Freedom in the World

Classification of countries according to the Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2020 survey, concerning the state of world freedom in 2019.[1]
  Free   Partially Free   Not Free
   Countries designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2020 survey, covering the year 2019.[2]

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based[3] and U.S. government funded[4] non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

Origin and useEdit

Freedom in the World was launched in 1973 by Raymond Gastil. It produces annual scores representing the levels of political rights and civil liberties in each state and territory, on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Depending on the ratings, the nations are then classified as "Free", "Part(ial)ly Free", or "Not Free".[5] The report is often used by researchers in order to measure democracy and correlates highly with several other measures of democracy such as the Polity data series.[6]

The Freedom House rankings are widely reported in the media and used as sources by political researchers. Their construction and use has been evaluated by critics and supporters.[7]

Country rankingsEdit

The rankings below are from the Freedom in the World 2015,[8] 2016,[9] 2017[10], 2018[11], and 2019[12] surveys, each reflecting findings covering the previous year. Each pair of political rights and civil liberties ratings is averaged to determine an overall status of "Free" (1.0–2.5), "Part(ial)ly Free" (3.0–5.0), or "Not Free" (5.5–7.0).[13]

An asterisk (*) indicates countries which are "electoral democracies". To qualify as an "electoral democracy", a state must have satisfied the following criteria:

  1. A competitive, multiparty political system;
  2. Adult suffrage for all citizens without criminal convictions (some states may further punish and subjugate people with criminal convictions by disenfranchising them from the democratic process);
  3. Regularly contested elections conducted in conditions of ballot secrecy, reasonable ballot security, and the absence of massive voter fraud that yields results that are unrepresentative of the public will; and
  4. Significant public access of major political parties to the electorate through the media and through generally open political campaigning.

An electoral democracy must have a score of 7 or more out of 12 in political rights subcategory A (Electoral Progress), an overall aggregate score of 20 in their political rights rating and an overall aggregate score of 30 in their civil liberties rating.[14]

Freedom House's term "electoral democracy" differs from "liberal democracy" in that the latter also implies the presence of a substantial array of civil liberties. In the survey, all Free countries qualify as both electoral and liberal democracies. By contrast, some Partly Free countries qualify as electoral, but not liberal, democracies.[13]

