This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2011)
|First Liberian Civil War|
|Part of the Liberian Civil Wars|
INPFL militiamen in 1990 after taking control of much of Monrovia
Anti-Doe Armed Forces elements|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
|Total killed: ~200,000 including civilians|
The First Liberian Civil War was the first in a series of two civil wars within the West African nation of Liberia. It lasted from 1989 to 1997. President Samuel Doe established a regime in 1980 but totalitarianism and corruption led to unpopularity and the withdrawal of support from the United States by the late 1980s. The National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) led by Charles Taylor invaded Liberia from the Ivory Coast to overthrow Doe in December 1989 and gained control over most of the country within a year. Doe was captured and executed by the Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL), a splinter faction of the NPFL led by Prince Johnson, in September 1990. The NPFL and INPFL fought each other for control of the capital city, Monrovia and against the Armed Forces of Liberia and pro-Doe United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy. Peace negotiations and foreign involvement led to a ceasefire in 1995 but fighting continued until a peace agreement between the main factions occurred in August 1996. Taylor was elected President of Liberia following the 1997 Liberian general election and entered office in August of the same year.
The First Liberian Civil War killed around 200,000 people and eventually led to the involvement of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the United Nations. The peace lasted for two years until the Second Liberian Civil War broke out when anti-Taylor forces invaded Liberia from Guinea in April 1999.
Samuel Doe takes power in coup (1980) edit
Samuel Doe took power in a popular rebellion in 1980 against the Liberian Government, becoming the first Liberian President of non Americo-Liberian descent. Doe established a military regime called the People's Redemption Council and enjoyed support from Liberian ethnic groups who were denied power since the founding of the country in 1847.
Any hope that Doe would improve the way Liberia was run was put aside as he quickly clamped down on opposition, fueled by his paranoia of a counter-coup attempt against him. As promised, Doe held elections in 1985 and won the presidency by just enough of a margin to avoid a runoff. However, international monitors condemned this election as fraudulent.
Coup attempt by Thomas Quiwonkpa (November 1985) edit
Thomas Quiwonkpa, the former Commanding General of the Armed Forces of Liberia whom Doe had demoted and forced to flee the country, attempted to overthrow Doe's regime from neighbouring Sierra Leone. The coup attempt failed and Quiwonkpa was killed and allegedly eaten. His body was publicly exhibited on the grounds of the Executive Mansion in Monrovia soon after his death.
Mistreatment of the Gio and Mano ethnic groups (1985) edit
The Gio and Mano ethnic groups were persecuted against because they were charged with treason against the state. Thus, they were seen as inferiors to the President's own tribe, the Krahn. The mistreatment of the Gio and Mano increased the tensions in Liberia, which had already been rising due to Doe's preferential treatment of his own group.
Charles Taylor builds insurgent forces (1985-1989) edit
Charles Taylor, who had left Doe's government after being accused of embezzlement, assembled a group of rebels in Côte d'Ivoire (mostly ethnic Gios and Manos who felt persecuted by Doe) who later became known as the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL). They invaded Nimba County on 24 December 1989. The Liberian Army retaliated against the whole population of the region, attacking unarmed civilians, mainly of the Mandingo tribe, and burning villages. Many left as refugees for Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, but opposition to Doe was inflamed. Prince Johnson, an NPFL fighter, split to form his own guerrilla force soon after crossing the border, based on the Gio tribe and named Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL).
First Liberian Civil War (1989-1997) edit
Charles Taylor's force attacks (1989) edit
Charles Taylor organized and trained indigenous northerners in Ivory Coast. During Doe's regime Taylor had served in the Liberian Government's General Services Agency, acting 'as its de facto director'. He fled to the United States in 1983 amid what Stephan Ellis describes as the 'increasingly menacing atmosphere in Monrovia' shortly before Thomas Quiwonkpa, Doe's chief lieutenant, fled into exile himself. Doe requested Taylor's extradition for embezzling $900,000 of Liberian government funds. Taylor was thus arrested in the United States and after sixteen months broke out of a Massachusetts jail in circumstances that are still unclear.
Ethnic conflict and siege of Monrovia edit
The NPFL initially encountered plenty of support within Nimba County, which had endured the majority of Samuel Doe's wrath after the 1985 attempted coup. Thousands of Gio and Mano joined when Taylor and his force of 100 rebels reentered Liberia in 1989, on Christmas Eve. Doe responded by sending two AFL battalions, including the 1st Infantry Battalion, to Nimba in December 1989-January 1990, apparently under then-Colonel Hezekiah Bowen.
The AFL acted in a very brutal and scorched-earth fashion, which quickly alienated the local people. The rebel invasion soon pitted ethnic Krahn sympathetic to the Doe regime against those victimized by it, the Gio and the Mano. Thousands of civilians were massacred on both sides. Hundreds of thousands fled their homes. The Monrovia Church massacre was carried out by approximately 30 ethnic Krahn government soldiers, killing 600 civilians in St. Peter's Lutheran Church, Monrovia, on 29 July 1990, the worst single atrocity of the First Liberian Civil War.
By May 1990 the AFL had been forced back to Gbarnga, still under the control of Bowen's troops, but they lost the town to a NPFL assault on 28 May. By June 1990, Taylor's forces were laying siege to Monrovia. In July 1990, Prince Yormie Johnson split from Taylor and formed the Independent National Patriotic Front (INPFL). The INPFL and NPFL continued their siege on Monrovia, which the AFL defended. In their Freedom in the World report for 1990, Freedom House described Monrovia by July as "a virtual ghost town of starving people and rotting corpses" as the rebel advance on the city caused widespread panic and anarchy, leading to Liberian soldiers looting shops and killing civilians at random, all while hunger and disease quickly took hold. Johnson swiftly took control of parts of Monrovia prompting evacuation of foreign nationals and diplomats by the US Navy in August.
ECOWAS intervention force (August 1990) edit
In August 1990, the 16-member Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) agreed to deploy a joint military intervention force, the Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), and place it under Nigerian leadership. The mission later included troops from non-ECOWAS countries, including Uganda and Tanzania. ECOMOG's objectives were to impose a cease-fire; help Liberians establish an interim government until elections could be held; stop the killing of innocent civilians; and ensure the safe evacuation of foreign nationals.
ECOMOG also sought to prevent the conflict from spreading into neighboring states, which share a complex history of state, economic, and ethno-linguistic social relations with Liberia. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) attempted to persuade Doe to resign and go into exile, but despite his weak position – besieged in his mansion – he refused. ECOMOG, an ECOWAS intervention force, arrived at the Freeport of Monrovia on August 24, 1990, landing from Nigerian and Ghanaian vessels.
Capture and killing of Samuel Doe (September 1990) edit
On 9 September 1990, Doe visited the barely established, newly arrived ECOMOG headquarters in the Free Port of Maher. Stephen Ellis says, his motive was to lay a complaint that the ECOMOG commander had not paid a courtesy call to Doe, the Head of State, however, the exact circumstances that led to Doe's visit to the Free Port are still unclear. Doe had been under pressure to accept exile outside of Liberia. However, after Doe arrived, a large rebel force led by Prince Johnson's INPFL arrived at the headquarters and then attacked Doe's party. Doe was captured and taken to the INPFL's Caldwell base. He was brutally tortured before being killed and dismembered. His torture and execution was videotaped by his captors.
Johnson's INPFL and Taylor's NPFL continued to struggle for control of Monrovia in the months that followed. With military discipline absent and bloodshed throughout the capital region, members of ECOWAS created the Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) to restore order. The force comprised some 4,000 troops from Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, the Gambia and Guinea. ECOMOG succeeded in bringing Taylor and Johnson to agree to its intervention, but Taylor's forces engaged it in the port area of Monrovia.
Peacemaking attempts (1990) edit
A series of peacemaking conferences in regional capitals followed. There were meetings in Bamako in November 1990, Lomé in January 1991, and Yamoussoukro in June–October 1991. But the first seven peace conferences, including the Yamoussoukro I-IV processes failed. In November 1990, ECOWAS invited the principal Liberian players to meet in Banjul, Gambia to form a government of national unity. The negotiated settlement established the Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU), led by Dr. Amos Sawyer, leader of the LPP. Bishop Ronald Diggs of the Liberian Council of Churches became vice president. However, Taylor's NPFL refused to attend the conference. Within days, hostilities resumed. ECOMOG was reinforced in order to protect the interim government. Sawyer was able to establish his authority over most of Monrovia, but the rest of Liberia was in the hands of various factions of the NPFL or of local gangs.
The United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) was formed in June 1991 by supporters of the late President Samuel K. Doe and former Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) fighters who had taken refuge in Guinea and Sierra Leone. It was led by Raleigh Seekie, a deputy Minister of Finance in the Doe government.
After fighting alongside the Sierra Leonean army against the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), ULIMO forces entered western Liberia in September 1991. The group scored significant gains in areas held by another rebel group – the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), notably around the diamond mining areas of Lofa and Bomi counties.
From its outset, ULIMO was beset with internal divisions and the group effectively broke into two separate militias in 1994: ULIMO-J, an ethnic Krahn faction led by General Roosevelt Johnson and ULIMO-K, a Mandingo-based faction led by Alhaji G.V. Kromah.
The group was alleged to have committed serious violations of human rights, both before and after its breakup.
