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The Libyan National Army (Arabic: الجيش الوطني الليبي‎, al-jaysh al-waṭaniyy al-Lībiyya) is a political faction in Libya and was formerly the country's national military, consisting of a ground force and air force. It was established by the Libyan government after the first Libyan civil war (2011), as Libya's previous national army was defeated by the uprising and 2011 military intervention by NATO. In 2014, the Libyan National Army became its own political faction when under the leadership of General Khalifa Haftar it launched Operation Dignity, a coup against the Islamist-dominated General National Congress, the Libyan parliament. Most of the Libyan military sided with Haftar. The LNA was the military of Libya until late 2015, when the internationally recognised Government of National Accord was established in Tripoli, and established its own Libyan Army. Since then the LNA has not been recognised as the military of Libya.

Libyan National Army
الجيش الوطني الليبي
Libyan National Army.png
Flag of the Libyan Ground Forces.svg
Libyan National Army logo and flag
Active2011
2014 (current form)
Country Libya
Garrison/HQTobruk
Engagements2011-2012 Libyan factional fighting
Second Libyan Civil War
Commanders
Commander-in-chiefAguila Saleh Issa
Supreme CommanderField Marshal Khalifa Haftar
Chief of General StaffMajor General Abdulrazek al-Nadoori

In the ongoing Second Libyan Civil War (2014–present), the Libyan National Army is loyal to the legislative body in Tobruk, the Libyan House of Representatives, internationally recognised until October 2015. It fights against the Islamist-led Libya Dawn, the Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries as well as Islamic State in Libya which is a common enemy for both the Libyan National Army and the Libya Dawn. The internationally-recognised Government of National Accord (GNA) in Tripoli does not have a truly unified regular army, but relies on various militia groups in northwestern Libya, which operate under the nominal command of the GNA Defence Ministry.

At the beginning of the Second Libyan Civil War, the army was split between Khalifa Haftar's "anti-terrorist" faction, which acted largely independently, and Abdulsalam al-Obaidi's "legalist" faction which relied on orders from political authorities. In 2014, the Council of Deputies appointed Haftar commander of the whole army, re-uniting the two factions. The LNA possesses its own air force, but most of the Libyan Navy is loyal to the GNA.

Contents

StructureEdit

LeadershipEdit

As of December 2017, Major General Abdul Razzaq al-Nazhuri was the chief of staff of the LNA.[1] A lobbying firm was paid US$450,000 to lobby on his behalf for 12 months, starting 1 December 2017, in Washington, D.C.[1] Mahmoud al-Werfalli, known internationally for his International Criminal Court arrest warrant under Article 8(2)(c)(i) of the Rome Statute, was Axes Commander in the al-Saiqa unit of the LNA as of August 2017. [2][3]

Ground ForcesEdit

 
Seal of the Libyan Ground Forces

Formations include:

  • 17th Thunderbolt Special Forces Brigade - Tripoli
  • 27th Brigade - Tripoli.[4]

Al-Saiqa is an elite army unit, formed from a mixture of paratroopers and commandos. It numbers a few thousand and reports to the Ministry of Defence. It is popular in Benghazi, particularly in light of its opposition to Islamist Ansar al-Sharia group and because it is seen as a symbol of the reborn Libyan armed forces.[5]

HistoryEdit

2011–2013Edit

The Libyan National Army was founded in 2011 by the National Transitional Council, after forces aligned to it defeated the previous Libyan Army and overthrew Muammar Gaddafi's regime. Supply depots and bases having been damaged during the civil war, the new army is faced with the challenge of having to rebuild much of the country's military infrastructure.[6] Yousef Mangoush was named as its first Chief of Staff on 2 January 2012 and the force saw its first major deployment on 23 February, when it was deployed to Kufra to intervene in a tribal conflict.[7]

In November 2011, the National Transitional Council began the difficult process of restructuring the army, with military personnel who defected from the Gaddafi government and former rebel fighters of the National Liberation Army forming the basis of the new Libyan Army. Major General Khalifa Belgacem Haftar was chosen as the overall commander of the new Libyan Army due to his military experience and loyalty to the revolution that overthrew Gaddafi.[8]

The Libyan Army only numbered "a few thousand" trained soldiers in November 2011, and was rapidly trying to train up new fighters who could keep the peace nationwide and deter rogue militias from acting without NTC orders, and was responsible for brokering a ceasefire on at least one occasion in November between warring militas from Zawiya and Al Maya.[9]

On 1 December 2011, it was reported that the National Liberation Army was to integrate up to 50,000 former rebel fighters into the new Libyan national army and police forces, with the aid of French training, with long term aims to integrate as many as 200,000 fighters from the brigades that had fought against Gaddafi during the civil war.[10]

In December 2011, Italy agreed to provide training to the Libyan Army as it attempted to reorganize in the aftermath of the Civil War.[11][12]

Also in December, large numbers of former rebels were being given jobs in the new army, whilst the government also announced that they would be free to join the special forces and the Navy too. According to Osama al-Juwaili, the defence minister: "The idea is to inject new blood in the army which was marginalised by the tyrant (Gaddafi)"[13]

General Yousef Mangoush said on 5 January 2012 that Libya's new army faces major obstacles such as rebuilding bases destroyed during the conflict, as well as disarming militias that were not part of the new army. National Army commander General Khalifa Haftar said later that it could take between three and five years for Libya to field a capable enough army to protect its borders.[14]

On 7 May 2013, Libya's Defense Minister Mohammed al-Barghathi resigned due to a crisis caused by gunmen who have besieged two ministries for more than a week, a ministry official said. He later withdrew his resignation after Prime Minister Zeidan convinced him to stay.[15]

Under an agreement reached at the Lough Erne G8 summit in June 2013, NATO countries the United Kingdom, Italy, Turkey, and the United States undertook to help train up to 15,000 personnel from Libyan National Army units over a two-year period. They were to take units from newly formed brigades for 10-week stints of intensive infantry training. The 27th Brigade was due to start at Bassingbourn in eastern England in January 2014.[4] As a result of disorder and sexual assaults by some Libyan army cadets, the UK cancelled the programme in November 2014. The Libyan trainees were sent back to Libya, with the exception of five who were tried for sexual offenses.[16]

2016 overthrow of mayorsEdit

In late 2016, Major-General Abdul Razzaq al-Nazhuri of the LNA replaced several of the elected municipal mayors in eastern Libya by unelected people, mostly military.[17][18] Altogether the LNA replaced nine elected councils, out of 27 in its area of control, by military administrators.[19]

EquipmentEdit

Whilst it is known to a degree what equipment the Libyan National Army uses, the exact numbers of the below equipment currently in use is not known. What is certain is that a reasonable quantity of their equipment probably came from ransacked stocks of the original Libyan Army and from defectors as well.

Small armsEdit

Name Country of origin Type Caliber Notes
NATO Standard
FN P90[20][21]   Belgium Personal defence weapon FN 5.7×28mm
Beretta 92FS[22]   Italy Pistol 9×19mm
CZ99   Serbia
Beretta M12[23]   Italy Submachine gun
Zastava M21[24]   Serbia Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Most likely used by special forces.
FN F2000[25]   Belgium Most likely used by special forces.
FN FAL Battle rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
Heckler & Koch G3[26]   West Germany
Zastava M07   Serbia Most likely used by special forces.
Zastava M93 Black Arrow[27] Sniper rifle 12.7×99mm Most likely used by special forces.
Benelli M4[28][29]   Italy Shotgun 12 gauge Used by special forces
Soviet Standard
TT-33   Soviet Union Pistol 7.62×25mm
AK-47[30][31] Assault rifle 7.62×39mm
AKM
Dragunov sniper rifle Sniper rifle 7.62×54mmR
Zastava M91[27]   Yugoslavia
RPK   Soviet Union General-purpose machine gun 7.62×39mm
PK machine gun[32] 7.62×54mmR
Degtyaryov machine gun
Zastava M84   Yugoslavia
DShK   Soviet Union Heavy machine gun 12.7×108mm
Zastava M02 Coyote[24]   Serbia

TechnicalsEdit

A variety of pickup/utility vehicles, called technicals and gun trucks, often Toyota and other makers, armed with a variety of different weapons, including heavy machineguns, light MLRS' and anti-aircraft guns, most commonly used is the ZU-23-2 and the ZPU.[33][34]

TanksEdit

Armoured personnel carriersEdit

ArtilleryEdit

Portable anti-tank weaponsEdit

Anti-tank guided missilesEdit

Self-propelled anti-air gunEdit

See alsoEdit

National Liberation Army

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "ICC-01/11-01/17: The Prosecutor v. Mahmoud Mustafa Busayf Al-Werfalli Warrant of Arrest" (PDF). International Criminal Court. 15 August 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ The Office of the Prosecutor (9 May 2018). "Fifteenth report of the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to the United Nations Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1970 (2011)" (PDF). International Criminal Court. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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  8. ^ "Libya: New Chief for Revamped National Army". AllAfrica.com. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  9. ^ Krauss, Clifford (21 November 2011). "Libyas toughest test may be building an army". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
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  12. ^ "Turkey to Train Libya's Army « Shabab Libya". Shabablibya.org. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
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