WorldEdit

*: Electoral democracies (as described above), PR: Political Rights, CL: Civil Liberties
  2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free Pts PR CL Free Pts PR CL Free Pts
  Afghanistan 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 5 6 Not 26 5 6 Not 27 5 6 Not 27
  Albania* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 68 3 3 Partly 68 3 3 Partly 67
  Algeria 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 35 6 5 Not 34 6 5 Not 34
  Andorra* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94
  Angola 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 26 6 5 Not 31 6 5 Not 32
  Antigua and Barbuda* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 83 2 2 Free 84 2 2 Free 85
  Argentina* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 83 2 2 Free 84 1 2 Free 85
  Armenia 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 44 4 4 Partly 51 4 4 Partly 53
  Australia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 97
  Austria* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93
  Azerbaijan 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 12 7 6 Not 11 7 6 Not 10
  Bahamas* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91
  Bahrain 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 12 7 6 Not 12 7 6 Not 11
  Bangladesh 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 45 5 5 Partly 41 5 5 Partly 39
  Barbados* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 95
  Belarus 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 6 6 Not 21 7 6 Not 19 7 6 Not 19
  Belgium* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 95 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 96
  Belize* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 86 1 2 Free 86 1 2 Free 86
  Benin* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 81 2 2 Free 79 4 2 Partly 66
  Bhutan* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 55 3 4 Partly 59 3 4 Partly 59
  Bolivia* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 67 3 3 Partly 67 3 3 Partly 63
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 55 4 4 Partly 53 4 4 Partly 53
  Botswana* 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 72 3 2 Free 72 3 2 Free 72
  Brazil* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 78 2 2 Free 75 2 2 Free 75
  Brunei 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 28 6 5 Not 29 6 5 Not 28
  Bulgaria* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 80 2 2 Free 80 2 2 Free 80
  Burkina Faso* 6 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 60 4 3 Partly 60 4 3 Partly 56
  Burundi 6 5 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 18 7 6 Not 14 7 6 Not 13
  Cambodia 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 30 6 5 Not 26 6 5 Not 25
  Cameroon 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 22 6 6 Not 19 6 6 Not 18
  Canada* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 99 1 1 Free 99 1 1 Free 98
  Cape Verde* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 90 1 1 Free 90 1 1 Free 92
  Central African Republic 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 9 7 7 Not 9 7 7 Not 10
  Chad 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 18 7 6 Not 17 7 6 Not 17
  Chile* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 90
  China 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 14 7 6 Not 11 7 6 Not 10
  Colombia* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 65 3 3 Partly 66 3 3 Partly 66
  Comoros 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 55 4 4 Partly 50 4 5 Partly 44
  Congo, Democratic Republic of 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 16 7 6 Not 15 7 5 Not 18
  Congo, Republic of 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 20 7 5 Not 21 7 5 Not 20
  Costa Rica* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91
  Croatia* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 86 1 2 Free 85 1 2 Free 85
  Cuba 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 14 7 6 Not 14 7 6 Not 14
  Cyprus* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94
  Czech Republic* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91
  Denmark* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 97 1 1 Free 97 1 1 Free 97
  Djibouti 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 26 6 5 Not 26 7 5 Not 24
  Dominica* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93
  Dominican Republic* 2 3 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 67 3 3 Partly 67 3 3 Partly 67
  East Timor* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 2 3 Free 69 2 3 Free 70 2 3 Free 71
  Ecuador* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 60 3 3 Partly 63 3 3 Partly 65
  Egypt 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 26 6 6 Not 22 6 6 Not 21
  El Salvador* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 70 2 3 Free 67 3 3 Partly 66
  Equatorial Guinea 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 7 Not 6 7 7 Not 6
  Eritrea 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 3 7 7 Not 2 7 7 Not 2
  Estonia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94
  Ethiopia 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 12 6 6 Not 19 6 6 Not 24
  Eswatini 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 6 Not 16 7 6 Not 16 7 5 Not 19
  Fiji* 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 59 3 3 Partly 61 3 3 Partly 60
  Finland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 100 1 1 Free 100 1 1 Free 100
  France* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 90 1 2 Free 90 1 2 Free 90
  Gabon 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 7 5 Not 23 7 5 Not 23 7 5 Not 22
  Gambia 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 6 6 Not 4 5 Partly 41 4 5 Partly 45 4 4 Partly 46
  Georgia* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 64 3 3 Partly 63 3 3 Partly 61
  Germany* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94
  Ghana* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 83 1 2 Free 83 2 2 Free 82
  Greece* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 85 1 2 Free 87 1 2 Free 88
  Grenada* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 88 1 2 Free 89 1 2 Free 89
  Guatemala* 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 56 4 4 Partly 53 4 4 Partly 52
  Guinea 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 41 5 4 Partly 43 5 5 Partly 40
  Guinea-Bissau 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 41 5 4 Partly 42 5 4 Partly 46
  Guyana* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 74 2 3 Free 75 2 3 Free 74
  Haiti 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 41 5 5 Partly 41 5 5 Partly 38
  Honduras 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 46 4 4 Partly 46 4 4 Partly 45
  Hungary* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 72 3 3 Partly 70 3 3 Partly 70
  Iceland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 95 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94
  India* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 77 2 3 Free 75 2 3 Free 71
  Indonesia* 2 4 Partly 2 4 Partly 2 4 Partly 2 4 Partly 64 2 4 Partly 62 2 4 Partly 61
  Iran 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 17 6 6 Not 18 6 6 Not 17
  Iraq 6 6 Not 5 6 Not 5 6 Not 5 6 Not 31 5 6 Not 32 5 6 Not 32
  Ireland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 97 1 1 Free 97
  Israel* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 3 Free 79 2 3 Free 78 2 3 Free 76
  Italy* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 89 1 1 Free 89 1 1 Free 89
  Ivory Coast 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 51 4 4 Partly 51 4 4 Partly 51
  Jamaica* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 77 2 2 Free 78 2 2 Free 78
  Japan* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 96
  Jordan 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 37 5 5 Partly 37 5 5 Partly 37
  Kazakhstan 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 22 7 5 Not 22 7 5 Not 23
  Kenya 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 48 4 4 Partly 48 4 4 Partly 48
  Kiribati* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93
  Kosovo* 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 52 3 4 Partly 54 3 4 Partly 56
  Kuwait 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 36 5 5 Partly 36 5 5 Partly 36
  Kyrgyzstan 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 37 5 4 Partly 38 5 4 Partly 39
  Laos 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 12 7 6 Not 14 7 6 Not 14
  Latvia* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 1 2 Free 2 2 Free 87 2 2 Free 87 1 2 Free 89
  Lebanon 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 43 5 4 Partly 45 5 4 Partly 44
  Lesotho* 2 3 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 64 3 3 Partly 63 3 3 Partly 63
  Liberia* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 62 3 3 Partly 62 3 4 Partly 60
  Libya 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 9 7 6 Not 9 7 6 Not 9
  Liechtenstein* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 90 2 1 Free 90 2 1 Free 90
  Lithuania* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91
  Luxembourg* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 98
  Madagascar* 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 56 3 4 Partly 56 3 3 Partly 61
  Malawi* 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 63 3 3 Partly 64 3 3 Partly 62
  Malaysia 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 45 4 4 Partly 52 4 4 Partly 52
  Maldives 4 4 Partly 4 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 35 5 5 Partly 35 4 5 Partly 40
  Mali 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 44 4 4 Partly 44 5 5 Partly 41
  Malta* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 92 2 1 Free 91 2 1 Free 90
  Marshall Islands* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 92 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93
  Mauritania 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 30 6 5 Not 32 5 5 Partly 34
  Mauritius* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 89 1 2 Free 89 1 2 Free 89
  Mexico* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 62 3 3 Partly 63 3 3 Partly 62
  Micronesia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 92 1 1 Free 92
  Moldova* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 61 3 4 Partly 58 3 4 Partly 60
  Monaco* 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 3 1 Free 3 1 Free 82 3 1 Free 82 3 1 Free 83
  Mongolia* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 85 1 2 Free 85 1 2 Free 84
  Montenegro* 3 2 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 67 4 3 Partly 65 4 3 Partly 62
  Morocco 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 5 Partly 39 5 5 Partly 39 5 5 Partly 37
  Mozambique 4 3 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 52 4 4 Partly 51 5 4 Partly 45
  Myanmar 6 6 Not 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 31 5 5 Partly 30 5 6 Not 30
  Namibia* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 77 3 2 Free 75 2 2 Free 77
  Nauru* 1 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 81 2 2 Free 78 2 3 Free 77
    Nepal 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 55 3 4 Partly 54 3 4 Partly 56
  Netherlands* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 99 1 1 Free 99 1 1 Free 99
  New Zealand* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 97
  Nicaragua 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 54 6 5 Not 32 6 5 Not 31
  Niger 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 50 4 4 Partly 49 4 4 Partly 48
  Nigeria 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 3 5 Partly 3 5 Partly 50 3 5 Partly 50 4 5 Partly 47
  North Korea 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 3 7 7 Not 3 7 7 Not 3
  North Macedonia 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 58 4 3 Partly 59 3 3 Partly 63
