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The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2017.[1]

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The index was first produced in 2006, with updates for 2008, 2010 and the following years since then. The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises countries as one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

Contents

MethodEdit

As described in the report,[2] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments"; the report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are distributed in the five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is translated to a mark, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer alternative questions, 0.5. With the exceptions mentioned below, the sums are added within each category, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g., if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?" is not considered, but automatically marked zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the Democracy Index for a given country. Finally, the Democracy Index, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis has been put on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standard has not been weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators[who?] have done).[3][4]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[5]

Classification definitionsEdit

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and basic political freedoms are not only respected, but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and media that is diverse and independent. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[6]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honored but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Hybrid regimes are nations where consequential irregularities exist in elections regularly preventing them from being fair and free. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opponents, non independent judiciaries, and have widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anemic rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism has vanished or is extremely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meager significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair and free, the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and they are characterised by the presence of omnipresent censorship and suppression of governmental criticism.[6]

Democracy Index by country (2017)Edit

Listing by country is available on The Economist website.[7]

Democracy Index 2017
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Category
1   Norway 9.87 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.71 Full democracy
2   Iceland 9.58 10.00 9.29 8.89 10.00 9.71 Full democracy
3   Sweden 9.39 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41 Full democracy
4   New Zealand 9.26 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.13 10.00 Full democracy
5   Denmark 9.22 10.00 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.12 Full democracy
=6   Ireland 9.15 9.58 7.86 8.33 10.00 10.00 Full democracy
=6   Canada 9.15 9.58 9.64 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
8   Australia 9.09 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
=9   Finland 9.03 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
=9    Switzerland 9.03 9.58 9.29 7.78 9.38 9.12 Full democracy
11   Netherlands 8.89 9.58 9.29 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy
12   Luxembourg 8.81 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
13   Germany 8.61 9.58 8.21 8.33 7.50 9.41 Full democracy
14   United Kingdom 8.53 9.58 7.50 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy
15   Austria 8.42 9.58 8.21 8.33 6.88 9.12 Full democracy
16   Mauritius 8.22 9.17 8.21 5.56 8.75 9.41 Full democracy
17   Malta 8.15 9.17 8.21 6.11 8.75 8.53 Full democracy
18   Uruguay 8.12 10.00 8.93 4.44 7.50 9.71 Full democracy
19   Spain 8.08 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.82 Full democracy
20   South Korea 8.00 9.17 7.86 7.22 7.50 8.24 Full democracy
=21   United States 7.98 9.17 7.14 7.22 8.13 8.24 Flawed democracy
=21   Italy 7.98 9.58 6.43 7.22 8.13 8.53 Flawed democracy
=23   Japan 7.88 8.75 8.21 6.11 7.50 8.82 Flawed democracy
=23   Cape Verde 7.88 9.17 7.86 6.67 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
=23   Costa Rica 7.88 9.58 7.14 6.67 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
=26   Chile 7.84 9.58 8.57 4.44 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy
=26   Portugal 7.84 9.58 7.50 6.11 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
28   Botswana 7.81 9.17 7.14 6.11 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy
29   France 7.80 9.58 7.50 7.78 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy
=30   Estonia 7.79 9.58 7.86 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
=30   Israel 7.79 9.17 7.50 8.89 7.50 5.88 Flawed democracy
32   Belgium 7.78 9.58 8.93 5.00 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
33   Republic of China (Taiwan) 7.73 9.58 8.21 6.11 5.63 9.12 Flawed democracy
34   Czech Republic 7.62 9.58 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
35   Cyprus 7.59 9.17 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
36   Slovenia 7.50 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy
37   Lithuania 7.41 9.58 5.71 6.11 6.25 9.41 Flawed democracy
=38   Greece 7.29 9.58 5.36 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
=38   Jamaica 7.29 9.17 7.14 4.44 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
40   Latvia 7.25 9.58 5.71 5.56 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
41   South Africa 7.24 7.42 7.50 8.33 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
42   India 7.23 9.17 6.97 7.22 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy
43   Timor-Leste 7.19 9.08 6.97 5.56 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy
44   Slovakia 7.16 9.58 6.97 5.56 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy
45   Panama 7.08 9.58 6.97 6.11 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
46   Trinidad and Tobago 7.04 9.58 7.14 5.56 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
47   Bulgaria 7.03 9.17 6.43 7.22 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
48   Argentina 6.96 9.17 5.00 6.11 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy
49   Brazil 6.86 9.58 5.36 6.11 3.75 8.24 Flawed democracy
50   Suriname 6.76 9.17 6.43 5.56 5.00 7.65 Flawed democracy
51   Philippines 6.71 9.17 5.71 7.22 4.38 7.06 Flawed democracy
52   Ghana 6.69 8.33 5.71 6.67 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy
=53   Poland 6.67 9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy
=53   Colombia 6.67 9.17 6.79 4.44 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
55   Dominican Republic 6.66 9.17 5.36 6.11 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
=56   Lesotho 6.64 9.17 5.00 6.67 5.63 6.76 Flawed democracy
=56   Hungary 6.64 8.75 6.07 4.44 6.88 7.06 Flawed democracy
58   Croatia 6.63 9.17 5.36 5.56 5.00 6.76 Flawed democracy
59   Malaysia 6.54 6.92 7.14 6.11 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
60   Mongolia 6.50 9.17 5.71 5.56 5.00 6.76 Flawed democracy
61   Peru 6.49 9.17 5.36 5.56 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy
62   Sri Lanka 6.48 7.83 7.14 5.00 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy
63   Guyana 6.46 8.75 5.71 6.11 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy
64   Romania 6.44 9.17 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
65   El Salvador 6.43 9.17 5.36 4.44 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy
=66   Serbia 6.41 8.25 5.36 6.67 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy
=66   Mexico 6.41 7.83 6.43 7.22 4.38 6.18 Flawed democracy
68   Indonesia 6.39 6.92 7.14 6.67 5.63 5.59 Flawed democracy
=69   Tunisia 6.32 6.00 5.71 7.78 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy
=69   Singapore 6.32 4.33 7.86 6.11 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
=71   Hong Kong 6.31 3.92 6.07 5.56 7.50 8.53 Flawed democracy
=71   Namibia 6.31 5.67 5.36 6.67 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy
=71   Paraguay 6.31 8.75 6.07 5.00 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy
74   Senegal 6.15 7.50 6.07 4.44 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy
75   Papua New Guinea 6.03 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy
76   Ecuador 6.02 8.75 4.64 5.56 4.38 6.76 Flawed democracy
77   Albania 5.98 7.00 4.71 5.56 5.00 7.65 Hybrid regime
78   Moldova 5.94 7.50 4.64 6.11 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime
79   Georgia 5.93 8.67 4.29 6.11 5.00 5.59 Hybrid regime
80   Guatemala 5.86 7.92 5.71 3.89 5.00 6.76 Hybrid regime
81   Fiji 5.85 6.58 5.36 6.11 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
82   Honduras 5.72 8.25 5.36 4.44 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime
=83   Ukraine 5.69 6.17 3.21 6.67 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime
=83   Montenegro 5.69 6.08 5.36 5.56 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime
85   Zambia 5.68 6.17 5.00 3.89 6.88 6.47 Hybrid regime
86   Mali 5.64 7.42 3.93 4.44 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime
87   Benin 5.61 6.50 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
88   Macedonia 5.57 6.50 5.00 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
=89   Bolivia 5.49 7.00 4.64 5.00 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
=89   Malawi 5.49 6.58 4.29 4.44 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime
91   Tanzania 5.47 7.00 5.00 5.00 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
92   Bangladesh 5.43 7.42 5.07 5.00 4.38 5.29 Hybrid regime
93   Liberia 5.23 7.42 2.57 5.56 5.00 5.59 Hybrid regime
94     Nepal 5.18 4.33 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
=95   Kenya 5.11 3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
=95   Kyrgyzstan 5.11 6.58 2.93 6.67 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime
=95   Madagascar 5.11 6.08 3.57 5.56 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
98   Uganda 5.09 5.25 3.57 3.89 6.88 5.88 Hybrid regime
99   Bhutan 5.08 8.33 6.07 2.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
100   Turkey 4.88 5.33 6.07 5.00 5.63 2.35 Hybrid regime
=101   Morocco 4.87 5.25 4.64 4.44 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
=101   Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.87 6.50 2.93 5.00 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime
103   Burkina Faso 4.75 4.42 4.29 4.44 5.63 5.00 Hybrid regime
104   Lebanon 4.72 3.50 2.57 7.22 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
=105   Sierra Leone 4.66 6.58 1.86 3.33 6.25 5.29 Hybrid regime
=105   Nicaragua 4.66 3.42 3.29 3.89 5.63 7.06 Hybrid regime
107   Thailand 4.63 3.00 4.29 5.00 5.00 5.88 Hybrid regime
108   Palestine 4.46 3.83 2.50 7.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
109   Nigeria 4.44 6.08 4.64 3.33 3.75 4.41 Hybrid regime
110   Pakistan 4.26 6.50 5.36 2.22 2.50 4.71 Hybrid regime
111   Armenia 4.11 5.25 2.86 5.00 1.88 5.59 Hybrid regime
112   Iraq 4.09 4.33 0.07 7.22 5.00 3.82 Hybrid regime
113   Gambia 4.06 4.48 3.93 3.33 5.63 2.94 Hybrid regime
114   Haiti 4.03 5.17 2.21 2.22 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime
115   Mozambique 4.02 4.42 2.14 5.00 5.00 3.53 Hybrid regime
116   Ivory Coast 3.93 4.42 2.14 3.33 5.63 4.12 Authoritarian
=117   Jordan 3.87 3.58 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.24 Authoritarian
=117   Venezuela 3.87 2.17 2.86 6.11 4.38 3.82 Authoritarian
119   Kuwait 3.85 3.17 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian
120   Myanmar 3.83 3.67 3.93 3.89 5.63 2.06 Authoritarian
121   Mauritania 3.82 3.00 3.57 5.00 3.13 4.41 Authoritarian
122   Niger 3.76 5.25 1.14 3.33 4.38 4.71 Authoritarian
123   Comoros 3.71 4.33 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.82 Authoritarian
124   Cambodia 3.63 1.33 5.71 2.22 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
125   Angola 3.62 1.75 2.86 5.56 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian
=126   Gabon 3.61 2.58 2.21 4.44 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian
=126   Cameroon 3.61 4.00 2.86 3.89 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
128   Algeria 3.56 2.58 2.21 3.89 5.00 4.12 Authoritarian
129   Ethiopia 3.42 0.00 3.57 5.56 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian
130   Egypt 3.36 3.58 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian
131   Cuba 3.31 1.33 4.29 3.89 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian
132   Republic of the Congo 3.25 3.17 2.50 3.89 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian
=133   Qatar 3.19 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian
=133   Rwanda 3.19 0.83 5.00 2.78 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
135   Russia 3.17 2.17 1.79 5.00 2.50 4.41 Authoritarian
136   Zimbabwe 3.16 0.50 2.00 4.44 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
137   Guinea 3.14 3.50 0.43 4.44 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
138   Belarus 3.13 0.92 2.86 3.89 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian
139   China 3.10 0.00 5.00 2.78 6.25 1.47 Authoritarian
140   Vietnam 3.08 0.00 3.21 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian
141   Kazakhstan 3.06 0.50 2.14 4.44 4.38 3.82 Authoritarian
142   Togo 3.05 3.17 0.79 2.78 5.00 3.53 Authoritarian
143   Oman 3.04 0.00 3.93 2.78 4.38 4.12 Authoritarian
144   Swaziland 3.03 0.92 2.86 2.22 5.63 3.53 Authoritarian
145   Djibouti 2.76 0.42 1.79 3.33 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian
146   Bahrain 2.71 0.83 3.21 2.78 4.38 2.35 Authoritarian
147   United Arab Emirates 2.69 0.00 3.57 2.22 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian
148   Azerbaijan 2.65 0.50 2.14 3.33 3.75 3.53 Authoritarian
149   Afghanistan 2.55 2.50 1.14 2.78 2.50 3.82 Authoritarian
150   Iran 2.45 0.00 3.21 4.44 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
=151   Eritrea 2.37 0.00 2.14 1.67 6.88 1.18 Authoritarian
=151   Laos 2.37 0.83 2.86 1.67 5.00 1.47 Authoritarian
153   Burundi 2.33 0.00 0.43 3.89 5.00 2.35 Authoritarian
154   Libya 2.32 1.00 0.36 1.67 5.63 2.94 Authoritarian
155   Sudan 2.15 0.00 1.79 2.78 5.00 1.18 Authoritarian
156   Yemen 2.07 0.00 0.00 4.44 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian
157   Guinea-Bissau 1.98 1.67 0.00 2.78 3.13 2.35 Authoritarian
158   Uzbekistan 1.95 0.08 1.86 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian
=159   Saudi Arabia 1.93 0.00 2.86 2.22 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
=159   Tajikistan 1.93 0.08 0.79 1.67 6.25 0.88 Authoritarian
161   Equatorial Guinea 1.81 0.00 0.43 2.78 4.38 1.47 Authoritarian
162   Turkmenistan 1.72 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian
163   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.61 0.50 0.71 2.22 3.75 0.88 Authoritarian
164   Central African Republic 1.52 2.25 0.00 1.11 1.88 2.35 Authoritarian
165   Chad 1.50 0.00 0.00 1.11 3.75 2.65 Authoritarian
166   Syria 1.43 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00 Authoritarian
167   North Korea 1.08 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00 Authoritarian

