Anne Hidalgo

Ana María "Anne" Hidalgo Aleu (French pronunciation: ​[an idalɡo], Spanish: [iˈðalɣo]; born 19 June 1959) is a Spanish-French politician who has served as Mayor of Paris since 2014. A member of the Socialist Party (PS), she is the first woman to hold the office.

Anne Hidalgo
Anne Hidalgo, février 2014.jpg
Hidalgo in 2014
Mayor of Paris
Assumed office
5 April 2014
DeputyBruno Julliard
Emmanuel Grégoire
Preceded byBertrand Delanoë
First Deputy Mayor of Paris
In office
18 March 2001 – 5 April 2014
MayorBertrand Delanoë
Preceded byJacques Dominati
Succeeded byBruno Julliard
Councillor of Paris
Assumed office
9 March 2001
Constituency15th arrondissement (2001–2020)
11th arrondissement (2020–present)
Personal details
Born
Ana María Hidalgo Aleu

(1959-06-19) 19 June 1959 (age 62)
San Fernando, Spain
Citizenship
  • France
  • Spain
Political partySocialist Party
Spouse(s)First husband (div.)
(m. 2004)
Children3
ResidenceHôtel de Ville de Paris
Alma materJean Moulin University Lyon 3
Paris West University Nanterre La Défense
Signature

Hidalgo served as First Deputy Mayor of Paris under Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (2001–2014), having held the title of Councillor of Paris since the 2001 municipal election.[2] She was elected to the mayoralty in 2014 after Delanoë announced he would not seek a third term. Her first term as Mayor of Paris was marked by the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting and November 2015 Paris attacks, including the Bataclan theatre massacre which she witnessed the aftermath of first-hand.[3] Her popularity declined following several instances of alleged mismanagement, to the point that polls showed a majority of voters did not want her to win a second term in 2020.[4][5] First Deputy Mayor Bruno Julliard resigned in 2018, criticising Hidalgo's style of governance.[6] Despite the COVID-19 pandemic in France ultimately leading to a record low voter turnout, she was reelected although failed to secure an absolute majority of the vote.

During her second term as Mayor of Paris, Hidalgo has overseen the city's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, implementing measures such as nightly curfews, closure of non-essential shops and the introduction of 50 kilometres (31 mi) of pop-up cycle lanes known as "coronapistes" to ease pressure on public transport.[7][8][9] By January 2021, a number of Hidalgo's policies have gained international attention, such as her proposal to remove over half of Paris's car parking spaces and turn the Champs-Élysées into a "fantastic garden".[10][11][12]

On 12 September 2021, Hidalgo announced her candidacy in the 2022 presidential election, despite her pledge in 2020 to serve a full second term as Mayor of Paris.[13][14]

Early life and educationEdit

Family background and youthEdit

Hidalgo was born in San Fernando, province of Cádiz, Spain.[1] Her paternal grandfather was a Spanish Socialist who became a refugee in France after the end of the Spanish Civil War along with his wife and his four children. However, her grandparents returned to Spain some time later. Her grandmother died on the return trip whereas her grandfather was sentenced to death, although this sentence was eventually commuted to a life sentence.

Hidalgo's father, Antonio Hidalgo (born in Antequera),[15] was raised by his maternal grandparents.[citation needed] He was an electrician.[1] In the late 1950s, he married a seamstress named Maria;[1] they had two daughters, Ana (Anne) and María (Marie). However, due to the social and economic problems in Spain resulting from the implementation of the Stabilization Plan, Hidalgo's parents migrated to France in 1961, this time as economic immigrants.[16][17][18] They settled in Lyon,[19] with their two daughters.

Hidalgo grew up in Vaise, the 9th arrondissement of Lyon,[20] speaking Spanish with her parents and French with her sister. Her parents are now back in Spain[18] while her elder sister, Marie, manages a company in Los Angeles. Hidalgo and her parents were naturalised French when she was fourteen. In 2003 she regained Spanish nationality and since then has dual French-Spanish citizenship.

