Giuliano Gozi

Giuliano Gozi (7 August 1894 – 18 January 1955) was Secretary for Foreign Affairs and de facto leader of San Marino from 1918 until 1943. He also held the role of Captain-Regent of San Marino 5 times between 1923 and 1942.

Giuliano Gozi
Giuliano Gozi.jpg
Captain Regent of San Marino
In office
1 April 1923 – 1 October 1923
Serving with Filippo Mularoni
In office
1 October 1926 – 1 April 1926
Serving with Ruggero Mori
In office
1 April 1932 – 1 October 1932
Serving with Pompeo Righi
In office
1 April 1937 – 1 October 1937
Serving with Settimio Belluzzi
In office
1 October 1941 – 1 April 1941
Serving with Giovanni Lonfernini
Secretary for Foreign Affairs
In office
30 April 1918 – 1943
Leader of the Sammarinese Fascist Party
In office
10 August 1922 – 16 November 1944
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byParty dissolved
Personal details
Born(1894-08-07)7 August 1894
Died18 January 1955(1955-01-18) (aged 60)
Political partySammarinese Fascist Party

Early lifeEdit

Gozi obtained a bachelor's degree in law at the University of Bologna 1914–1915. When Italy entered World War I in 1915, he joined the Royal Italian Army. In November 1915 he was deployed as a member of the Alpini to the front in the Valle del Boite and on the Tofane, where he obtained the Bronze Medal of Military Valor.

In 1916 he was promoted to lieutenant. He was involved in suppression of anti-war riots in Turin in the Summer of 1917. Following the Italian loss at the Battle of Caporetto in November 1917, he returned to the front with the 6th Monte Pasubio Battalion of the Alpini and participated in the Battle of Monte Grappa against the Central Powers.

By the end of the war Gozi had received the Gold Medal of Military Valor, Silver Medal of the Italian Red Cross, the Silver Medal of the Republic of San Marino and the Allied Victory Medal.


The Sammarinese Grand and General Council appointed Gozi as Secretary for Foreign Affairs. He was effectively leader of the San Marino until he left this post in 1943. On 10 August 1922 Gozi founded the Sammarinese Fascist Party, by the time of the 1923 general election the party had become the sole legal party.

In 1939 he signed the Convention of friendship and good neighborliness with the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III, which remains in force to the present day.[1] On 17 September 1942, four years after the Italians had enacted the Italian racial laws of 1938, Gozi issued racial law n.33, which prohibited marriage between Sammarinese and foreigners or Jews, marriages with non-Jewish Italians were still permitted.[2][3]

A previous Giuliano Gozi was also Captain Regent of San Marino for 9 terms between 1768 and 1796.


  1. ^ Convenzione di amicizia e di buon vicinato (Roma, 1939)
  2. ^ Sammarinese law n33, 1942
  3. ^ Veenendaal, Wouter (2014). "Political history and democratization of San Marino". Politics and Democracy in Microstates. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781317646570. Retrieved 3 June 2019.