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Country ratings from Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2017 survey, concerning the state of world freedom in 2016.[1]
  Free (86)   Partly Free (59)   Not Free (50)
   Countries designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom House's 2016 survey "Freedom in the World", covering the year 2015.[2]

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based[3] non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

Contents

Origin and useEdit

Freedom in the World was launched in 1973 by Raymond Gastil. It produces annual scores representing the levels of political rights and civil liberties in each state and territory, on a scale from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free). Depending on the ratings, the nations are then classified as "Free", "Partly Free", or "Not Free".[4] The report is often used by researchers in order to measure democracy and correlates highly with several other measures of democracy such as the Polity data series.[5]

The Freedom House rankings are widely reported in the media and used as sources by political researchers. Their construction and use has been evaluated by critics and supporters.[6]

Country rankingsEdit

The rankings below are from the Freedom in the World 2010,[7] 2011,[8] 2012,[9] 2013,[10] 2014,[11] 2015,[12] 2016[13] and 2017[14] surveys, each reflecting findings covering the previous year. Each pair of political rights and civil liberties ratings is averaged to determine an overall status of "Free" (1.0-2.5), "Partly Free" (3.0-5.0), or "Not Free" (5.5-7.0).[15]

An asterisk (*) indicates countries which are "electoral democracies". To qualify as an "electoral democracy", a state must have satisfied the following criteria:

  1. A competitive, multiparty political system;
  2. Universal adult suffrage for all citizens (with exceptions for restrictions that states may legitimately place on citizens as sanctions for criminal offenses);
  3. Regularly contested elections conducted in conditions of ballot secrecy, reasonable ballot security, and the absence of massive voter fraud that yields results that are unrepresentative of the public will; and
  4. Significant public access of major political parties to the electorate through the media and through generally open political campaigning.

An electoral democracy also must have a score of 7 or more out of 12 in political rights subcategory A (Electoral Progress) and an overall aggregate score of 20 in their political rights rating.[15]

Freedom House's term "electoral democracy" differs from "liberal democracy" in that the latter also implies the presence of a substantial array of civil liberties. In the survey, all Free countries qualify as both electoral and liberal democracies. By contrast, some Partly Free countries qualify as electoral, but not liberal, democracies.[15]

Sub-Saharan AfricaEdit

Key: * - Electoral democracies (as described above), PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Angola 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  Benin* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Botswana* 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free
  Burkina Faso* 5 3 Partly 5 3 Partly 5 3 Partly 5 3 Partly 5 3 Partly 6 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly
  Burundi 4 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Cameroon 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  Cape Verde* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Central African Republic 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Chad 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Comoros* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  Congo, Republic of 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 7 5 Not
  Congo, Democratic Republic of 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Ivory Coast* 6 5 Not 7 6 Not 6 6 Not 5 5 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Djibouti 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Equatorial Guinea 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Eritrea 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Ethiopia 5 5 Partly 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Gabon 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Gambia 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 6 6 Not
  Ghana* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Guinea 7 6 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Guinea-Bissau 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Kenya* 4 4 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Lesotho* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Liberia* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  Madagascar* 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  Malawi* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Mali 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 7 5 Not 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly
  Mauritania 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Mauritius* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Mozambique 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Namibia* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Niger 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Nigeria* 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 3 5 Partly
  Rwanda 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  São Tomé and Príncipe* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Senegal* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 2 3 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Seychelles* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Sierra Leone* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 2 3 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Somalia 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  South Africa* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  South Sudan 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 7 Not
  Sudan 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Swaziland 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not
  Tanzania* 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  Togo 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Uganda 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Zambia 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Zimbabwe 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 5 6 Not 5 6 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly

AmericasEdit

Key: * - Electoral democracies (as described above), PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Antigua and Barbuda* 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Argentina* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Bahamas* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Barbados* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Belize* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Bolivia* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Brazil* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Canada* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Chile* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Colombia* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Costa Rica* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Cuba 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Dominica* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Dominican Republic* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Ecuador* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 4 Partly
  El Salvador* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free
  Grenada* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Guatemala* 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Guyana* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free
  Haiti 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Honduras 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Jamaica* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free
  Mexico* 2 3 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Nicaragua 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 5 4 Partly
  Panama* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Paraguay* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Peru* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free
  Saint Kitts and Nevis* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 2 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Saint Lucia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines* 2 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Suriname* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free
  Trinidad and Tobago* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  United States* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Uruguay* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Venezuela 5 4 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not