StudiesEdit

Hidalgo graduated with a master's degree in social law at Jean Moulin University Lyon 3[21][22] before completing a Master of Advanced Studies (DEA) in social and trade unionism at Paris West University Nanterre La Défense.

Labour inspectorEdit

In 1982, Hidalgo entered the national contest for the Inspection du travail (Labour Inspectorate), ranking fifth. She obtained her first inspector assignment in Chevilly-Larue in 1984 at the age of 24, before receiving a post in the 15th arrondissement of Paris where she lived, a few months later.

In 1991, Hidalgo was appointed director of the National Institute of Labour. In 1993, she joined the vocational training delegation at the Ministry of Labour and then obtained a mission at the International Labour Office in Geneva from 1995 to 1996. She then worked for one year as a project manager for the Director of Human Resources at the Ministry of Labour. From 1996 to 1997, she was an officer at the Human Resources Directorate of Compagnie Générale des Eaux (then Vivendi and Vivendi Universal).

Hidalgo retired from the civil service on 1 July 2011, aged 52.[23]

Member of ministerial cabinetsEdit

Between 1997 and 2002, Hidalgo worked as a staffer in three ministerial offices within the government of Lionel Jospin: first in the office of Martine Aubry at the Ministry of Employment and Solidarity as technical advisor; then with Nicole Péry, Secretary of State for Women's Rights and Vocational Training, from 1998 to 2000, as technical advisor then consultant to the firm, participating, in particular, in the drafting of laws on parity and professional equality between women and men; and from November 2000 to May 2002, as a technical adviser and then mission manager, responsible for social relations and the status of civil servants, in the office of Marylise Lebranchu, Minister of Justice.

Hidalgo said on 4 April 2013, on RMC: "I earn 5,000 euros net per month for my mandates". According to the website Atlantico, she received, for all her revenues, around 8,200 euros net per month.

Political careerEdit

In the 2001 municipal elections, she led the list of the Socialist Party (PS) in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, which won 26.5% of votes in the first round; at the second round it then placed behind the list gathered around Édouard Balladur and Mayor René Galy-Dejean. She joined the Council of Paris and was appointed First Deputy Mayor of Paris.

In June 2002, she was a candidate in the legislative election in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, winning 29.6% of votes in the first round, but Balladur was elected with 54.2% of the vote. In March 2004, she was elected to the Regional Council of Île-de-France on the list led by Jean-Paul Huchon.

As part of the internal campaign for the nomination of the Socialist candidate in 2006, she publicly supported Dominique Strauss-Kahn, while remaining close to Lionel Jospin and Bertrand Delanoë. With other female leaders of the Socialist Party, she criticized the "peoplelisation" of politics, referring to the promotion of Ségolène Royal as a popularist widely-identifiable member of the Socialist Party, rather than a classical Marxist.

In June 2007, she was a candidate at the legislative election in the 13th arrondissement of Paris and had in the first round 28.2%, against 36.6% for the UMP candidate Jean-François Lamour; she was beaten on the second round with 56.7% for Lamour.

First Deputy Mayor of ParisEdit

In 2001, Hidalgo was elected councillor in the 15th arrondissement. She also joined the Council of Paris, where the left had a majority for the first time since 1977.

The new Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë, wishing to apply parity within his administration and among his deputies, appointed Hidalgo as the first deputy responsible for gender equality and the time office. Close to François Hollande, she thus obtained her first executive position. In 2002, she acted as Mayor of Paris during the convalescence of Delanoë after he was stabbed during an attempted assassination.[24] She confided at the same time to consider a candidacy for Mayor of Toulouse in 2008.

In June 2002, as a candidate in the legislative election in Paris's 12th constituency, Hidalgo won 29.6% of the vote in the first and only round against 54.2% of the vote for incumbent Édouard Balladur, who was reelected. She also failed to take Paris's 13th constituency away from the UMP in June 2007, obtaining 28.2% of the vote in the first round, then 43.3% of the votes in the second round against 56.7% for the former Sports Minister Jean-François Lamour (UMP).

In the municipal elections of 9 and 16 March 2008, the assembly list (PS-PCF-PRG-MRC) that Hidalgo led in the 15th arrondissement of Paris came first in the first round with 35.9% of the vote (28 313 votes) against a strongly divided right, 33.9% to Philippe Goujon's UMP list and 10.1% to Gérard d'Aboville's list (various right). In the second round, his list obtained 47.35% of the votes against 52.65% obtained by Philippe Goujon, whose list merged with that of Gérard d'Aboville. Anne Hidalgo remained first Deputy Mayor under Bertrand Delanoë. She was then responsible for town planning and architecture and seats for the board of directors of the Parisian Urban Planning Workshop.

In 2017, an article from Capital stated that Hidalgo had been paid €100,000 by the Ministry of Labour from 2001 to 2003, while being Bertrand Delanoë's first deputy. Hidalgo's office indicated that she would file a complaint for defamation.

Regional councillor of Île-de-FranceEdit

In the 2004 regional elections, Hidalgo was elected to the Regional Council of Île-de-France after being voted for Paris on the list conducted at the regional level by Jean-Paul Huchon. She became a member of the Committee on Transport and Traffic and is the Chair of the Regional AIDS Information and Prevention Centre (CRIPS).

In the 2010 regional elections, the Socialist list she led in Paris came in second place in the first round, with 26.3% of the vote, behind the list led by Chantal Jouanno (28.9%) and in front of the Green list of Robert Lion (20.6%). In the second round, his list took the lead with 57.9% of the votes cast, winning in the 1st and 5th districts, two bastions traditionally anchored on the right. Reelected as regional councillor, she joined the Committee on Culture and became president of Île-de-France Europe, which represents the region at the European Union institutions in Brussels. Jean-Luc Romero succeeded her to the presidency of the CRIPS. Upon her election as Mayor of Paris, she stepped down as a regional councillor.

Mayoral electionsEdit

In 2012 Hidalgo announced her intention to seek the succession of Bertrand Delanoë in the 2014 Paris municipal election. The only candidate of her party after the withdrawal of Jean-Marie Le Guen, Hidalgo was appointed on 22 May 2013 to lead the municipal campaign, with 98.3% of the votes of 2,715 Paris Socialists. She appointed Pascal Cherki as spokesman for her campaign, assisted by Bruno Julliard, Rémi Féraud (also co-director of the campaign with Jean-Louis Missika), Ian Brossat (after the PS-PCF agreement), Colombe Brossel, Seybah Dagoma and Myriam El Khomri. On 10 October 2013, she was reelected as head of the PS list in the 15th arrondissement.

On 30 March 2014, in the second round, the list she led won a majority in the Paris Council. In the 15th arrondissement, her list was however defeated by outgoing Mayor Philippe Goujon (UMP), whose list received 63.4% of the vote in the second round. For the first time, a candidate thus accessed the mayorship of Paris without being in the majority in their district. On 5 April 2014, she was elected to the mayorship by the Paris Council, becoming the first woman to hold the position. Paris being also a department, she also became President of the Departmental Council of Paris, one of ten women (out of 101).

Hidalgo was elected First Vice President of the Métropole du Grand Paris on 22 January 2016, ex officio to her mayoral position. In 2017, United Nations Secretary General António Guterres appointed her to the eight-member Independent Panel to Assess, Enhance Effectiveness of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat).[25]

On June 28, 2020, Hidalgo was reelected as mayor of Paris, winning 48.5% of ballots cast.[26] There was a record low voter turnout in the second round of the municipal elections (64%) which were postponed because of the COVID-19 pandemic.[27] Hidalgo's campaign focused on turning Paris into a 15-minute city (Ville Du Quart D’Heure),[26] aiming to make neighbourhoods more self-sufficient within each arrondissement in Paris having its own grocery stores, parks, cafes, sports facilities, health centres, schools and offices accessible by way of a short walk or bike ride.[28] In December 2020, Hidalgo received a fine from the national government, after she named 11 women out of 16 in her upper management, which was a violation of a rule of the French Civil Service Ministry allowing a maximum of 60% of one gender in leadership positions.[29]

Political viewsEdit

DADVSIEdit

On 21 December 2005, in the debates on DADVSI, she took a public stand against the amendments of the Socialist Group introducing the "global licence" to download online material. On 26 December, she signed with Christophe Girard, Deputy Mayor of Paris responsible for Culture, a view published in the newspaper Le Monde defending her position on behalf of cultural diversity which would be threatened by the "global licence."[30] Some people contend that she was in fact defending the interests of Vivendi Universal, the music and film company which employed her a few years earlier.

On 3 January 2006, she presented with François Adibi and the Socialist Party's Culture Section a report and new recommendations "for a fair solution", rejecting both the DRM (Digital Rights Management) and the "global licence." She was later ostracised by the PS leadership which chose to defend in the National Assembly the "global licence" advocated by Patrick Bloche (Paris), Didier Mathus (Saône-et-Loire) and Christian Paul (Nièvre).

Anti-cult fightEdit

In 2005, Hidalgo took a stand in the debate on cults in France, becoming the president of a committee of vigilance against the cults at the Council of Paris. She was especially opposed to the Church of Scientology and New Acropolis, and participated in a demonstration in front of the Church of Scientology's premises.[31][32] A map of cults in Paris, created by the Mairie de Paris at that time and promoted by Hidalgo, was controversial[33] and Hidalgo filed a complaint against an unknown person for circulating a leaflet on the Internet signed by a "committee to support Anne Hidalgo", which requested denunciation of "non-compliant behaviours."[32] Hidalgo denies any link with this supposed support committee. A complaint that she brought against the head of the organization that circulated the leaflet was later dismissed.[34]

Environmental issuesEdit

From May 2016, in order to combat air pollution in the city, Hidalgo oversaw the introduction of a scheme called "Paris Respire" (literally "Paris Breathes"), which included banning all cars from certain areas of Paris on the first Sunday of the month, as well as making public transport and the city's bicycle and electric vehicle schemes free for the day.[35][36] She also worked further to reduce car usage, with an increase in the price of parking meters, a ban on free parking on certain days, and the conversion of certain sections of a highway along the River Seine into a riverside park.[37] On 24 June 2017, she joined President Emmanuel Macron in calling for the adoption of a Global Pact for the Environment along with other public figures such as Laurent Fabius, Nicolas Hulot, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Ban Ki-moon.[38]

She has also proposed a ban on diesel motors in Paris streets[39] and has promised to have a 24/7 service for the Paris Métro.[40] Hidalgo is aiming to have more than 600 mi (970 km) of bike lanes in Paris by 2020.[41]

In February 2020, Hidalgo launched her Paris Mayor reelection campaign with a focus on making Paris into a 15 minute city (ville du quart d’heure), a concept of urban proximity coined by Carlos Moreno. The name 15-minute city refers to the idea that in cities, residents of each neighbourhood should be able to reach all necessary amenities (such as schools, offices, shops, parks, health centres) by a 15-minute walk or bike ride, moving away from car dependency in order to cut air pollution levels.[42]

In an interview given to Le Parisien in October 2020, Hidalgo announced "we must forget about crossing Paris from east to west by car"[43][44] Hidalgo announced her intention to create permanent curb-protected cycle lanes and expand the number of "coronapistes", cycle lanes created during the COVID-19 pandemic.[43] She also intends to remove over half of the parking spaces in Paris by the end of her four-year term in office (70,000 out of 140,000 total).[45]

In January 2021, Hidalgo announced that she had approved a €250 million renovation of the Champs-Élysées, with the intention of reducing space allocated to vehicles by half, turning roads into green and pedestrianised areas and planting tunnels of trees to improve air quality.[46]

HousingEdit

At the start of her first term, Hidalgo stated in an interview that housing is her number one priority.[47] Under Hidalgo's mayorship, Paris has produced 7,000 social housing units a year since Hidalgo took office, up from 5,000 a year under her predecessor. She aims for Paris to be 30% social housing by 2030.[48]

Personal lifeEdit

Since June 2004, Hidalgo has been married to politician Jean-Marc Germain, whom she met when they both worked in the office of Martine Aubry, then Minister of Labour. Hidalgo and Germain reside in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. They have a child together, Arthur Germain, who is the youngest Frenchman to swim the English Channel.[49][1]

Hidalgo is also the mother of two children, born in 1986 and 1988, during a previous relationship.