Attack on Monrovia (1992) edit
Peace was still far off as both Taylor and Johnson claimed power. ECOMOG declared an Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU) with Amos Sawyer as their president, with the broad support of Johnson. Taylor launched an assault on Monrovia on October 15, 1992, named 'Operation Octopus.' which may have been led by Burkina Faso soldiers. The resulting siege lasted two months.
By late December, ECOMOG had pushed the NPFL back beyond Monrovia's suburbs.
In 1993, ECOWAS brokered a peace agreement in Cotonou, Benin. Following this, on September 22, 1993, the United Nations (U.N.) Security Council established the UN Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL), to support ECOMOG in implementing this peace agreement. UNOMIL was deployed in early 1994 with 368 military observers and associated civilian personnel to monitor implementation of the Cotonou Peace Agreement, prior to elections originally planned for February/March 1994.
Renewed armed hostilities broke out in May 1994 and continued, becoming especially intense in July and August. ECOMOG, and later UNOMIL, members were captured and held hostage by some factions. By mid-1994, the humanitarian situation had become disastrous, with 1.8 million Liberians in need of humanitarian assistance. Conditions continued to deteriorate, but humanitarian agencies were unable to reach many in need due to hostilities and general insecurity.
Factional leaders agreed in September 1994 to the Akosombo Agreement, a supplement to the Cotonou agreement, named after the Benin city where it was signed. The security situation in Liberia remained poor. In October 1994, in the face of ECOMOG funding shortfalls and a lack of will by the Liberian combatants to honor agreements to end the war, the UN Security Council reduced to about 90 the number of UNOMIL observers. It extended UNOMIL's mandate and subsequently extended it several times until September 1997.
In December 1994, the factions and other parties signed the Accra Agreement, a supplement to the Akosombo Agreement. Disagreements ensued and fighting continued.
Ceasefire (1995) edit
In August 1995, the main factions signed an agreement largely brokered by Ghanaian President Jerry Rawlings. At a conference sponsored by ECOWAS, the United Nations and the United States, the European Union, and the Organization of African Unity, Charles Taylor agreed to a cease-fire.
At the beginning of September 1995, Liberia's three principal warlords – Taylor, George Boley and Alhaji Kromah – made theatrical entrances into Monrovia. A ruling council of six members under civilian Wilton G. S. Sankawulo and with the three factional heads Taylor, Kromah and Boley, took control of the country preparatory to elections that were originally scheduled for 1996.
Fighting in Monrovia (1996) edit
Heavy fighting broke out again in April 1996. This led to the evacuation of most international non-governmental organizations and the destruction of much of Monrovia. The U.S. Armed Forces enacted Operation Assured Response which resulted in the removal of 485 Americans and over 2,400 citizens hailing from 68 different countries.
In August 1996, these battles were ended by the Abuja Accord in Nigeria, agreeing to disarmament and demobilization by 1997 and elections in July of that year. 3 September 1996, Sankawulo is followed by Ruth Perry as chairwoman of the ruling council, who served until 2 August 1997.
1997 Elections edit
Simultaneous elections for the presidency and national assembly were finally held in July 1997. In a climate hardly conducive to free movement and security of persons, Taylor and his National Patriotic Party won an overwhelming victory against 12 other candidates. Assisted by widespread intimidation, Taylor took 75 per cent of the presidential poll (no other candidate won more than 10 per cent) while the NPP won a similar proportion of seats in both parliamentary chambers. 2 August 1997, Ruth Perry handed power to elected president Charles Taylor.
In 1997, the Liberian people elected Charles Taylor as the President after he entered the capital city, Monrovia, by force. Liberians had voted for Taylor in the hope that he would end the bloodshed. The bloodshed did slow considerably, but it did not end. Violent events flared up regularly after the putative end of the war. Taylor, furthermore, was accused of backing guerrillas in neighboring countries and funneling diamond money into arms purchases for the rebel armies he supported, and into luxuries for himself. The implicit unrest manifested during the late 1990s is emblematic in the sharp national economic decline and the prevalent sale of diamonds and timber in exchange for small arms.
After Taylor's victory, Liberia was peaceful enough so that refugees began to return. But other leaders were forced to leave the country, and some ULIMO forces reformed as the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD). LURD began fighting in Lofa County with the aim of destabilizing the government and gaining control of the local diamond fields, leading to the Second Liberian Civil War.
The Liberian civil war was one of Africa's bloodiest. From 1989 to 1996, it claimed the lives of more than 200,000 Liberians and further displaced a million others into refugee camps in neighboring countries. Child soldiers were used throughout the war.
The civil war claimed the lives of one out of every 17 people in the country, uprooted most of the rest, and destroyed a once-viable economic infrastructure. The strife also spread to Liberia's neighbors. It helped slow democratization in West Africa at the beginning of the 1990s and destabilized a region that already was one of the world's most unsteady.
Second Liberian Civil War edit
The Second Liberian Civil War began in 1999 and ended in October 2003, when ECOWAS intervened to stop the rebel siege on Monrovia and exiled Charles Taylor to Nigeria until he was arrested in 2006 and taken to The Hague for his trial. By the conclusion of the final war, more than 250,000 people had been killed and nearly 1 million displaced. Half that number remain to be repatriated in 2005, at the election of Liberia's first democratic President since the initial 1980 coup d'état of Samuel Doe.
Former president Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who initially was a strong supporter of Charles Taylor, was inaugurated in January 2006 and the National Transitional Government of Liberia terminated its power.
Charles Taylor was sentenced to a trial in 2003, after being accused of rape and acts of sexual violence, promoting child soldiers, and an illegal ownership of weapons. He denied these accusations but was eventually testified against by his victims. He was then sentenced to 50 years in prison.
Armed groups that participated in the war edit
- Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL)
- Liberia Peace Council (LPC)
- Lofa Defense Force (LDF)
- National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL)
- United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO)
Peace agreements edit
Peace agreements signed included the:
- Banjul III Agreement (14 October 1990)
- Bamako Ceasefire Agreement (28 November 1990)
- Banjul IV Agreement (21 December 1990)
- Lomé Agreement (13 February 1991)
- Yamoussoukro IV Peace Agreement (30 October 1991)
- Geneva Agreement 1992 (7 April 1992)
- Cotonou Peace Agreement (25 July 1993)
- Akosombo Peace Agreement (12 September 1994)
- Accra Agreements/Akosombo clarification agreement (21 December 1994)
- Abuja Peace Agreement (19 August 1995)
In literature edit
Liberia during this civil war is one of the numerous locations worldwide depicted in The Savage Detectives (Los Detectives Salvajes in Spanish), a novel by the Chilean author Roberto Bolaño published in 1998, just after the end of this war.
See also edit
- "First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996) •". 25 July 2016.
- "Fraud charged in Liberia's first one-man, one-vote election". Christian Science Monitor. 25 October 1985. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- Dickovick, J. Tyler (2008). The World Today Series: Africa 2012. Lanham, Maryland: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 978-1-61048-881-5.
- "How Quiwonkpa Was Killed". Daily Star 1985-11-18: 5.
- Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy, Hurst & Company, London, 2001, p.57, 67-68
- HRW, Flight from Terror, May 1990
- Charles Hartung, 'Peacekeeping in Liberia: ECOMOG and the Struggle for Order,' Liberian Studies Journal, Volume XXX, No.2, 2005
- Mark Huband, The Liberian Civil War, p.115, 118-119
- "Liberian church massacre survivors seek US justice". BBC News. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- "Liberia Troops Accused Of Massacre in Church". The New York Times. 31 July 1990. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- Hubard, p.115
- McColm, R. Bruce (1991). Freedom in the World: Political Rights & Civil Liberties 1990-1991 (PDF). University Press of America. pp. 244–245. ISBN 0-932088-65-1.
- Adebajo, 2002, p.75
- The Mask of Anarchy, by Stephen Ellis, 2001, p.1-9
- Armon, Jeremy; Andy Carl (1996). "Liberia: Chronology". Conciliation Resources. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2007.
- Ellis, Stephen (2007) . The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of African Civil War. London, UK: Hurst & Company. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-1850654179.
- See Ellis, Mask of Anarchy, 98-99.
- Herbert Howe, Ambiguous Order, 2005, 143.
- "Operation Assured Response". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
- "Uppsala Conflict Data Program".
- Talusan, Grace (2 June 2020). "Wayétu Moore Escapes a Civil War in Liberia. In America, She Encounters a New Kind of Danger". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
Further reading edit
- Gerdes, Felix: Civil War and State Formation: The Political Economy of War and Peace in Liberia, Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag & University of Chicago Press, 2013
- Hoffman, Danny. "The City as Barracks: Freetown, Monrovia, and the Organization of Violence in Postcolonial African Cities." Cultural Anthropology. Volume 22 #3 August 2007. pp. 400–428.
- Huband, Mark. "The Liberian Civil War". Frank Cass (1998). ISBN 0-7146-4340-8
- Moran, Mary H. Liberia: The Violence of Democracy - University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008
- Omeje, Kenneth. "War to peace transition: conflict intervention and peacebuilding in Liberia." (2009).
- The Liberian peace process Accord Magazine Online issue with articles, chronology and text of agreements
- https://web.archive.org/web/20120205053206/http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/liberia/index.php - Peace process during Civil War
- Website includes photos from Liberian Civil War Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine