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The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2016.[1]
Bluer colours represent more democratic countries as reported by the company.

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

The index was first produced in 2006, with updates for 2008, 2010 and the following years since then. The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises countries as one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

Contents

MethodEdit

As described in the report,[2] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments"; the report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are distributed in the five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is translated to a mark, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer alternative questions, 0.5. With the exceptions mentioned below, the sums are added within each category, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g., if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?" is not considered, but automatically marked zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the Democracy Index for a given country. Finally, the Democracy Index, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis has been put on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standard has not been weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators[who?] have done).[3][4]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[5]

Classification definitionsEdit

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and basic political freedoms are not only respected, but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and media that is diverse and independent. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[6]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honored but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement). Nonetheless, these nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Hybrid regimes are nations where consequential irregularities exist in elections regularly preventing them from being fair and free. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opponents, non independent judiciaries, and have widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anemic rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism has vanished or is extremely limited. These nations are often absolute dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meager significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair and free, the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and the presence of omnipresent censorship and suppression of governmental criticism.[6]

Changes from 2010 onwardsEdit

According to the issue of the index for 2012, Norway scored a total of 9.93 on a scale from zero to ten, keeping the first-place position it has held since 2010, when it replaced Sweden as the highest-ranked country in the index. North Korea scored the lowest with 1.08, remaining at the bottom in 167th place, the same as in 2010 and 2011.[2]

There was no significant improvement or regression in democracy between 2011 and 2012. In 2012 the index score stayed the same for 73 out of 167 countries, improved for 54 countries, and declined for 40. Libya experienced the biggest increase of any country in its score in 2012. Average regional scores in 2012 were very similar to scores in 2011. An exception is the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where the average score increased by more than a tenth of a point, from 3.62 to 3.73 and three countries moved from authoritarian to hybrid regimes (Egypt, Libya, Morocco).[2]

The Democracy Index for 2011 highlighted the impact of the Arab Spring and the greater effects it might have, as well as the impact of the global financial crisis in 2007–08 on politics throughout most of Europe. The Democracy Index score was lower in 2011 than in 2010 in 48 countries out of the 167 that are covered. It was higher in 41 ranked countries, and it stayed the same in 78.[7]

In nine countries there was a change in regime type between 2010 and 2011; in four of these there was regression. Russia was downgraded from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime, which the report attributes to concerns over the December 4 legislative election and Vladimir Putin's decision to run again in the 2012 presidential election. Portugal was also downgraded to the flawed democracy category, attributed to the effects of the global financial crisis. Tunisia, Mauritania, Egypt, and Niger were all upgraded to hybrid regimes, and Zambia moved up to the flawed democracy category.[7]

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy; its score, which had been experiencing a persistent downward trend, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was not due to the election of Donald Trump, but was caused by the same factors — dating back to the late 1960s[8] — that led to his election.[9]

Democracy Index by regime typeEdit

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2016:[1]

Type of regime Scores (s) Number of
countries
Percentage
of countries
Percentage of
world population
Full democracies 8 ≤ s ≤ 10 19 11.4 4.5
Flawed democracies 6 ≤ s < 8 57 34.1 44.8
Hybrid regimes 4 ≤ s < 6 40 24.0 18.0
Authoritarian regimes 0 ≤ s < 4 51 30.5 32.7

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries covered by the Index. Since this excludes only micro-states, this is nearly equal to the entire estimated world population.

Democracy Index by regionEdit

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2016. Note that some regional groups (e.g. Eastern Europe) are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[4] 2008[10] 2010[3] 2011[7] 2012[2] 2013[11] 2014[12] 2015[6] 2016[1]
1 Northern America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.56 8.56
2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.40
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.37 6.33
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70 5.74 5.74
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.55 5.43
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34 4.38 4.37
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.56
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55 5.55 5.52

Democracy Index by country (2016)Edit

Listing by country is available on The Economist website.[1]

Democracy Index 2016
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Category
1   Norway 9.93 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 10.00 Full democracy
2   Iceland 9.50 10.00 8.93 8.89 10.00 9.71 Full democracy
3   Sweden 9.39 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41 Full democracy
4   New Zealand 9.26 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.13 10.00 Full democracy
5   Denmark 9.20 9.58 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.41 Full democracy
6   Canada 9.15 9.58 9.64 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
7   Ireland 9.15 9.58 7.86 8.33 10.00 10.00 Full democracy
8    Switzerland 9.09 9.58 9.29 7.78 9.38 9.41 Full democracy
9   Finland 9.03 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
10   Australia 9.01 9.58 8.93 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
11   Luxembourg 8.81 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
12   Netherlands 8.80 9.58 8.57 8.33 8.13 9.41 Full democracy
13   Germany 8.63 9.58 8.57 7.78 7.50 9.71 Full democracy
14   Austria 8.41 9.58 7.86 8.33 6.88 9.41 Full democracy
15   Malta 8.39 9.17 8.21 6.11 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
16   United Kingdom 8.36 9.58 7.14 7.22 8.75 9.12 Full democracy
17   Spain 8.30 9.58 7.14 7.22 8.13 9.41 Full democracy
18   Mauritius 8.28 9.17 8.21 5.56 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
19   Uruguay 8.17 10.00 8.93 4.44 7.50 10.00 Full democracy
20   Japan 7.99 8.75 8.21 6.67 7.50 8.82 Flawed democracy
21   United States 7.98 9.17 7.14 7.22 8.13 8.24 Flawed democracy
22   Italy 7.98 9.58 6.43 7.22 8.13 8.53 Flawed democracy
23   Cape Verde 7.94 9.17 7.86 6.67 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
24   France 7.92 9.58 7.14 7.78 6.25 8.82 Flawed democracy
25   South Korea 7.92 9.17 7.50 7.72 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy
26   Costa Rica 7.88 9.58 7.14 6.11 6.88 9.71 Flawed democracy
27   Botswana 7.87 9.17 7.14 6.11 7.50 9.41 Flawed democracy
28   Portugal 7.86 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.88 9.41 Flawed democracy
29   Israel 7.85 9.17 7.50 8.89 7.50 6.18 Flawed democracy
30   Estonia 7.85 9.58 7.86 6.11 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
31   Czech Republic 7.82 9.58 7.14 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
32   India 7.81 9.58 7.50 7.22 5.63 9.12 Flawed democracy
33   Taiwan 7.79 9.58 8.21 6.11 5.63 9.41 Flawed democracy
34   Chile 7.78 9.58 8.57 4.44 6.88 9.41 Flawed democracy
35   Belgium 7.77 9.58 8.57 5.00 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
36   Cyprus 7.65 9.17 6.43 6.67 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
37   Slovenia 7.51 9.58 7.14 6.67 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy
38   Lithuania 7.47 9.58 5.71 6.11 6.25 9.71 Flawed democracy
39   South Africa 7.41 7.92 7.86 8.33 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
40   Jamaica 7.39 9.17 6.79 5.00 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
41   Latvia 7.31 9.58 5.71 5.56 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
42   Slovakia 7.29 9.58 7.14 5.56 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy
43   Timor-Leste 7.24 8.67 7.14 5.56 6.88 7.94 Flawed democracy
44   Greece 7.23 9.58 5.36 6.11 6.25 8.82 Flawed democracy
45   Panama 7.13 9.58 6.43 6.11 5.00 8.82 Flawed democracy
46   Trinidad and Tobago 7.10 9.58 7.14 5.56 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy
47   Bulgaria 7.01 9.17 6.07 7.22 4.38 8.24 Flawed democracy
48   Indonesia 6.97 7.75 7.14 6.67 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
49   Argentina 6.96 9.17 5.00 6.11 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy
50   Philippines 6.94 9.17 5.71 7.22 4.38 8.24 Flawed democracy
51   Brazil 6.90 9.58 6.79 5.56 3.75 8.82 Flawed democracy
52   Poland 6.83 9.17 5.71 6.67 4.38 8.24 Flawed democracy
53   Suriname 6.77 9.17 6.43 5.00 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy
54   Croatia 6.75 9.17 6.07 5.56 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
54   Ghana 6.75 8.33 5.71 6.11 6.25 7.35 Flawed democracy
56   Hungary 6.72 9.17 6.07 4.44 6.88 7.06 Flawed democracy
57   Dominican Republic 6.67 8.75 5.71 5.00 6.25 7.65 Flawed democracy
58   Colombia 6.67 9.17 7.14 4.44 4.38 8.24 Flawed democracy
59   Peru 6.65 9.17 5.36 6.11 4.38 8.24 Flawed democracy
60   El Salvador 6.64 9.17 6.07 4.44 5.00 8.53 Flawed democracy
61   Romania 6.62 9.17 5.71 5.00 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy
62   Mongolia 6.62 9.17 5.71 5.00 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy
63   Lesotho 6.59 8.25 5.36 6.67 5.63 7.06 Flawed democracy
64   Serbia 6.57 8.75 5.36 6.67 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy
65   Malaysia 6.54 6.92 7.86 6.11 6.25 5.59 Flawed democracy
66   Sri Lanka 6.48 7.83 6.79 5.00 6.88 5.88 Flawed democracy
67   Mexico 6.47 7.92 6.07 7.22 4.38 6.76 Flawed democracy
68   Hong Kong 6.42 3.92 5.71 5.56 7.50 9.41 Flawed democracy
69   Tunisia 6.40 6.00 6.07 7.78 6.25 5.58 Flawed democracy
70   Singapore 6.38 4.33 7.86 6.11 6.25 7.35 Flawed democracy
71   Namibia 6.31 5.67 5.36 6.67 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy
72   Paraguay 6.27 8.33 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
73   Guyana 6.25 8.33 5.36 6.11 4.38 7.06 Flawed democracy
74   Senegal 6.21 7.92 5.36 4.44 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
75   Papua New Guinea 6.03 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy
76   Moldova 6.01 7.92 4.29 6.11 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy
77   Zambia 5.99 7.08 5.36 3.89 6.88 6.76 Hybrid regime
78   Georgia 5.93 8.67 4.29 6.11 5.00 5.59 Hybrid regime
79   Honduras 5.92 9.17 5.71 3.89 4.38 6.47 Hybrid regime
79   Guatemala 5.92 7.92 6.07 3.89 4.38 7.35 Hybrid regime
81   Albania 5.91 7.00 4.36 5.56 5.00 7.65 Hybrid regime
82   Ecuador 5.81 8.25 4.64 5.00 4.38 6.76 Hybrid regime
83   Tanzania 5.76 7.00 5.00 5.56 6.25 5.00 Hybrid regime
84   Bangladesh 5.73 7.42 5.07 5.00 4.38 6.76 Hybrid regime
85   Montenegro 5.72 7.08 5.36 5.00 4.38 6.76 Hybrid regime
86   Ukraine 5.70 5.83 3.93 6.67 5.00 7.06 Hybrid regime
86   Mali 5.70 7.42 3.93 4.44 6.25 6.47 Hybrid regime
88   Benin 5.67 6.50 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.88 Hybrid regime
89   Fiji 5.64 4.58 5.71 6.67 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
90   Bolivia 5.63 7.00 5.36 5.00 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
91   Malawi 5.55 6.58 4.29 4.44 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime
92   Kenya 5.33 4.33 5.00 6.67 5.63 5.00 Hybrid regime
93   Liberia 5.31 7.83 2.57 5.56 5.00 5.59 Hybrid regime
94   Uganda 5.26 5.25 3.57 4.44 6.88 6.18 Hybrid regime
95   Macedonia 5.23 6.92 3.21 6.11 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime
96   Madagascar 5.07 5.92 3.57 5.56 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
97   Turkey 5.04 5.83 6.07 5.00 5.63 2.65 Hybrid regime
98   Kyrgyzstan 4.93 7.42 2.93 5.56 3.75 5.00 Hybrid regime
98   Bhutan 4.93 8.33 5.36 2.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
100   Thailand 4.92 4.50 3.93 5.00 5.00 6.18 Hybrid regime
101   Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.87 6.50 2.93 5.00 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime
102   Lebanon 4.86 4.42 2.14 7.78 4.38 5.59 Hybrid regime
102     Nepal 4.86 4.33 4.29 4.44 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
104   Nicaragua 4.81 4.50 3.29 3.89 5.63 6.76 Hybrid regime
105   Morocco 4.77 4.75 4.64 4.44 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
106   Burkina Faso 4.70 4.42 4.29 4.44 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
107   Venezuela 4.68 5.67 2.50 5.56 4.38 5.29 Hybrid regime
108   Sierra Leone 4.55 6.58 1.86 2.78 6.25 5.29 Hybrid regime
109   Nigeria 4.50 6.08 4.29 3.33 4.38 4.41 Hybrid regime
110   Palestine 4.49 4.33 2.14 7.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
111   Pakistan 4.33 6.00 5.36 2.78 2.50 5.00 Hybrid regime
112   Cambodia 4.27 3.17 5.71 3.33 5.00 4.12 Hybrid regime
113   Myanmar 4.20 3.17 3.57 4.44 6.88 2.94 Hybrid regime
114   Iraq 4.08 4.33 0.07 7.22 4.38 4.41 Hybrid regime
115   Mozambique 4.02 4.42 2.14 5.00 5.00 3.53 Hybrid regime
115   Haiti 4.02 5.17 2.21 2.22 3.75 6.76 Hybrid regime
117   Mauritania 3.96 3.00 4.29 5.00 3.13 4.41 Authoritarian
117   Jordan 3.96 4.00 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.24 Authoritarian
117   Niger 3.96 4.75 2.21 2.22 3.75 6.76 Authoritarian
120   Armenia 3.88 4.33 2.86 4.44 1.88 5.88 Authoritarian
121   Kuwait 3.85 3.17 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian
122   Ivory Coast 3.81 3.42 2.86 3.33 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian
123   Gabon 3.74 2.58 2.21 4.44 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian
124   Comoros 3.71 4.33 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.82 Authoritarian
125   Ethiopia 3.60 0.00 3.57 5.56 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
126   Algeria 3.56 2.58 2.21 3.89 5.00 4.12 Authoritarian
127   Belarus 3.54 1.33 3.57 3.89 6.25 2.65 Authoritarian
128   Cameroon 3.46 2.00 3.21 3.89 4.38 3.82 Authoritarian
128   Cuba 3.46 1.75 4.64 3.89 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian
130   Angola 3.40 0.92 3.21 5.56 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
131   Vietnam 3.38 0.00 3.21 3.89 6.88 2.94 Authoritarian
132   Togo 3.32 3.58 1.14 2.78 5.00 4.12 Authoritarian
133   Egypt 3.31 2.58 3.93 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian
134   Russia 3.24 2.67 2.50 5.00 2.50 3.53 Authoritarian
135   Qatar 3.18 0.00 3.93 2.22 5.63 4.12 Authoritarian
136   China 3.14 0.00 4.64 3.33 6.25 1.47 Authoritarian
136   Guinea 3.14 3.50 0.43 4.44 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
138   Rwanda 3.07 0.83 5.00 2.22 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
139   Kazakhstan 3.06 0.50 2.14 4.44 4.38 3.82 Authoritarian
140   Zimbabwe 3.05 0.50 2.00 3.89 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
141   Oman 3.04 0.00 3.93 2.78 4.38 4.12 Authoritarian
142   Swaziland 3.03 0.92 2.86 2.22 5.63 3.53 Authoritarian
143   Republic of the Congo 2.91 1.67 2.86 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian
143   Gambia 2.91 1.75 3.21 2.22 5.00 2.35 Authoritarian
145   Djibouti 2.83 0.42 2.14 3.33 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian
146   Bahrain 2.79 1.25 3.21 2.78 4.38 2.35 Authoritarian
147   United Arab Emirates 2.75 0.00 3.57 2.22 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian
148   Azerbaijan 2.65 0.50 2.14 3.33 3.75 3.53 Authoritarian
149   Afghanistan 2.55 2.50 1.14 2.78 2.50 3.82 Authoritarian
150   Burundi 2.40 0.33 0.79 3.89 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian
151   Sudan 2.37 0.00 1.79 3.89 5.00 1.18 Authoritarian
152   Eritrea 2.37 0.00 2.14 1.67 6.88 1.18 Authoritarian
153   Laos 2.37 0.83 2.86 1.67 5.00 1.47 Authoritarian
154   Iran 2.34 0.00 3.21 3.89 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
155   Libya 2.25 1.00 0.00 1.67 5.63 2.94 Authoritarian
156   Yemen 2.06 0.00 0.00 4.44 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian
157   Guinea-Bissau 1.98 1.67 0.00 2.78 3.13 2.35 Authoritarian
158   Uzbekistan 1.95 0.08 1.86 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian
159   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.93 0.92 0.71 2.78 4.38 0.88 Authoritarian
159   Saudi Arabia 1.93 0.00 2.86 2.22 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
161   Tajikistan 1.89 0.58 0.07 1.67 6.25 0.88 Authoritarian
162   Turkmenistan 1.83 0.00 0.79 2.78 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian
163   Equatorial Guinea 1.70 0.00 0.43 2.22 4.38 1.47 Authoritarian
164   Central African Republic 1.61 1.75 0.36 1.11 2.50 2.35 Authoritarian
165   Chad 1.50 0.00 0.00 1.11 3.75 2.65 Authoritarian
166   Syria 1.43 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00 Authoritarian
167   North Korea 1.08 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00 Authoritarian

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit's index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  5. ^ "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus | JIA SIPA". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress" . Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  8. ^ Eshe Nelson (2017-01-25). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Quartz. 
  9. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017. 
  10. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo" . The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 

External linksEdit