia (7 December 2018). "Saint-Étienne demande encore l'annulation de la Fête des lumières à Lyon". Lyon Capitale (in French). Retrieved 8 December 2018.
Le maintien d'une manifestation telle que la fête des Lumières à Lyon nécessitera, par la force des choses, une mobilisation importante des moyens de police au détriment du maintien de l'ordre dans les autres villes de la Région (Gaël Perdriau)
- Romain Brunet (11 December 2018). "Mouvement des lycéens et Gilets jaunes : "On espère faire converger nos luttes"". France 24 (in French). Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Juliette Garnier (14 December 2018). "" Gilets jaunes " : le manque à gagner serait de 2 milliards d'euros pour le commerce". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 15 December 2018.
« Peut-être 600 millions d’euros désormais », avançait-on, jeudi 13 décembre, à la Fédération du commerce et de la distribution (FCD) qui défend les intérêts de Carrefour, Casino et autres Auchan.
- ""Gilets jaunes": un sixième mort depuis le début de la mobilisation". Le Monde.fr. 13 December 2018 – via Le Monde.
- "Gilets jaunes: septième mort en marge du mouvement". LExpress.fr. 15 December 2018.
- "Gilets jaunes: deux accidents mortels en marge de barrages, 8 morts depuis le début du mouvement". LCI.
- "Death toll in French 'yellow vest' protests rises to nine". Reuters. 2018-12-20. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
- "Gilets jaunes : quel est le bilan officiel des morts, blessés, et interpellés depuis le début du mouvement?".
- "Les blessés éborgnés par les forces de l'ordre ne le sont pas par accident".
- Since 2009 police are equipped with Brügger & Thomet GL06; they call the weapon LBD 40 -- Lanceur de Balle de Defense = defense ball launcher --, while the name of the weapon used before 2009 --Flash-Ball-- remains largely used "différence entre un "lanceur de balle de défense" et un "flash-ball"". Libération. 15 January 2019.
- O'Reilly, Edward (2019-01-17). "Riot control guns: What's all the fuss about Flash Balls in France?". The Local.fr. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
- French police department rules regarding the weapon https://www.interieur.gouv.fr/content/download/74530/546550/file/boi_20140010_0000_p000.pdf
- "Gilets jaunes : le décompte des blessés graves". Libération. 14 January 2019.
- Pauline Bock (28 November 2018). "The yellow jackets are a reminder Emmanuel Macron rules only one version of France". New Statesman. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- Chrisafis, Angelique (3 December 2018). "Who are the gilets jaunes and what do they want?". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Grèves, blocus étudiants, événements annulés… le point sur la mobilisation des " gilets jaunes "". Le Monde (in French). 6 December 2018.
Les fédérations CGT et FO du secteur du transport routier ont appelé à la grève à partir de dimanche soir 22 heures et pour une durée indéterminée.
- "Routiers : FO et la CGT lèvent leur appel à la grève". leparisien.fr (in French). 7 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- "France Freezes Fuel Tax Hike In Face Of Yellow Vest Protests". NPR. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- Nicolas Beunaiche; Bérangère Lepetit; Sébastien Lernould (9 December 2018). "Gilets jaunes: Macron lance une grande concertation à l'Elysée lundi". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 10 December 2018.
- "Macron promises minimum wage rise". BBC News. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- "Macron promises minimum wage hike in response to violent protests in France". CNN. 11 December 2018.
- "To quell unrest, France's Macron speeds up tax cuts but vows no U-turn". Reuters. 11 December 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- "Ce qu'a annoncé Macron pour sortir de la crise des "gilets jaunes"". FIGARO. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- "French police blasted for maiming 'yellow vests' with tear gas and rubber bullets". TheLocal.fr. 14 December 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Nicolas Chapuis (20 December 2018). "Policiers: avec la menace d'une mobilisation « illimitée », les syndicats obtiennent une hausse salariale". Le Monde (in French).
- "Gilets jaunes : une prime de 300 euros pour les forces de l'ordre mobilisées". France 24 (in French). 18 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Keoni Everington (20 December 2018). "10,000 Taiwanese 'yellow vests' march in Taipei for tax reforms". Taiwan News. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- 黃義書. "法稅改革聯盟等團體發起黃背心運動". United Daily News (in Chinese).
- Lorne Cook; Mark Carlson (30 November 2018). "'Yellow jacket' tax protests spread: billiard balls vs. water cannons". The Mercury News. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- "Des "gilets jaunes" créent un mouvement politique pour les prochaines élections fédérales". Le Soir (in French). 18 November 2018.
- "«Gilets jaunes»: trois Belges décédés depuis le début du mouvement". sudinfo.be (in French). Sudinfo. Belga. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Coleman, Cory (December 15, 2018). "Regina yellow vest protesters 'standing up for Canada', decry carbon tax, UN migration pact, Trudeau". CBC News. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
- Abedi, Maham (December 17, 2018). "Here's what to know about 'yellow vest' protests happening across Canada". Global News. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- Leyland Cecco (December 20, 2018). "Canada spawns its own yellow vest protests – with extra rightwing populism". The Guardian. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- "Yellow vest protests spread to Canada, criticizing illegal immigration, taxes". CTV News. December 16, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- Reuters (11 December 2018). "Egyptian lawyer detained after wearing yellow vest". The Jerusalem Post. Jpost Inc. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- Hamza Hendawi (AP) (10 December 2018). "Egypt restricts yellow vests sales to avoid copycat protests". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Press, Associated (11 December 2018). "Egypt bans sale of yellow vests in fear of gilets jaunes copycat protests". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- Thomas Wieder (3 December 2018). "En Allemagne, l'extrême droite revêt l'uniforme des 'gilets jaunes'". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "'Gelbwesten'-Protest in München". SPON (in German). 2018-12-15. Retrieved 2018-12-16.
- "Hundreds join 'yellow vest' protest march in Dublin". 2018-12-22.
- Willsher, Kim (2018-11-26). "Macron: Paris protest 'battle scenes' could hurt France's image". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
In Italy, a protest group inspired by the gilets jaunes and unveiled on Facebook on Saturday has garnered thousands of supporters online. Alberto Nardozzi, who runs market stalls in Turin and started the Italian protest group, said Brussels was the focus of his ire. 'We are inspired by the French gilet jaunes', he said. 'But we are motivated by other issues. We, unlike the French, support our government. What we protest against is Europe. We want Europe to no longer interfere with Italian politics.' Nardozzi said his group, which was planning a major rally in January, opposed the so-called Bolkestein directive, which liberalises cross-border services in the EU's internal market, as well as taxes on business and motorway tolls.
- "Italian leaders back French 'yellow vest' protesters". AFP via The Local. 2019-01-07. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
The two leaders of Italy's ruling populist coalition on Monday threw their support behind the 'yellow vest' protesters in neighbouring France. 'Yellow vests, do not weaken!' Deputy Prime Minister Di Maio, who heads the anti-establishment Five Star Movement (M5S), wrote in a post on his party's blog. He denounced the French government for protecting the elite and the privileged. Matteo Salvini, his counterpart from the far-right, the anti-immigrant League, also backed the 'yellow vest' protesters. 'I support honest citizens protesting against a president who governs against his people,' Salvini said in a statement, while 'firmly' condemning recent protest violence. It's extremely rare for European leaders to back anti-government protesters in a fellow member state. The move underscored the increasingly sour relations between Rome and Paris, which have previously clashed over immigration policy, among other issues.
- "Traffic jam follows engineers' protest". The News International. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
- Press, The Associated (2018-12-12). "Farmers' Protest Blocks Traffic on Major Artery Into Warsaw". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
- "Irak, Serbie, Allemagne… les Gilets jaunes essaiment au-delà de nos frontières". Le Parisien (in French). 6 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- Ann Maxon (20 December 2018). "10,000 Taiwanese 'yellow vests' march in Taipei for tax reforms". Taipei Times. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- Trew, Bel (11 December 2018). "Egypt clamps down on yellow vest sales to avoid copycat protests as angry Tunisian activists launch 'red vest' campaign". The Independent. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Dearden, Lizzie (2019-01-05). "Teenage girl arrested during far-right 'yellow vest' protests in London". The Independent. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
A 13-year-old girl has been arrested on suspicion of assaulting a police officer during a far-right 'yellow vest' protest that blocked major roads in London ... It was one of several protests held in British cities by the UK 'yellow vests', who have appropriated the high-visibility jackets worn in demonstrations that turned violent in France. Supporters called for a no-deal Brexit and shouted that the prime minister was a 'traitor', while demonstrating over other causes and conspiracy theories popular among the extreme right wing.
- Townsend, Mark (2018-12-23). "Police probe far-right 'yellow vest' group that intimidated Anna Soubry". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
Police are investigating a group of far-right members of the UK’s embryonic 'yellow-vest' movement who accosted the Conservative MP Anna Soubry outside parliament and called her a traitor, the Observer can reveal...The development comes as the Observer has learned that BNP founder Nick Griffin is among a cohort of prominent far-right figures keen to hijack the UK’s yellow-vest movement, which has recently appropriated the high-visibility jackets worn in the French gilet jaune protests.
- Mahmood, Basit (2019-01-05). "Girl, 13, among four arrested during pro-Brexit 'yellow vest' protest in London". Metro. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
A 13-year-old girl was arrested on suspicion of assaulting a police officer during a pro-Brexit 'yellow vest' protest in London today. She was arrested alongside three others as a far-right march blocked major roads around Westminster Bridge near the Parliament on Saturday. The demonstration in the capital was one of several held across UK cities, including Manchester, by demonstrators who have copied the high-visibility jackets worn in demonstrations that have turned violent in France.
Media related to Mouvement des gilets jaunes at Wikimedia Commons