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List of countries by system of government

This is a list of countries by system of government. There is also a political mapping of the world that shows what form of government each country has, as well as a brief description of what each form of government entails. The list is colour-coded according to the type of government, for example: blue represents a republic with an executive head of state, and pink is a constitutional monarchy with a ceremonial head of state. The colour-coding also appears on the following map, representing the same government categories. The legend of what the different colours represent is found just below the map.

Contents

List of countriesEdit

UN member states and observersEdit

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
  Afghanistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Albania Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Algeria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Andorra Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Angola Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Argentina Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Armenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Australia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Austria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Azerbaijan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Bahamas, The Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Bahrain Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Barbados Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Belarus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Belgium Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Belize Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Benin Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Bhutan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Bolivia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Botswana Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  Brazil Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Brunei Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
  Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Burkina Faso Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Burundi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Cambodia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Cameroon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Canada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Cape Verde Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Central African Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Chad Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Chile Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  China, People's Republic of Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement [1]
  Colombia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Comoros Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Congo, Democratic Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Congo, Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Costa Rica Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Côte d'Ivoire Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Croatia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Cuba Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Czech Republic Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Denmark Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Djibouti Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Dominica Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Dominican Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  East Timor Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Ecuador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Egypt Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  El Salvador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Equatorial Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Eritrea Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  Estonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Eswatini Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
  Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Federated States of Micronesia Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  Fiji Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Finland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  France Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Gabon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Gambia, The Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Georgia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Germany Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Ghana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Greece Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Grenada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Guatemala Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Guinea-Bissau Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Guyana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Haiti Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Honduras Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Hungary Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Iceland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  India Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Indonesia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Iran Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Iraq Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Ireland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Israel Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Italy Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Jamaica Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Japan Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Jordan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Kazakhstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Kenya Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Kiribati Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  Korea, North Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  Korea, South Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Kuwait Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Kyrgyzstan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Laos Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  Latvia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Lebanon Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Lesotho Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Liberia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Libya n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
  Liechtenstein Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Lithuania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Luxembourg Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Madagascar Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Malawi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Malaysia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Maldives Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Mali Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Malta Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Marshall Islands Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  Mauritania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Mauritius Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Mexico Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Moldova Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Monaco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Mongolia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Montenegro Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Morocco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Mozambique Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Myanmar Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  Namibia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Nauru Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
    Nepal Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Netherlands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  New Zealand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Nicaragua Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Niger Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Nigeria Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  North Macedonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Norway Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Oman Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
  Pakistan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Palau Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Palestine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Panama Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Papua New Guinea Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Paraguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Peru Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Philippines Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Poland Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Portugal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Qatar Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
  Romania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Russia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Rwanda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Saint Lucia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Samoa Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  San Marino Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
  Senegal Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Serbia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Seychelles Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Sierra Leone Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Singapore Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Slovakia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Slovenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Solomon Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Somalia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  South Africa Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  South Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Spain Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Sri Lanka Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Suriname Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  Sweden Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
   Switzerland Republic Executive Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  Syria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Tajikistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Tanzania Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Thailand Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Togo Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Tonga Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  Trinidad and Tobago Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Tunisia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Turkey Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Turkmenistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Tuvalu Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Uganda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Ukraine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  United Arab Emirates Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
  United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  United States Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Uruguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Uzbekistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
   Vatican City Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
  Venezuela Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Vietnam Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  Yemen n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
  Zambia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Zimbabwe Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature

Note that Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania are Islamic Republics.

Partially recognized statesEdit

The following states control their territory and are recognized by at least one UN member state.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
  Abkhazia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  China, Republic of Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Cook Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Kosovo Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Niue Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Northern Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Republic Executive Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  South Ossetia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

Unrecognized statesEdit

The following states/governments control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member state.

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
  Artsakh Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Somaliland Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
  Transnistria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence

MapEdit

LegendEdit

  •   Republic: Executive head-of-state: Presidency is independent of legislature
  •   Republic: Executive head-of-state: Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Republic: Executive head-of-state: Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Republic: Ceremonial head-of-state: Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Constitutional monarchy: Ceremonial head-of-state: Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
  •   Constitutional monarchy: Executive head-of-state: Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
  •   Absolute monarchy: Executive head-of-state: All authority vested in absolute monarch
  •   Republic: Executive head-of-state: Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  •   No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime

Note: this chart represent de jure systems of Government, not the de facto degree of democracy. Several states constitutionally republics, broadly appear as authoritarian states.

Systems of governanceEdit

Italics indicate states with limited recognition.

Presidential systemsEdit

These are systems in which a president is the active head of the executive branch of government, and is elected and remains in office independently of the legislature.

In full presidential systems, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists, in most cases, he or she serves purely at the discretion of the president (with the exceptions being Belarus and Kazakhstan, where the prime minister is effectively the head of government).[2][3]

The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:

Presidential systems without a prime ministerEdit

The President has full executive powers.

Presidential systems with a prime ministerEdit

Note: Iran may be considered to be a theocracy as the government is intertwined with the religious hierarchy[4]

Semi-presidential systemsEdit

In semi-presidential systems, there is always both a president and a prime minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but the role of a head of government may be exercised by the prime minister.

Premier-presidential systemsEdit

The president chooses the prime minister and cabinet, but only the parliament may remove them from office with a vote of no confidence. The president does not have the right to dismiss the prime minister or the cabinet.

President-parliamentary systemsEdit

The president chooses the prime minister and the cabinet without the confidence vote from the parliament, but must have the support of the parliament majority for their choice. In order to remove a prime minister or the whole cabinet from power, the president can dismiss them or the assembly can remove them by a vote of no confidence.

Parliamentary systemsEdit

A parliamentary republic is a system in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. The president's degree of executive power may range from being significant (e.g. South Africa, where the President is also Head of Government; the role of Prime Minister doesn't exist), to intermediate (e.g. India, where the President is not Head of Government and therefore has little executive political power, but has a fair bit of Constitutional power/responsibilities), to little (e.g. Israel, where the Prime Minister is a lot more powerful). Where the president holds little executive/political power, his or her functions are primarily that of a symbolic figurehead, representative diplomat, national community leader, and (in many cases) Defender of the nation's Constitution and Umpire of the political process (when needed).

Full parliamentary republican systemsEdit

Mixed parliamentary republican systemsEdit

A combined head of state and government is elected by the legislature in the form of an executive president, however they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during their term (although their cabinet may be); the exceptions are South Africa, where the president may be forced to resign by the Parliament's will,[8] and Kiribati, where the president is popularly elected and a successful parliamentary motion of no confidence automatically triggers a new presidential election.

Directorial republican systemsEdit

In the directorial system a council jointly exercises both state functions and governmental powers (the council is the collective head of state and government). The council is elected by the parliament, but it is not subject to political confidence during its term which has a fixed duration.

Constitutional monarchiesEdit

These are systems in which the head of state is a constitutional monarch; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained or held back by constitutional law.

Constitutional monarchies with ceremonial/non executive monarchsEdit

Systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence.[13][14][dubious ] The head of state is a constitutional monarch who normally only exercises his or her powers (some monarchs are given a limited number of discretionary 'reserve' powers, only to be used in certain circumstances; many monarchs are given the responsibility to defend the nation's constitution) with the consent of the government, the people or/and their representatives (except in emergencies, e.g. a constitutional crisis or a political deadlock).

Constitutional monarchies with active monarchsEdit

The prime minister is the nation's active executive, but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.

Note: Andorra may be considered a theocracy as the monarch is a joint head of state alongside a religious figure[15]

Absolute monarchiesEdit

Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch's exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law.

Note: Vatican City may be considered a theocracy as the monarch is elected by a religious body[19]

One-party statesEdit

States in which political power is by law concentrated within one political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy (as opposed to states where the law establishes a multi-party system but this fusion is not achieved anyway through electoral fraud or simple inertia). However, some do have elected governments.

Military dictatorshipsEdit

The nation's military control the organs of government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.

Transitional governmentsEdit

States that have a system of government that is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.

Systems of internal structureEdit

Unitary statesEdit

A state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states, 165 are governed as unitary states.

Centralised unitary statesEdit

Regionalised unitary statesEdit

States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities.

FederationEdit

States in which the federal government shares power with semi-independent regional governments. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments.

ConfederationEdit

A union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, such as defense, foreign relations, internal trade or currency, with the general government being required to provide support for all its members.

European UnionEdit

The exact political character of the European Union is debated, some arguing that it is sui generis (unique), but others arguing that it has features of a federation or a confederation. It has elements of intergovernmentalism, with the European Council acting as its collective "president", and also elements of supranationalism, with the European Commission acting as its executive and bureaucracy.[20] But it is not easily placed in any of the above categories.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The President of China is legally a ceremonial office, but the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (de facto leader) has always held this office since 1993 except for the months of transition.
  2. ^ Constitution of Belarus from 1994 (rev. 2004)
  3. ^ a b "Nazarbaev Signs Kazakh Constitutional Amendments Into Law". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017. For more information: please see Abdurasulov, Abdujalil (6 March 2017). "Kazakhstan constitution: Will changes bring democracy?". BBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  4. ^ Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage; and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
  5. ^ In Bangladesh, a caretaker government during parliamentary elections. The Caretaker government is headed by a Chief Adviser and a group of neutral, non-partisan advisers chosen from the civil society. During this time, the president has jurisdiction over the defence and foreign affairs ministries.
  6. ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  7. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University, who in his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048. as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the President has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and substantially has not the power to disband the parliament under its own desire. Finland is actually represented by its Prime Minister, and not by its President, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the President even further.
  8. ^ "Constitution of South Africa". Constitute. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence (but not their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  10. ^ a b c d e Combines aspects of a presidential system with those of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament but does not hold a parliamentary seat, and is immune from a vote of no confidence (as well is their cabinet), unlike a prime minister.
  11. ^ "Scheda paese Repubblica di San Marino" (PDF) (in Italian). Segreteria di Stato Affari esteri. July 2012. p. 5.
  12. ^ a b The President of Switzerland serves in a primus inter pares capacity amongst the Swiss Federal Council, the seven-member executive council which constitutes both the presidency and the government.
  13. ^ Norwegian Parliament web page
  14. ^ CIA factbook on Norway
  15. ^ a b The Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex officio co-princes who are have their interests known through a representative.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General (GG) to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister (PM) is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms".

    In many cases, the Governor-General or monarch has a lot more theoretical, or constitutional, powers than they actually exercise, except on the advice of elected officials, per constitutional convention. For example, the Constitution of Australia makes the GG the head of the executive branch (including commander-in-chief of the armed forces), although they seldom ever use this power, except on the advice of elected officials, especially the PM, which makes the PM the de facto head of government.
  17. ^ a b The Cook Islands and Niue are under the sovereignty of the Monarch of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  18. ^ The UAE's constitution establishes the state as a federation of emirates, with the federal president drawn from hereditary emirs, but each emirate in turn functions as an absolute monarchy
  19. ^ a b The Vatican is an elective absolute monarchy and a Roman Catholic theocracy; its monarch, the Pope, is the head of the global Roman Catholic Church. His power within the Vatican City State is unlimited by any constitution, but all persons resident within the Vatican have consented to obey the Pope, either by virtue of being ordained Catholic clergy or members of the Swiss Guard.
  20. ^ For more detailed discussion, see John McCormick, European Union Politics (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), Chapters 1 and 2.

External linksEdit