Asia-PacificEdit

Key: * - Electoral democracies (as described above), PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Afghanistan 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  Australia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Bangladesh* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Bhutan* 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  Brunei 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Cambodia 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  China 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  East Timor* 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Fiji* 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 4 Partly
  India* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free
  Indonesia* 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 3 Free 2 4 Partly 2 4 Partly 2 4 Partly 2 4 Partly
  Japan* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Kiribati* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  North Korea 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  South Korea* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Laos 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Malaysia 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Maldives 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Marshall Islands* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Micronesia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Mongolia* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Myanmar 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 6 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly
  Nauru* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
    Nepal* 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  New Zealand* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Pakistan* 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly
  Palau* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Papua New Guinea* 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Philippines* 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Samoa* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Singapore 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Solomon Islands* 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 2 Free
  Sri Lanka* 4 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 5 Partly 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  Taiwan* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 1 Free
  Thailand 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Tonga* 5 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Tuvalu* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Vanuatu* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Vietnam 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 7 5 Not

EurasiaEdit

Key: * - Electoral democracies (as described above), PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Armenia 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 6 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly
  Azerbaijan 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Belarus 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Georgia* 4 4 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Kazakhstan 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 7 5 Not
  Kyrgyzstan 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Moldova* 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Russia 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Tajikistan 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Turkmenistan 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Ukraine* 3 2 Free 3 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Uzbekistan 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not

EuropeEdit

Key: * - Electoral democracies (as described above), PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Albania* 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Andorra* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Austria* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Belgium* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Bosnia and Herzegovina* 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Bulgaria* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Croatia* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Cyprus* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Czech Republic* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Denmark* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Estonia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Finland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  France* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free
  Germany* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Greece* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Hungary* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 3 2 Free
  Iceland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Ireland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Italy* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 1 Free 2 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Kosovo* 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly
  Latvia* 2 1 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Liechtenstein* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 2 1 Free
  Lithuania* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Luxembourg* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Macedonia 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly 4 3 Partly
  Malta* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Monaco* 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 2 1 Free 3 1 Free
  Montenegro* 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 2 Free 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly
  Netherlands* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Norway* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Poland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free
  Portugal* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Romania* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  San Marino* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Serbia* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 3 2 Free
  Slovakia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Slovenia* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Spain* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Sweden* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
   Switzerland* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free
  Turkey 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 3 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 4 5 Partly
  United Kingdom* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 1 Free

Middle East and North AfricaEdit

Note: The Middle East countries of Turkey, Cyprus, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia can be found in the "Europe" and "Eurasia" sections of Freedom House's Freedom in the World report.

Key: * - Electoral democracies (as described above), PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Algeria 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Bahrain 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Egypt 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Iran 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  Iraq 5 6 Not 5 6 Not 5 6 Not 6 6 Not 5 6 Not 6 6 Not 5 6 Not 5 6 Not
  Israel* 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free
  Jordan 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly
  Kuwait 4 4 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Lebanon 5 3 Partly 5 3 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly
  Libya 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 6 Not 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Morocco 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly 5 4 Partly
  Oman 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Qatar 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Saudi Arabia 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Syria 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Tunisia* 7 5 Not 7 5 Not 3 4 Partly 3 4 Partly 3 3 Partly 1 3 Free 1 3 Free 1 3 Free
  United Arab Emirates 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  Yemen 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not

