Sammarinese Fascist Party

The Sammarinese Fascist Party (Italian: Partito Fascista Sammarinese) or PFS was a fascist political party that ruled San Marino from 1923 to 1943.[1]

Sammarinese Fascist Party
Partito Fascista Sammarinese
LeaderGiuliano Gozi
Founded10 August 1922
Dissolved16 November 1944
HeadquartersCity of San Marino
NewspaperIl Popolo Sammarinese
IdeologyItalian Fascism
Political positionFar right

It was founded on 10 August 1922 and led by Giuliano Gozi, a Sammarinese World War I veteran who volunteered in the Royal Italian Army. The Sammarinese party was modelled directly on the National Fascist Party of the surrounding Kingdom of Italy. Gozi came from a distinguished family and held the posts of Secretary for Foreign Affairs (in San Marino, the foreign secretary leads the cabinet) and Secretary for the Interior; these two offices gave him control of the military and police. From the beginning, the party used violence and intimidation against opponents such as the Socialists. Its party newspaper was the Il Popolo Sammarinese, modelled after the Il Popolo d'Italia. In terms of policy and ideology, the party was not innovative and stuck closely to Italian Fascism. They pursued industrialization which turned a country of mostly farmers into one of factory workers.

In April 1923, Gozi was elected as the first Fascist Captain Regent. After the October elections, both Captains-Regent were Fascists and remained so in subsequent elections for the next two decades as all other political parties were banned in 1926 effectively making San Marino a one-party state. However, independent politicians continued to form a majority in the Grand and General Council until 1932. In addition, the party was split between Gozi's faction and Ezio Balducci's faction, forcing them to look to the Italian party for guidance and mediation.

In 1932, Balducci's faction started a rival newspaper, La Voce del Titano. The next year he was accused of plotting a coup and arrested by Italian authorities after fleeing to Rome. Balducci and other alleged conspirators were purged from the party and tried and sentenced to hard labour in 1934 by a special court but the punishment was never carried out.

In 1942, 4 years after Italy had enacted the Italian racial laws, Gozi issued Sammarinese racial law n.33, which prohibited interracial marriage, including between Jews and non-Jewish Sammarinese.[2] The regime did not participate in the deportation of Italian Jews to Nazi held territories, and hosted approximately 100,000 Italian refugees, of whom approximately 1,000 were Jewish during World War II.

Electoral historyEdit

Grand and General Council electionsEdit

Election Party leader Votes % Seats +/– Position
1923 Giuliano Gozi 1,437 100%

as part of the Bloc

29 / 60
  29   1st
1926 2,444 100%
60 / 60
  31   1st
1932 2,573 100%
60 / 60
1938 2,916 100%
64 / 64
  4   1st


  1. ^ Veenendaal, Wouter (2014). "Political history and democratization of San Marino". Politics and Democracy in Microstates. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781317646570. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  2. ^ "provvedimenti in materia matrimoniale e in difesa della razza - Consiglio Grande e Generale".

External linkEdit

  Media related to Partito Fascista Sammarinese at Wikimedia Commons