Recent changesEdit

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[8] its score, which had been experiencing a persistent downward trend, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was caused by a myriad of factors, dating back to the late 1960s, which eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[8][9][10]

The 2017 Democracy index registered the worst year for global democracy since 2010-11 in the aftermath of the global economic and financial crisis[citation needed]. 89 countries experienced a decline in their total score compared with 2016, more than three times as many as the countries that recorded an improvement[citation needed]. Asia was the worst performing region overall, while Venezuela was downgraded from a "hybrid regime" to an "authoritarian regime" and Armenia was reupgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime".[11]

Australia (ranked 8th) and Taiwan (ranked 33rd) both legalised gay marriage in 2017. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, further entrenched his power by writing his theoretical contribution to the Chinese Communist Party’s ideology, dubbed “Xi Jinping Thought”, into the party’s constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a “flawed democracy” to a “hybrid regime” as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia moved from the authoritarian category to a “hybrid regime” as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[12]

Democracy Index by regime typeEdit

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2017:[1]

Type of regime Scores (s) Number of
countries
Percentage
of countries
Percentage of
world population
Full democracies 8 ≤ s ≤ 10 19 11.4 4.4
Flawed democracies 6 ≤ s < 8 57 34.1 44.3
Hybrid regimes 4 ≤ s < 6 39 23.4 17.7
Authoritarian regimes 0 ≤ s < 4 52 31.1 32.3

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries covered by the Index. Since this excludes only micro-states, this is nearly equal to the entire estimated world population.

Democracy Index by regionEdit

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2017. Note that some regional groups (e.g. Eastern Europe) are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[4] 2008[13] 2010[3] 2011[14] 2012[2] 2013[15] 2014[16] 2015[6] 2016[17] 2017[1]
1 Northern America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.56 8.56

8.56

2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.40 8.38
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.37 6.33 6.26
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70 5.74 5.74 5.63
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.55 5.43 5.40
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34 4.38 4.37 4.35
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.56 3.54
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55 5.55 5.52 5.48

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  4. ^ a b Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit's index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  5. ^ "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus | JIA SIPA". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  7. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 - Economist Intelligence Unit" (PDF). EIU.com. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  8. ^ a b Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  9. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com.
  10. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017.
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2017". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  12. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 : Free Speech Under Attack" (PDF). www.eiu.com. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  13. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.

External linksEdit