Hidalgo had a Catholic education, and is an outspoken atheist.[50][51][52]

Other activitiesEdit

  • Paris Europlace, Member of the Board of Directors[53]

RecognitionEdit

AwardsEdit

Hidalgo is included in Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People of 2020.[54]

HonoursEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Une femme dans l'arène, published in June 2006, Le Rocher editions, co-written with Jean-Bernard Senon, preface by Bertrand Delanoë ISBN 2268059618
  • Travail au bord de la crise de nerfs, published in October, 2010, co-written with Jean-Bernard Senon ISBN 2081245221

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Jérôme Bonnet, 'To be Mayor is to work 24 hours a day', FT Weekend Magazine (Financial Times supplement), 28 February/1 March 2015, pp. 18–21
  2. ^ "La nouvelle vie d'Anne Hidalgo". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  3. ^ "'Paris has changed permanently': a day on duty with mayor Anne Hidalgo". the Guardian. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  4. ^ (French) "Sondage : 58% des Parisiens se disent mécontents d'Anne Hidalgo", www.lci.fr (25 March 2018)
  5. ^ (French) "Elections municipales 2020 : Anne Hidalgo, mal-aimée mais favorite à Paris, Le Monde (21 January 2020)
  6. ^ (French) "Paris : démission surprise de Bruno Julliard, premier adjoint d’Anne Hidalgo", Le Parisien (17 September 2018)
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  8. ^ "France prepares for curfew in Paris and other cities as Covid-19 cases surge". France 24. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Paris faces even tighter lockdown restrictions". The Independent. 5 November 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
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  11. ^ Willsher, Kim (10 January 2021). "Paris agrees to turn Champs-Élysées into 'extraordinary garden'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  12. ^ Yeung, Peter. "How '15-minute cities' will change the way we socialise". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  13. ^ Hidalgo, Anne [@anne_hidalgo] (12 September 2021). "Humblement, consciente de la gravité de cet instant, et pour faire de nos espoirs la réalité de nos vies, j'ai décidé d'être candidate à la présidence de la République française" [Humbly, aware of the gravity of this moment, and to make our hopes the reality of our lives, I have decided to be a candidate for the presidency of the French Republic.] (Tweet) (in French). Retrieved 12 September 2021 – via Twitter.
  14. ^ "Quand Anne Hidalgo promettait qu'elle ne serait pas candidate à la présidentielle", Le Figaro (in French), 12 September 2021
  15. ^ Espinosa, Pedro (31 March 2014). "El ancla gaditana de la alcaldesa". El País. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  16. ^ Martí, Octavi (1 April 2001). "Una gaditana en la alcaldía de París". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  17. ^ Viñals, Carole (2021). "La postmémoire dans le discours politique de Manuel Valls et Anne Hidalgo". Cahiers de civilisation espagnole contemporaine (in French). 25. doi:10.4000/ccec.11220. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  18. ^ a b "Una gaditana en la alcaldía de París". El País (in Spanish). 1 April 2001. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  19. ^ Viñals 2021.
  20. ^ Adam Thomson (14 March 2014), Fight for Paris mayor boils down to two women Financial Times.
  21. ^ "Biographie Anne Hidalgo". www.linternaute.com. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  22. ^ Vaillant, Luc Le (2 October 2012). "Anne Hidalgo. Cosmopolitique". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  23. ^ Anne Hidalgo, 53 ans, retraitée depuis juillet 2011, Atlantico, 9 avril 2013.
  24. ^ "Egalité, Fraternité, Insécurité". Slate. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  25. ^ Secretary-General Appoints Independent Panel to Assess, Enhance Effectiveness of UN-Habitat after Adoption of New Urban Agenda United Nations, press release of 12 April 2017.
  26. ^ a b Reid, Carlton. "Anne Hidalgo Reelected As Mayor Of Paris Vowing To Remove Cars And Boost Bicycling And Walking". Forbes. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  27. ^ Corbet, Sylvie (June 29, 2020) "Paris mayor reelected, green wave in France local elections", ABC News. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  28. ^ Willsher, Kim (7 February 2020). "Paris mayor unveils '15-minute city' plan in re-election campaign". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  29. ^ Rosenblum, Darren. "When The State Levies Fines On Feminism". Forbes.
  30. ^ Anne Hidalgo and Christophe Girard (27 December 2005). "Coup dur pour la création". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  31. ^ "Il faut en finir avec la secte de la Scientologie" (in French). Anne Hidalgo. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  32. ^ a b "Manifestation contre la Scientologie" (in French). Nouvel Observateur, 11 October 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  33. ^ "Sectes à Paris : protestation de la Scientologie et de Nouvelle Acropole" (in French). Sectes-infos. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  34. ^ "Anne Hidalgo déboutée par la 17ème Chambre correctionnelle" (in French). Coordiap. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
  35. ^ Anzilotti, Eillie (29 April 2016). "Starting May 8, Sundays on the Champs Elysées Will Be a Car-Free Experience". CityLab. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  36. ^ "Paris Respire" (in French). Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  37. ^ "Paris imposes driving restrictions, plans clunker ban as smog hits highs". Reuters. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
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  39. ^ "Paris ban on Diesel". Associated Press. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  40. ^ "Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris and her goal of a green Paris | TheMayor.EU". www.themayor.eu.
  41. ^ Nossiter, Adam (5 October 2019). "The Greening of Paris Makes Its Mayor More Than a Few Enemies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
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  43. ^ a b Reid, Carlton. "Paris Mayor: 'Forget Crossing Through The City By Car'". Forbes. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  44. ^ Alimi, Par Jannick; à 20h13, Christine Henry et Charlotte Robinet Le 2 octobre 2020; À 12h39, Modifié Le 3 Octobre 2020 (2 October 2020). "Anne Hidalgo : "Il faut oublier la traversée de Paris d'est en ouest en voiture"". leparisien.fr (in French). Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  45. ^ Reid, Carlton. "Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo To Make Good On Pledge To Remove Half Of City's Car Parking Spaces". Forbes. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  46. ^ "Paris approves plan to turn Champs-Élysées into 'extraordinary garden'". the Guardian. 10 January 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  47. ^ Willsher, Kim (27 July 2014). "'My absolute priority is housing,' says Paris' first female mayor". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  48. ^ Kinniburgh, Colin (3 November 2020). "Paris's new public housing push aims to offset soaring rents". France24. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  49. ^ Paris, Charles Bremner (26 July 2018). "Teen son of Paris mayor swims English Channel". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  50. ^ Anne Hidalgo, première dame Béatrice Gurrey, Le Monde, 04.04.2014
  51. ^ Quand Anne Hidalgo s'essaie à l'anglais pour critiquer Donald Trump, c'est...très gênant Atlantico, 13 May 2016
  52. ^ « À Cadix, Hidalgo soigne son image en pensant à 2014 », Le Figaro, 28 September 2012
  53. ^ Board of Directors Paris Europlace.
  54. ^ "Anne Hidalgo: The 100 Most Influential People of 2020". Time. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  55. ^ "Anne Hidalgo décorée par le roi d'Espagne". Le Parisien (in French). Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  56. ^ "Légion d'honneur : Simone Veil, Juliette Gréco, Michel Blanc au menu de la promotion 2012". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
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  58. ^ "Paris Mayor awarded with Yerevan Mayor Gold Medal". armenpress.am.
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External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by First Deputy Mayor of Paris
2001–2014
Succeeded by
Preceded by Mayor of Paris
2014–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by Socialist Party nominee for Mayor of Paris
2014 (won) • 2020 (won)
Most recent