Neoclassical liberalism, also referred to as bleeding-heart libertarianism (BHL) or the Arizona School liberalism, is a libertarian political philosophy and ideology that focuses on the compatibility of support for civil liberties and free markets on the one hand and a concern for social justice and the well-being of the worst-off on the other. Adherents of bleeding-heart libertarianism broadly hold that an agenda focused upon individual liberty will be of most benefit to the economically weak and socially disadvantaged.
The first recorded use of the term "bleeding-heart libertarian" seems to have been in a 1996 essay by Roderick T. Long. It was subsequently used in a blog post by Stefan Sharkansky and later picked up and elaborated on by Arnold Kling in an article for TCS Daily. Since then, the term has been used sporadically by a number of libertarian writers including Anthony Gregory and Bryan Caplan.
In March 2011, a group of academic philosophers, political theorists and economists created the Bleeding Heart Libertarians blog. Regular contributors to the blog include Fernando Tesón, Gary Chartier, Jason Brennan, Roderick T. Long and Steven Horwitz.
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Critics of the bleeding-heart libertarian movement include economist David D. Friedman, for whom bleeding-heart libertarians "insist that social justice ought to be part of libertarianism but are unwilling to tell us what it means."
- Classical liberalism
- Classical radicalism
- Compassionate conservatism
- Distributive justice
- Left-wing market anarchism
- Libertarian paternalism
- Lockean proviso
- Poverty reduction
- Radical centrism
- Gary Chartier
- Fred Foldvary
- Michael Munger
- Michael Otsuka
- David Schmidtz
- Hillel Steiner
- John Tomasi
- Brennan, Jason (2012). Libertarianism: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0199933914.
- Matt Zwolinski and John Tomasi, "A Bleeding Heart History of Libertarianism", April 2, 2012, Cato Unbound.
- Zwolinski, Matt (2011-03-03). "Bleeding-Heart Libertarianism". Bleeding Heart Libertarians blog.
- Neoclassical liberal philosophers, such as David Schmidtz, Jerry Gaus, John Tomasi, Kevin Vallier, Matt Zwolinski, and Jason Brennan all have a connection to the University of Arizona (cf. "On the ethics of voting", 3:AM Magazine, January 14, 2013).
- "About Us". Bleeding Heart Libertarians.
- Long, Roderick (1996). "Beyond the Boss". Retrieved 2012-09-20.
- Sharkansky, Stefan (2002-06-01). "My Blog and Welcome to It". Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- Kling, Arnold (2003-09-29). "Bleeding-Heart Libertarianism". Archived from the original on 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- Gregory, Anthony. "Don't Privatize Plunder". LewRockwell.com. Archived from the original on 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2018-09-07.
- Caplan, Bryan. "Who's More Irresponsible?". EconLog. Missing or empty
- Henderson, David (2012-04-28). "David Friedman on Bleeding-Heart Libertarianism". EconLog. Missing or empty
- Jeffrey Edward Green (2016), The Shadow of Unfairness: A Plebeian Theory of Liberal Democracy, Oxford University Press.
- Jason Brennan, Bas van der Vossen, David Schmidtz, eds. (2017), The Routledge Handbook of Libertarianism, Routledge: "Libertarianism and the Welfare State" by Matt Zwolinski.
- Jeppe von Platz, "Absolute freedom of contract: Grotian Lessons for Libertarians", Critical Review 25(1), 2013, 107–119.
- Rob Reich, "Gift Giving and Philanthropy in Market Democracy", Critical Review 26(3–4), 2014, 408–422.
- Nicolás Maloberti, "Rawls and Bleeding Heart Libertarianism: How Well Do They Mix?", The Independent Review 19(4), 2015, 563–582.
- Otto Lehto, "The Limited Welfare State as Utopia: The Case for a Libertarian Basic Income", Presentation for the BIEN World Congress (Seoul, Korea, 2016).
- Bleeding Heart Libertarians – The official blog
- Matt Zwolinski discusses Bleeding Heart Libertarianism with Reason TV
- New Libertarians: New Promoters of a Welfare State – A historical look at the development of (and ultimately a criticism of) Bleeding Heart Libertarianism by John P. McCaskey
- Instituto Mercado Popular – BHL Brazilian research institute (in Portuguese)