Communist Party of Tajikistan

The Communist Party of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҳизби Коммунистии Тоҷикистон, Hizbi Kommunistiyi Tojikiston; Russian: Коммунистическая партия Таджикистана, romanizedKommunisticheskaya partiya Tadzhikistana) is a communist party in Tajikistan, and the oldest political party in the country. The party was founded on 6 January 1924 and was the ruling party of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1924 to 1929 and the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic from 1929 to 1990 as part of the Soviet Union as a republican branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It was banned in 1991 following the 1991 coup.

Communist Party of Tajikistan
Ҳизби коммунистии Тоҷикистон
Коммунистическая партия Таджикистана
AbbreviationCPT (English)
HKT (Tajik)
KPT (Russian)
LeaderMiroj Abdulloyev
Founded6 December 1924
HeadquartersFatekh Niyazi 37, Dushanbe. 734002
Membership (2020)52,000
Soviet patriotism
Political positionFar-left
National affiliationCommunist Party of the Soviet Union (until 1991)
Regional affiliationUCP–CPSU
International affiliationComintern (1924–1943)
Cominform (1947–1956)
Colours  Red
SloganWorkers of the world, unite
AnthemThe Internationale
Assembly of Representatives
2 / 61

The CPT is a based on the concept of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist Vladimir Lenin, that entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies. The highest institution of the party was the Party Congress, which elects the Central Committee. In between party congresses, the Central Committee is the highest decision-making organ regarding party affairs. After a party congress, the Central Committee elects the Politburo, as well as the First Secretary, the highest party officer. In between sessions of the Central Committee, the Politburo is the highest decision-making body.

The party is committed to communism and participates in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties, an annual international forum of communist parties. According to the party statute, the party adheres to Marxism–Leninism, based on the writings of Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx, and formalized under Joseph Stalin. The party had pursued state socialism,[1] under which all industries were nationalized and a command economy was introduced. Prior to the adoption of central planning in 1929, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy, commonly referred to as the New Economic Policy, in the 1920s, which allowed to introduce certain capitalist elements in the Soviet economy. This changed upon the ascension of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 when he and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms, leading to the unraveling of the CPT in the 1990 Dushanbe riots, the banning of the CPT in 1991 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The party managed to remain in power until 2000 when it was overtaken by the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan but the party improved when it won 13.97% of the popular vote and 4 out of 63 seats in the 2005 election.[2]

Today, the party is affiliated to the Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

History edit

Soviet era edit

The first social democratic groups arose in Tajikistan during the 1905 Russian Revolution and by late 1917 and early 1918, Bolshevik organizations were created in Khodjent, Ura-Tyube, Penjikent, and Shurab. On December 6, 1924, the government formed the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan in the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The first Tajik party conference was held between October 21–27, 1927. On 25 November 1929, by the decision of the Politburo of the CPSU, the CPT was formed by separation from the CPU. In 1975, the CPT had more than 94,000 members.

Regional and city committees edit

  • Dushanbe City Committee
  • Garm Regional Committee
  • Gorno-Badakhshan Regional Committee *Kulyab Regional Committee
  • Kurgan-Tyubinsk Regional Committee *Stalinabad Regional Committee
  • Ura-Tyuba Regional Committee

Post-independence edit

After becoming independent, it was voted to rename the CPT the Socialist Party of Tajikistan; however, by December 1991, the ban on the activities of the Communist Party was lifted.[3][4] During the Tajikistani Civil War, the CPT supported the government and the Popular Front of Tajikistan. At present, the Communist Party of Tajikistan supports the government of Emomali Rahmon. Beginning in the 2000s, the CPT lost the majority of its electorate, with today's electorate of the party being made up mainly of people of retirement age.

Leaders edit

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan (1924–1991) edit

No. Picture Name


Took office Left office Political party
First Secretary
1   Chinor Emomov
1924 1927 CPSU
2   Mumin Khojaev
1927 1928 CPSU
3   Ali Shervoni
1928 1929 CPSU
4   Shirinsho Shotemur
1929 1930 CPSU
5   Mirza Huseynov
1930 1933 CPSU
6   Grigory Broydo
1933 1934 CPSU
7   Suren Shadunts
1934 1936 CPSU
8   Urunboi Ashurov
1936 1937 CPSU
9   Dmitri Protopopov
1937 1946 CPSU
10   Bobojon Ghafurov
1946 1956 CPSU
11   Tursun Uljabayev
1956 1961 CPSU
12   Jabbor Rasulov
1961 1982 CPSU
13   Rahmon Nabiyev
1982 1985 CPSU
14   Qahhor Mahkamov
1985 1991 CPSU

Second Secretaries edit

Chairman of the Communist Party of Tajikistan (1991–Present) edit

No. Picture Name


Took office Left office
1   Shodi Shabdolov


4 September 1991 2 July 2016
2   Ismoil Talbakov
2 July 2016 17 December 2016
3   Mirzoazim Nasimov
17 December 2016 22 April 2017
4   Miroj Abdulloyev
(born 1948)
22 April 2017 Incumbent

Electoral history edit

Presidential elections edit

Election Party candidate Votes % Result
1991 Rahmon Nabiyev 60.4% Elected  Y
2006 Ismoil Talbakov 159,493 5.2% Lost  N
2013 Ismoil Talbakov 181,675 5.04% Lost  N
2020 Miroj Abdulloyev 49,535 1.18% Lost  N

Assembly of Representatives elections edit

Election Votes % Seats +/– Position Government
60 / 181
  60   1st Majority
13 / 63
  47   2nd Opposition
2005 533,066 20.6%
4 / 63
  9   2nd Opposition
2010 229,080 7.0%
2 / 63
  2   3rd Opposition
2015 2.2%
2 / 63
    5th Opposition
2020 3.1%
2 / 63
    6th Opposition

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Pyrih, R. Communist Party of Ukraine, the Soviet period (КОМУНІСТИЧНА ПАРТІЯ УКРАЇНИ РАДЯНСЬКОЇ ДОБИ). Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine. 2007
  2. ^ PARLINE database on national parliaments – Tajikistan Majlisi namoyandogon (House of Representatives) – Last Election
  3. ^ Договор ратифицирован, а компартия признана невиновной // «Известия», 26 декабря 1991, № 306
  4. ^ Энциклопедия Кольера
  5. ^ Tunçer-Kılavuz, Idil (2014-06-27). Power, Networks and Violent Conflict in Central Asia: A Comparison of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Routledge. ISBN 9781317805113.
  6. ^ "He was in office of Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan during 1986–1989".