Related and disputed territoriesEdit

Key: - Related territory, - Disputed territory, PR - Political Rights, CL - Civil Liberties, Free Status: Free, Partly Free, Not Free
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Country PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free PR CL Free
  Abkhazia‡ (Georgia) 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly
  Crimea‡ (Ukraine/Russia) 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Gaza Strip‡ (PA) 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Hong Kong† (China) 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly 5 2 Partly
  Jammu and Kashmir‡ (India) 4 4 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly 4 4 Partly
  Azad Kashmir‡ (Pakistan) 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not
  Nagorno-Karabakh‡ (Azerbaijan) 5 5 Partly 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  Northern Cyprus‡ (Cyprus)* 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free 2 2 Free
  Puerto Rico† (United States)* 1 1 Free 1 1 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 2 Free 1 1 Free
  Somaliland‡ (Somalia) 5 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 4 5 Partly 5 5 Partly 5 5 Partly
  South Ossetia‡ (Georgia) 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 6 Not
  Tibet ‡ (China) 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not
  Transnistria‡ (Moldova) 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not 6 6 Not
  West Bank‡ (PA) 6 6 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 6 5 Not 7 5 Not
  Western Sahara‡ (Morocco) 7 6 Not 7 6 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not 7 7 Not

TrendsEdit

Percentage of countries in each category, from the 1973 through 2014 reports:

  1973 - 2014

  Not Free
  Partly Free
  Free

Year
Free
Partly
Free
Not
Free
Electoral
Democracies
1975 41 (27%) 48 (32%) 63 (41%) --
1980 51 (32%) 54 (33%) 56 (35%) --
1985 53 (32%) 59 (35%) 55 (33%) --
1990 61 (37%) 44 (26%) 62 (37%) 69 (41%)
1995 76 (40%) 61 (32%) 54 (28%) 113 (59%)
2000 85 (44%) 60 (31%) 47 (25%) 120 (63%)
2005 89 (46%) 54 (28%) 49 (26%) 119 (62%)
2010 89 (46%) 58 (30%) 47 (24%) 116 (60%)
2011 87 (45%) 60 (31%) 47 (24%) 115 (59%)
2012 87 (45%) 60 (31%) 48 (25%) 117 (60%)
2013 90 (46%) 58 (30%) 47 (24%) 117 (60%)
2014 88 (45%) 59 (30%) 48 (25%) 122 (63%)
2015 89 (46%) 55 (28%) 51 (26%) 125 (64%)
2016 86 (44%) 59 (30%) 50 (26%) 125 (64%)

Sources: Country Status and ratings overview 1973-2016,[16] Number and percentages of electoral democracies 1989-2016[17]

Notes:

  • The years shown in the map and table above are the year the survey was released, the data shown covers the prior calendar year.
  • The chart and table above do not include data for related/disputed territories.

EvaluationEdit

There is some debate over the neutrality of Freedom House and the methodology used for the Freedom in the World report, which has been written by Raymond D. Gastil and his colleagues.[4] The neutrality and biases of human-rights indices have been discussed in several publications by Kenneth A. Bollen.[18] Bollen wrote that, "no criticisms ... have demonstrated a systematic bias in all the ratings. Most of the evidence consists of anecdotal evidence of relatively few cases. Whether there is a systematic or sporadic slant in Gastil's ratings is an open question" (Bollen, 1986, p. 586).[4] The freedom index of Freedom in the World has a very strong and positive (at least an 80%) correlation with three other democracy-indices studied in Mainwaring (2001, p. 53).[19]

Ideological bias or neutralityEdit

In his 1986 study, Bollen discussed reviews of measurements of human rights, including the index reported in Freedom in the World (Bollen, 1986, p. 585). Criticisms of Freedom in the World during the 1980s were discussed by Gastil (1990), who stated that "generally such criticism is based on opinions about Freedom House rather than detailed examination of survey ratings", a conclusion disputed by Giannone.[20] The definition of Freedom in Gastil (1982) and Freedom House (1990) emphasized liberties rather than the exercise of freedom, according to Adam Przeworski, who gave the following example: In the United States, citizens are free to form political parties and to vote, yet even in presidential elections only half of U.S. "citizens" vote; in the U.S., "the same two parties speak in a commercially sponsored unison", wrote Przeworski (2003, p. 277).[6]

More recent charges of ideological bias prompted Freedom House to issue this 2010 statement:

Freedom House does not maintain a culture-bound view of freedom. The methodology of the survey is grounded in basic standards of political rights and civil liberties, derived in large measure from relevant portions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These standards apply to all countries and territories, irrespective of geographical location, ethnic or religious composition, or level of economic development.[15]

Mainwaring et alia (2001, p. 52)[19] wrote that Freedom House's index had "two systematic biases: scores for leftist were tainted by political considerations, and changes in scores are sometimes driven by changes in their criteria rather than changes in real conditions." Nonetheless, when evaluated on Latin American countries yearly, Freedom House's index were very strongly and positively correlated with the index of Adam Przeworski and with the index of the authors themselves: They evaluated Pearson's coefficient of linear correlation between their index and Freedom House's index, which was 0.82; among these indices and the two others studied, the correlations were all between 0.80 and 0.86 (Mainwaring et alia, 2001, p. 53).[19]

As previously quoted, Bollen criticized previous studies of Freedom in the World as anecdotal and inconclusive; they raised issues needing further study by scientific methods rather than anecdotes.[4] Bollen studied the question of ideological bias using multivariate statistics. Using their factor-analytic model for human-rights measurements, Bollen and Paxton estimate that Gastil's method produces a bias of 0.38 standard deviations (s.d.) against Marxist–Leninist countries and a larger bias, 0.5 s.d., favoring Christian countries; similar results held for the methodology of Sussman (Bollen and Paxton, 2000, p. 585).[21] In contrast, another method by a critic of Freedom in the World produced a bias for Leftist countries during the 1980s of at least 0.8 s.d., a bias that is "consistent with the general finding that political scientists are more favorable to leftist politics than is the general population" (Bollen and Paxton, p. 585).[21]

Use and conceptual analysisEdit

Criticisms of the reception and uses of the Freedom in the World report have been noted by Diego Giannone:[22]

  • "Conceptual stretching", Giovanni Sartori's critical term for a methodological shortcoming common in social studies.[23] Giannone reports as an example that, according to Landman and Hausermann (2003), "the index by FH has been used as a tool for measuring democracy, good governance, and human rights, thus producing a conceptual stretching which is a major cause of 'losses in connotative precision': in short, an instrument used to measure everything, in the end, is not able to discriminate against anything."[24]
  • Issues with aggregation. Giannone quotes Scoble and Wiseberg's conclusion (1981) that "the sum of a civil liberty score of 4 and a political liberty score of 2 is the same as the sum of a civil liberty score of 2 and a political liberty score of 4 even though the substantive interpretation of these different combinations is different."[25]
  • "Lack of specificity and rigorousness in construction" and "inadequate level of transparency and replicability of the scales", the first referencing to Scoble et alie (1981) and the latter to Hadenius and Teorell (2005).[26] In support of the latter, he also quotes the conclusion of Munck and Verkuilen (2002) that "the aggregate data offered by Freedom House has to be accepted largely on faith",[27] due to the factors that "no set of coding rules is provided, and the sources of information are not identified with enough precision, and because disaggregated data have not been made available to independent scholars".[26]

Time seriesEdit

In "Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case" (2010) which reviewed changes to the methodology since 1990, Diego Giannone concluded that "because of the changes in methodology over time and the strict interconnection between methodological and political aspects, the FH data do not offer an unbroken and politically neutral time series, such that they should not be used for cross-time analyses even for the development of first hypotheses. The internal consistency of the data series is open to question."[28]