  Norway* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 100 1 1 Free 100 1 1 Free 100
  Oman 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 23 6 5 Not 23 6 5 Not 23
  Pakistan 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 43 5 5 Partly 39 5 5 Partly 38
  Palau* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 92 1 1 Free 92 1 1 Free 92
  Panama* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 83 1 2 Free 84 1 2 Free 84
  Papua New Guinea* 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 63 4 3 Partly 64 4 3 Partly 62
  Paraguay* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 64 3 3 Partly 65 3 3 Partly 65
  Peru* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 73 2 3 Free 73 2 3 Free 72
  Philippines* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 62 3 3 Partly 61 3 4 Partly 59
  Poland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 85 2 2 Free 84 2 2 Free 84
  Portugal* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 97 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 96
  Qatar 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 24 6 5 Not 25 6 5 Not 25
  Romania* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 84 2 2 Free 81 2 2 Free 83
  Russia 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 20 7 6 Not 20 7 6 Not 20
  Rwanda 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 23 6 6 Not 23 6 6 Not 22
  Saint Kitts and Nevis* 1 1 Free 2 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 89 1 1 Free 89 1 1 Free 89
  Saint Lucia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 92 1 1 Free 92
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 90 1 1 Free 91 1 1 Free 91
  Samoa* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 80 2 2 Free 81 2 2 Free 81
  San Marino* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 97 1 1 Free 95 1 1 Free 95
  São Tomé and Príncipe* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 82 2 2 Free 83 2 2 Free 84
  Saudi Arabia 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 7 Not 7 7 7 Not 7
  Senegal* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 75 2 3 Free 72 3 3 Partly 71
  Serbia* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 73 3 3 Partly 67 4 3 Partly 66
  Seychelles* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 71 3 3 Partly 71 3 3 Partly 72
  Sierra Leone* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 66 3 3 Partly 65 3 3 Partly 65
  Singapore 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 52 4 4 Partly 51 4 4 Partly 50
  Slovakia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 89 1 2 Free 88 1 2 Free 88
  Slovenia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94
  Solomon Islands* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 72 2 2 Free 79 2 2 Free 79
  Somalia 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 7 Not 7 7 7 Not 7
  South Africa* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 78 2 2 Free 79 2 2 Free 79
  South Korea* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 84 2 2 Free 83 2 2 Free 83
  South Sudan 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 2 7 7 Not 2 7 7 Not 2
  Spain* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 92
  Sri Lanka* 5 5 Partly 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 55 3 4 Partly 56 4 4 Partly 56
  Sudan 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 8 7 7 Not 7 7 6 Not 12
  Suriname* 2 2 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 2 Free 78 2 3 Free 77 2 3 Free 75
  Sweden* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 100 1 1 Free 100 1 1 Free 100
   Switzerland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 96 1 1 Free 96
  Syria 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not -1 7 7 Not 0 7 7 Not 0
  Taiwan* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93
  Tajikistan 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 11 7 6 Not 9 7 6 Not 9
  Tanzania 3 3 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 52 4 5 Partly 45 5 5 Partly 40
  Thailand 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 31 7 5 Not 30 6 4 Partly 32
  Togo 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 47 5 4 Partly 43 5 4 Partly 44
  Tonga* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 74 2 2 Free 79 2 2 Free 79
  Trinidad and Tobago* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 81 2 2 Free 82 2 2 Free 82
  Tunisia* 1 3 Free 1 3 Free 1 3 Free 2 3 Free 70 2 3 Free 69 2 3 Free 70
  Turkey 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 5 Partly 5 6 Not 32 5 6 Not 31 5 6 Not 32
  Turkmenistan 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 4 7 7 Not 2 7 7 Not 2
  Tuvalu* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 93
  Uganda 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 4 Partly 37 6 5 Not 36 6 5 Not 34
  Ukraine* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 62 3 4 Partly 60 3 3 Partly 62
  United Arab Emirates 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 17 7 6 Not 17 7 6 Not 17
  United Kingdom* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 94 1 1 Free 93 1 1 Free 94
  United States* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 2 1 Free 86 2 1 Free 86 2 1 Free 86
  Uruguay* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 98 1 1 Free 98
  Uzbekistan 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 6 Not 9 7 6 Not 10
  Vanuatu* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 81 2 2 Free 82 2 2 Free 82
  Venezuela 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 26 7 6 Not 19 7 6 Not 16
  Vietnam 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 20 7 5 Not 20 7 5 Not 20
  Yemen 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 13 7 6 Not 11 7 6 Not 11
  Zambia 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 55 4 4 Partly 54 4 4 Partly 54
  Zimbabwe 5 6 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not 30 5 5 Partly 31 5 5 Partly 29

Related and disputed territoriesEdit

Key: - Related territory, - Disputed territory, PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Abkhazia‡ (Georgia) 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly
  Crimea‡ (Ukraine/Russia) 4 3 Partly 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Gaza Strip‡ (PA) 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Hong Kong† (China) 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly
  Jammu and Kashmir‡ (India) 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Azad Kashmir‡ (Pakistan) 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Nagorno-Karabakh‡ (Azerbaijan) 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Northern Cyprus‡ (Cyprus)* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Puerto Rico† (United States)* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 1 Free[15]
  Somaliland‡ (Somalia) 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 4 5 Partly
  South Ossetia‡ (Georgia) 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Tibet ‡ (China) 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Transnistria‡ (Moldova) 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  West Bank‡ (PA) 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not
  Western Sahara‡ (Morocco) 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not

TrendsEdit

According to Freedom House, a quarter of all declines of freedom in the world in 2016 took place in Europe.[16]

Percentage of countries in each category, from the 1973 through 2014 reports:

  1973–2014

  Not Free
  Partly Free
  Free

Year
Free
Partly
Free
Not
Free
Electoral
Democracies
1975 41 (27%) 48 (32%) 63 (41%)
1980 51 (32%) 54 (33%) 56 (35%)
1985 53 (32%) 59 (35%) 55 (33%)
1990 61 (37%) 44 (26%) 62 (37%) 69 (41%)
1995 76 (40%) 61 (32%) 54 (28%) 113 (59%)
2000 85 (44%) 60 (31%) 47 (25%) 120 (63%)
2005 89 (46%) 54 (28%) 49 (26%) 119 (62%)
2010 89 (46%) 58 (30%) 47 (24%) 116 (60%)
2011 87 (45%) 60 (31%) 47 (24%) 115 (59%)
2012 87 (45%) 60 (31%) 48 (25%) 117 (60%)
2013 90 (46%) 58 (30%) 47 (24%) 117 (60%)
2014 88 (45%) 59 (30%) 48 (25%) 122 (63%)
2015 89 (46%) 55 (28%) 51 (26%) 125 (64%)
2016 86 (44%) 59 (30%) 50 (26%) 125 (64%)
2017 87 (45%) 59 (30%) 49 (25%) 123 (63%)

Sources: Country Status and ratings overview 1973–2016,[17] Number and percentages of electoral democracies 1989–2016,[18] Freedom in the World 2018 report covering 2017.[19]

Notes:

  • The years shown in the map and table above are the year the survey was released, the data shown covers the prior calendar year.
  • The chart and table above do not include data for related/disputed territories.

EvaluationEdit

There is some debate over the neutrality of Freedom House and the methodology used for the Freedom in the World report, which has been written by Raymond D. Gastil and his colleagues.[5] The neutrality and biases of human-rights indices have been discussed in several publications by Kenneth A. Bollen.[20] Bollen wrote that "Considered together these criticisms suggest that some nations may have been incorrectly rated on Gastil's measures. However, none of the criticisms have demonstrated a systematic bias in all the ratings. Most of the evidence consists of anecdotal evidence of relatively few cases. Whether there is a systematic or sporadic slant in Gastil's ratings is an open question" (Bollen, 1986, p. 586).[5] The freedom index of Freedom in the World has a very strong and positive (at least an 80%) correlation with three other democracy-indices studied in Mainwaring (2001, p. 53).[21]

Ideological bias or neutralityEdit

In his 1986 study, Bollen discussed reviews of measurements of human rights, including the index reported in Freedom in the World (Bollen, 1986, p. 585). Criticisms of Freedom in the World during the 1980s were discussed by Gastil (1990), who stated that "generally such criticism is based on opinions about Freedom House rather than detailed examination of survey ratings", a conclusion disputed by Giannone.[22] The definition of Freedom in Gastil (1982) and Freedom House (1990) emphasized liberties rather than the exercise of freedom, according to Adam Przeworski, who gave the following example: In the United States, citizens are free to form political parties and to vote, yet even in presidential elections only half of U.S. "citizens" vote; in the U.S., "the same two parties speak in a commercially sponsored unison", wrote Przeworski (2003, p. 277).[7]

More recent charges of ideological bias prompted Freedom House to issue this 2010 statement:

Freedom House does not maintain a culture-bound view of freedom. The methodology of the survey is grounded in basic standards of political rights and civil liberties, derived in large measure from relevant portions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These standards apply to all countries and territories, irrespective of geographical location, ethnic or religious composition, or level of economic development.[13]

Mainwaring et alia (2001, p. 52)[21] wrote that Freedom House's index had "two systematic biases: scores for leftist were tainted by political considerations, and changes in scores are sometimes driven by changes in their criteria rather than changes in real conditions." Nonetheless, when evaluated in Latin American countries yearly, Freedom House's index was very strongly and positively correlated with the index of Adam Przeworski and with the index of the authors themselves: They evaluated Pearson's coefficient of linear correlation between their index and Freedom House's index, which was 0.82; among these indices and the two others studied, the correlations were all between 0.80 and 0.86 (Mainwaring et alia, 2001, p. 53).[21]

As previously quoted, Bollen criticized previous studies of Freedom in the World as anecdotal and inconclusive; they raised issues needing further study by scientific methods rather than anecdotes.[5] Bollen studied the question of ideological bias using multivariate statistics. Using their factor-analytic model for human-rights measurements, Bollen and Paxton estimate that Gastil's method produces a bias of -0.38 standard deviations (s.d.) against Marxist–Leninist countries and a larger bias, +0.5 s.d., favoring Christian countries; similar results held for the methodology of Sussman (Bollen and Paxton, 2000, p. 585).[23] In contrast, another method by a critic of Freedom in the World produced a bias for Leftist countries during the 1980s of at least +0.8 s.d., a bias that is "consistent with the general finding that political scientists are more favorable to leftist politics than is the general population" (Bollen and Paxton, p. 585).[23]

Use and conceptual analysisEdit

Criticisms of the reception and uses of the Freedom in the World report have been noted by Diego Giannone:[24]

  • "Conceptual stretching", Giovanni Sartori's critical term for a methodological shortcoming common in social studies.[25] Giannone reports as an example that, according to Landman and Hausermann (2003), "the index by FH has been used as a tool for measuring democracy, good governance, and human rights, thus producing a conceptual stretching which is a major cause of 'losses in connotative precision': in short, an instrument used to measure everything, in the end, is not able to discriminate against anything."[26]
  • Issues with aggregation. Giannone quotes Scoble and Wiseberg's conclusion (1981) that "the sum of a civil liberty score of 4 and a political liberty score of 2 is the same as the sum of a civil liberty score of 2 and a political liberty score of 4 even though the substantive interpretation of these different combinations is different."[27]
  • "Lack of specificity and rigorousness in construction" and "inadequate level of transparency and replicability of the scales", the first referencing to Scoble et alie (1981) and the latter to Hadenius and Teorell (2005).[28] In support of the latter, he also quotes the conclusion of Munck and Verkuilen (2002) that "the aggregate data offered by Freedom House has to be accepted largely on faith",[29] due to the factors that "no set of coding rules is provided, and the sources of information are not identified with enough precision, and because disaggregated data have not been made available to independent scholars".[28]

Time seriesEdit

In "Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case" (2010) which reviewed changes to the methodology since 1990, Diego Giannone concluded that "because of the changes in methodology over time and the strict interconnection between methodological and political aspects, the FH data do not offer an unbroken and politically neutral time series, such that they should not be used for cross-time analyses even for the development of first hypotheses. The internal consistency of the data series is open to question."[30]

On this topic, the Freedom House website replies that they have "made a number of modest methodological changes to adapt to evolving ideas about political rights and civil liberties. At the same time, the time series data are not revised retroactively, and any changes to the methodology are introduced incrementally in order to ensure the comparability of the ratings from year to year."[13]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Freedom in the World Countries | Freedom House". freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  2. ^ List of Electoral Democracies FIW20 (.XLSX), by Freedom House
  3. ^ William Ide (11 January 2000). "Freedom House Report: Asia Sees Some Significant Progress". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
  4. ^ ""FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Year Ended June 30, 2016 AND INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT"" (PDF). 30 June 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d Bollen, K.A., "Political Rights and Political Liberties in Nations: An Evaluation of Human Rights Measures, 1950 to 1984", Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 4 (November 1986), pp.567–591. Also in: Jabine, T.B. and Pierre Claude, R. (Eds.), Human Rights and Statistics, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992, pp. 188–215, ISBN 0-8122-3108-2.
  6. ^ “Correlation Versus Interchangeability: the Limited Robustness of Empirical Finding on Democracy Using Highly Correlated Data Sets", Gretchen Casper and Claudiu Tufis, Political Analysis, 11:2 (2003), pp. 196–203, Society for Political Methodology
  7. ^ a b Przeworski, Adam (2003). "Freedom to choose and democracy". Economics and Philosophy. 19 (2): 265–279. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.570.736. doi:10.1017/S0266267103001159.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  8. ^ Freedom in the World 2015, Freedom House, 28 January 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  9. ^ "Freedom in the World 2016" (PDF). Freedom House. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  10. ^ "Freedom in the World 2017" (PDF). Freedom House. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  11. ^ "Freedom in the World 2018 – Table of Country Scores". Freedom House.
  12. ^ "Freedom in the World Countries | Freedom House". freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d "Freedom in the World 2010: Methodology", Freedom in the World 2010, Freedom house
  14. ^ "Methodology: Freedom in the World 2018". freedomhouse.org. 13 January 2018.
  15. ^ Puerto Rico *. Retrieved from https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/puerto-rico
  16. ^ Freedom House (2017). Freedom in the World, 2017 (PDF). Freedom House. p. 1. Archived from the original on 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017. [N]early one-quarter of the countries registering declines in 2016 were in Europe.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  17. ^ "Country Status and ratings overview", Freedom In the World 1973–2016, Freedom House. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  18. ^ "Number and percentages of electoral democracies", Freedom In the World 1973–2016, Freedom House. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  19. ^ Freedom In the World 2018, Freedom House.
  20. ^ Bollen has held chairs as a Distinguished Professor of Sociology and the Director of the Howard W. Odum Institute for Research in Social Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Also serving as an Adjunct Professor of Statistics at UNC-CH, Bollen wrote the leading graduate textbook in structural equation models (SEM), often called LISREL models; SEM modeling allows the summary of a large number of measurements using a small number of meaningful factors. SEM was used by Bollen in the studies reported hereafter.
  21. ^ a b c Mainwaring, S.; Brinks, D.; Pérez-Liñán, A.B. (2001). "Classifying Political Regimes in Latin". Studies in Comparative International Development. 36 (1): 37–65. doi:10.1007/BF02687584.
  22. ^ Gastil, R.D. (1990). "The Comparative Survey of Freedom: Experiences and Suggestions". Studies in Comparative International Development. 25 (1): 25–50. doi:10.1007/BF02716904.
  23. ^ a b Bollen, Kenneth A. and Paxton, Pamela, "Subjective Measures of Liberal Democracy", Comparative Political Studies, vol. 33, no. 1 (February 2000), pp. 58–86
  24. ^ Giannone, Diego, "Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case", Democratization, vol. 17, no. 1 (February 2010), pp. 68–97.[unreliable source?]
  25. ^ "Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics." The American Political Science Review 64 (4): 1033–1053.
  26. ^ Giannone (2010), p. 69. Quoting Landman, Tod, and Julia Hausermann, Map-Making and Analysis of the Main International Initiatives on Developing Indicators on Democracy and Good Governance Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Final Report, University of Essex – Human Rights Centre, July 2003, 98 pp.
  27. ^ Scoble, Harry and Laurie Wiseberg, Ved Nanda, Ved, James Scarritt, and George Shepherd (eds) (1981), "Problems of Comparative Research in Human Rights", Global Human Rights: Public Policies, Comparative Measures and NGO Strategies, pp. 147–171, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, ISBN 978-0-89158-858-0. Cited in Giannone (2010), p. 69.
  28. ^ a b Giannone (2010), p. 69, citing Scoble, et al. (1981) and Axel Hadenius and Jan Teorell. "Assessing Alternative Indices of Democracy", Political Concepts, Committee on Concepts and Methods, Working Paper Series, August 2005, 47 pp.
  29. ^ Munck, Gerardo L. and Verkuilen, Jay, "Conceptualising and Measuring Democracy: Evaluating Alternative Indices" Archived 11 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Comparative Political Studies, vol. 35, no. 1 (February 2002), pp. 5–34. Cited in Giannone (2010), p. 69.
  30. ^ Giannone (2010), p. 68.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit