United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy

The United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) was a rebel group that participated in the First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996).

United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy
LeadersG. V. Kromah
Raleigh F. Seekie
Roosevelt Johnson
Dates of operation1991-1994
Active regionsThroughout Liberia and in some parts of Sierra Leone
OpponentsLiberia NPFL
Sl RUF.png RUF
 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
 Burkina Faso
Battles and warsthe Liberian Civil War
Succeeded by

ULIMO was formed in May 1991 by Krahn and Mandingo refugees and soldiers who had fought in the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) fighters.[1] It was led by Alhadji Kromah and Raleigh Seekie, a deputy Minister of Finance in the Doe government. After fighting alongside the Sierra Leonean army against the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), ULIMO forces entered western Liberia in September 1991. The group scored significant gains in areas held by another rebel group – the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), notably around the diamond mining areas of Lofa and Bomi counties.

From its outset, ULIMO was beset with internal divisions and the group effectively broke into two separate militias in 1994: ULIMO-J, an ethnic Krahn faction led by General Roosevelt Johnson, and ULIMO-K, a Mandingo-based faction led by Alhaji G.V. Kromah.

ULIMO-J was poorly ruled, which led to leadership struggles and general discontent among its fighters. It had approximately 8,000 combatants. ULIMO-K was relatively united under Kromah, in contrast to the fractious nature of the ULIMO-J. It had approximately 12,000 combatants.

The group, both before and after its breakup, committed serious violations of human rights.[citation needed]

List of ULIMO CommandersEdit


  1. ^ Damrosch, Lori Fisler. Enforcing Restraint: Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts, 1993. Page 170.
  2. ^ "Liberia: Justice Campaigner Dismisses TRC Claim by Family of Agnes Reeves Taylor". FrontPageAfrica. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
  3. ^ "First Liberian Civil War", Wikipedia, 2019-10-06, retrieved 2019-12-03
  4. ^ Gerdes, Felix (2013). Civil War and State Formation: The Political Economy of War and Peace in Liberia. Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag. p. 124. ISBN 978-3-593-39892-1.