On this topic, the Freedom House website replies that they have "made a number of modest methodological changes to adapt to evolving ideas about political rights and civil liberties. At the same time, the time series data are not revised retroactively, and any changes to the methodology are introduced incrementally in order to ensure the comparability of the ratings from year to year."[15]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Freedom in The World 2017 - Populists and Autocrats: The Dual Threat to Global Democracy by Freedom House, January 31, 2017
  2. ^ Freedom in The World 2016 report (PDF)
  3. ^ William Ide (11 January 2000). "Freedom House Report: Asia Sees Some Significant Progress". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d Bollen, K.A., "Political Rights and Political Liberties in Nations: An Evaluation of Human Rights Measures, 1950 to 1984", Human Rights Quarterly, vol.8, no.4 (November 1986), pp.567-591. Also in: Jabine, T.B. and Pierre Claude, R. (Eds.), Human Rights and Statistics, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992, pp.188-215, ISBN 0-8122-3108-2.
  5. ^ “Correlation Versus Interchangeability: the Limited Robustness of Empirical Finding on Democracy Using Highly Correlated Data Sets", Gretchen Casper and Claudiu Tufis, Political Analysis, 11:2 (2003), pp.196-203, Society for Political Methodology
  6. ^ a b Przeworski, Adam (2003). "Freedom to choose and democracy". Economics and Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. 19: 265–279. doi:10.1017/S0266267103001159. 
  7. ^ Freedom in the World 2010: Tables and Graphs, Freedom House, 8 January 2010, 12 pp.
  8. ^ "Tables, Graphs, and Other Supporting Documents" Archived 8 October 2011 on Wayback Machine., Freedom in the World 2011, Freedom House, 13 January 2011.
  9. ^ Freedom in the World 2012, Freedom House, 10 January 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
  10. ^ Freedom in the World 2013, Freedom House.
  11. ^ Freedom in the World 2014, Freedom House, 24 January 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  12. ^ Freedom in the World 2015, Freedom House, 28 January 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Freedom in the World 2016" (PDF). Freedom House. 27 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  14. ^ "Freedom in the World 2017" (PDF). Freedom House. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c d e "Freedom in the World 2010: Methodology", Freedom in the World 2010, Freedom house
  16. ^ "Country Status and ratings overview", Freedom In the World 1973-2016, Freedom House. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  17. ^ "Number and percentages of electoral democracies", Freedom In the World 1973-2016, Freedom House. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  18. ^ Bollen has held chairs as a Distinguished Professor of Sociology and the Director of the Howard W. Odum Institute for Research in Social Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Also serving as an Adjunct Professor of Statistics at UNC-CH, Bollen wrote the leading graduate textbook in structural equation models (SEM), often called LISREL models; SEM modeling allows the summary of a large number of measurements using a small number of meaningful factors. SEM was used by Bollen in the studies reported hereafter.
  19. ^ a b c Mainwaring, S.; Brinks, D.; Pérez-Liñán, A. B. (2001). "Classifying Political Regimes in Latin". Studies in Comparative International Development. 36 (1): 37–65. doi:10.1007/BF02687584. 
  20. ^ Gastil, R. D. (1990). "The Comparative Survey of Freedom: Experiences and Suggestions". Studies in Comparative International Development. 25 (1): 25–50. doi:10.1007/BF02716904. 
  21. ^ a b Bollen, Kenneth A. and Paxton, Pamela, "Subjective Measures of Liberal Democracy", Comparative Political Studies, vol.33, no.1 (February 2000), pp.58-86
  22. ^ Giannone, Diego, "Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case", Democratization, vol.17, no.1 (February 2010), pp.68-97.[unreliable source?]
  23. ^ "Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics." The American Political Science Review 64 (4): 1033-1053.
  24. ^ Giannone (2010), p. 69. Quoting Landman, Tod, and Julia Hausermann, Map-Making and Analysis of the Main International Initiatives on Developing Indicators on Democracy and Good Governance, Final Report, University of Essex - Human Rights Centre, July 2003, 98 pp.
  25. ^ Scoble, Harry and Laurie Wiseberg, Ved Nanda, Ved, James Scarritt, and George Shepherd (eds) (1981), "Problems of Comparative Research in Human Rights", Global Human Rights: Public Policies, Comparative Measures and NGO Strategies, pp.147-171, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, ISBN 978-0-89158-858-0. Cited in Giannone (2010), p. 69.
  26. ^ a b Giannone (2010), p. 69, citing Scoble, et alie (1981) and Axel Hadenius and Jan Teorell. "Assessing Alternative Indices of Democracy", Political Concepts, Committee on Concepts and Methods, Working Paper Series, August 2005, 47 pp.
  27. ^ Munck, Gerardo L. and Verkuilen, Jay, "Conceptualising and Measuring Democracy: Evaluating Alternative Indices", Comparative Political Studies, vol.35, no.1 (February 2002), pp.5-34. Cited in Giannone (2010), p. 69.
  28. ^ Giannone (2010), p. 68.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit