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The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2018[1]

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), a UK-based company. It intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The index was first published in 2006, with updates for 2008, 2010 and later years. The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories, measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises each country in one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

Method

As described in the report,[2] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments". Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries, and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are grouped into five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, the functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is converted to a score, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer questions, 0, 0.5 or 1. With the exceptions mentioned below, within each category, the scores are added, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g. if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?", is not considered, but automatically scored zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the Democracy Index for a given country. Finally, the Democracy Index, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined, e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis is placed on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standards are not weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators[who?] have done).[3][4]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[5]

Classification definitions

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and fundamental political freedoms are not only respected but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, an independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and diverse and independent media. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[vague][6]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honoured but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Hybrid regimes are nations with regular electoral frauds, preventing them from being fair and free democracy. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opponents, non-independent judiciaries, widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anaemic[vague] rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism has vanished or is extremely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meagre significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair and free, the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and there are omnipresent censorship and suppression of governmental criticism.[6]

Democracy Index by country 2018

Listing by country is available on The Economist website.[1]

Democracy Index 2018
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Regime
type
Continent
1   Norway 9.87 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.71 Full democracy Europe
2   Iceland 9.58 10.00 9.29 8.89 10.00 9.71 Full democracy Europe
3   Sweden 9.39 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41 Full democracy Europe
4   New Zealand 9.26 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.13 10.00 Full democracy Oceania
5   Denmark 9.22 10.00 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.12 Full democracy Europe
6   Ireland 9.15 9.58 7.86 8.33 10.00 10.00 Full democracy Europe
  Canada 9.15 9.58 9.64 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy North America
8   Finland 9.14 10.00 8.93 8.33 8.75 9.71 Full democracy Europe
9   Australia 9.09 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy Oceania
10    Switzerland 9.03 9.58 9.29 7.78 9.38 9.12 Full democracy Europe
11   Netherlands 8.89 9.58 9.29 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy Europe
12   Luxembourg 8.81 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71 Full democracy Europe
13   Germany 8.68 9.58 8.57 8.33 7.50 9.41 Full democracy Europe
14   United Kingdom 8.53 9.58 7.50 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy Europe
15   Uruguay 8.38 10.00 8.57 6.11 7.50 9.71 Full democracy South America
16   Austria 8.29 9.58 7.86 8.33 6.88 8.82 Full democracy Europe
17   Mauritius 8.22 9.17 8.21 5.56 8.75 9.41 Full democracy Africa
18   Malta 8.21 9.17 8.21 6.11 8.75 8.82 Full democracy Europe
19   Spain 8.08 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.82 Full democracy Europe
20   Costa Rica 8.07 9.58 7.50 6.67 7.50 9.12 Full democracy North America
21   South Korea[n 1] 8.00 9.17 7.86 7.22 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy Asia
22   Japan 7.99 8.75 8.21 6.67 7.50 8.82 Flawed democracy Asia
23   Chile 7.97 9.58 8.57 4.44 8.13 9.12 Flawed democracy South America
  Estonia 7.97 9.58 8.21 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
25   United States 7.96 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy North America
26   Cape Verde 7.88 9.17 7.86 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Africa
27   Portugal 7.84 9.58 7.50 6.11 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy Europe
28   Botswana 7.81 9.17 7.14 6.11 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy Africa
29   France 7.80 9.58 7.50 7.78 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
30   Israel 7.79 9.17 7.50 8.89 7.50 5.88 Flawed democracy Asia
31   Belgium 7.78 9.58 8.93 5.00 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
32   Taiwan 7.73 9.58 8.21 6.11 5.63 9.12 Flawed democracy Asia
33   Italy 7.71 9.58 6.07 7.78 6.88 8.24 Flawed democracy Europe
34   Czech Republic 7.69 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
35   Cyprus 7.59 9.17 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Europe
36   Slovenia 7.50 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy Europe
  Lithuania 7.50 9.58 6.43 6.11 6.25 9.12 Flawed democracy Europe
38   Latvia 7.38 9.58 6.07 5.56 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy Europe
39   Greece 7.29 9.58 5.36 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy Europe
40   South Africa 7.24 7.42 7.50 8.33 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy Africa
41   India 7.23 9.17 6.79 7.22 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy Asia
42   Timor-Leste 7.19 9.08 6.79 5.56 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy Asia
43   Trinidad and Tobago 7.16 9.58 7.14 6.11 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy North America
44   Slovakia 7.10 9.58 6.79 5.56 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy Europe
45   Panama 7.05 9.58 6.07 6.67 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy North America
46   Bulgaria 7.03 9.17 6.43 7.22 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy Europe
47   Argentina 7.02 9.17 5.36 6.11 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
  Jamaica 7.02 8.75 7.14 4.44 6.25 8.53 Flawed democracy North America
49   Suriname 6.98 9.17 6.43 6.67 5.00 7.65 Flawed democracy South America
50   Brazil 6.97 9.58 5.36 6.67 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
51   Colombia 6.96 9.17 6.79 5.00 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy South America
52   Malaysia 6.88 7.75 7.86 6.67 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy Asia
53   Philippines 6.71 9.17 5.71 7.22 4.38 7.06 Flawed democracy Asia
54   Poland 6.67 9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy Europe
  Guyana 6.67 9.17 5.71 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy South America
56   Lesotho 6.64 9.17 5.00 6.67 5.63 6.76 Flawed democracy Africa
57   Ghana 6.63 8.33 5.71 6.67 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy Africa
  Hungary 6.63 8.75 6.07 5.00 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy Europe
59   Peru 6.60 9.17 5.00 5.56 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy South America
60   Croatia 6.57 9.17 6.07 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy Europe
61   Dominican Republic 6.54 9.17 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy North America
62   Mongolia 6.50 9.17 5.71 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy Asia
63   Serbia 6.41 8.25 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy Europe
  Tunisia 6.41 6.42 5.71 7.78 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy Africa
65   Indonesia 6.39 6.92 7.14 6.67 5.63 5.59 Flawed democracy Asia
66   Singapore 6.38 4.33 7.86 6.11 6.25 7.35 Flawed democracy Asia
  Romania 6.38 9.17 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy Europe
68   Ecuador 6.27 8.75 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Flawed democracy South America
69   Namibia 6.25 5.67 5.36 6.67 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy Africa
70   Paraguay 6.24 8.75 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy South America
71   Sri Lanka 6.19 7.83 5.71 5.00 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy Asia
  Mexico 6.19 8.33 6.07 7.22 3.13 6.18 Flawed democracy North America
73   Hong Kong 6.15 3.08 6.07 5.56 7.50 8.53 Flawed democracy Asia
  Senegal 6.15 7.50 6.07 4.44 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy Africa
75   Papua New Guinea 6.03 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy Oceania
76   Albania 5.98 7.00 4.71 5.56 5.00 7.65 Hybrid regime Europe
77   El Salvador 5.96 9.17 4.29 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime North America
78   North Macedonia 5.87 6.50 5.36 6.67 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime Europe
79   Moldova 5.85 7.08 4.64 6.11 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime Europe
  Fiji 5.85 6.58 5.36 6.11 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Oceania
81   Montenegro 5.74 6.08 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Hybrid regime Europe
  Benin 5.74 6.50 5.71 5.00 5.63 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
83   Bolivia 5.70 7.50 4.64 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime South America
84   Ukraine 5.69 6.17 3.21 6.67 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime Europe
85   Honduras 5.63 8.50 4.64 4.44 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime North America
86   Zambia 5.61 6.17 4.64 3.89 6.88 6.47 Hybrid regime Africa
87   Guatemala 5.60 7.92 5.36 3.89 4.38 6.47 Hybrid regime North America
88   Bangladesh 5.57 7.83 5.07 5.56 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime Asia
89   Georgia 5.50 7.83 3.57 6.11 4.38 5.59 Hybrid regime Europe
90   Malawi 5.49 6.58 4.29 4.44 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
91   Tanzania 5.41 7.00 5.00 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
  Mali 5.41 7.42 3.93 3.89 5.63 6.18 Hybrid regime Africa
93   Liberia 5.35 7.42 2.57 5.56 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Africa
94   Bhutan 5.30 8.75 6.79 2.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
95   Madagascar 5.22 6.08 3.57 6.11 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime Africa
96   Uganda 5.20 5.25 3.57 4.44 6.88 5.88 Hybrid regime Africa
97     Nepal 5.18 4.33 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime Asia
98   Kenya 5.11 3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
  Kyrgyzstan 5.11 6.58 2.93 6.67 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime Asia
100   Morocco 4.99 5.25 4.64 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
101   Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.98 6.50 2.93 5.56 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime Europe
102   Haiti 4.91 5.58 2.93 3.89 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime North America
103   Armenia 4.79 5.67 4.64 5.56 2.50 5.59 Hybrid regime Europe
104   Burkina Faso 4.75 4.42 4.29 4.44 5.63 5.00 Hybrid regime Africa
105   Sierra Leone 4.66 6.58 1.86 3.33 6.25 5.29 Hybrid regime Africa
106   Lebanon 4.63 3.92 2.21 6.67 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime Asia
  Thailand 4.63 3.00 4.29 5.00 5.00 5.88 Hybrid regime Asia
108   Nigeria 4.44 6.08 4.64 3.33 3.75 4.41 Hybrid regime Africa
109   Palestine 4.39 3.83 2.14 7.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
110   Turkey 4.37 4.50 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.35 Hybrid regime Europe
111   Gambia 4.31 4.48 4.29 3.33 5.63 3.82 Hybrid regime Africa
112   Pakistan 4.17 6.08 5.36 2.22 2.50 4.71 Hybrid regime Asia
113   Ivory Coast 4.15 4.83 2.86 3.33 5.63 4.12 Hybrid regime Africa
114   Iraq 4.06 4.75 0.07 6.67 5.00 3.82 Hybrid regime Asia
115   Jordan 3.93 3.58 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian Asia
116   Mozambique 3.85 3.58 2.14 5.00 5.00 3.53 Authoritarian Africa
  Kuwait 3.85 3.17 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian Asia
118   Myanmar 3.83 3.67 3.93 3.89 5.63 2.06 Authoritarian Asia
119   Mauritania 3.82 3.00 3.57 5.00 3.13 4.41 Authoritarian Africa
120   Niger 3.76 5.25 1.14 3.33 4.38 4.71 Authoritarian Africa
121   Comoros 3.71 4.33 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
122   Nicaragua 3.63 2.67 1.86 3.89 5.63 4.12 Authoritarian North America
123   Angola 3.62 1.75 2.86 5.56 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
124   Gabon 3.61 2.58 2.21 4.44 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
125   Cambodia 3.59 1.33 5.00 2.78 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian Asia
126   Algeria 3.50 2.58 2.21 3.89 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian Africa
127   Egypt 3.36 3.58 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
128   Ethiopia 3.35 0.00 3.57 5.56 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
  Rwanda 3.35 1.67 5.00 2.78 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
130   China 3.32 0.00 5.00 3.89 6.25 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
131   Republic of the Congo 3.31 3.17 2.50 3.89 3.75 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
132   Cameroon 3.28 3.17 2.86 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
133   Qatar 3.19 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian Asia
134   Zimbabwe 3.16 0.50 2.00 4.44 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
  Venezuela 3.16 1.67 1.79 4.44 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian South America
136   Guinea 3.14 3.50 0.43 4.44 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
137   Belarus 3.13 0.92 2.86 3.89 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian Europe
138   Togo 3.10 3.17 0.79 3.33 5.00 3.24 Authoritarian Africa
139   Vietnam 3.08 0.00 3.21 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian Asia
140   Oman 3.04 0.00 3.93 2.78 4.38 4.12 Authoritarian Asia
141   Eswatini 3.03 0.92 2.86 2.22 5.63 3.53 Authoritarian Africa
142   Cuba 3.00 1.08 3.57 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian North America
143   Afghanistan 2.97 2.92 1.14 4.44 2.50 3.82 Authoritarian Asia
144   Kazakhstan 2.94 0.50 2.14 4.44 4.38 3.24 Authoritarian Europe
  Russia 2.94 2.17 1.79 5.00 2.50 3.24 Authoritarian Europe
146   Djibouti 2.87 0.42 1.79 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
147   United Arab Emirates 2.76 0.00 3.93 2.22 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian Asia
148   Bahrain 2.71 0.83 3.21 2.78 4.38 2.35 Authoritarian Asia
149   Azerbaijan 2.65 0.50 2.14 3.33 3.75 3.53 Authoritarian Europe
150   Iran 2.45 0.00 3.21 4.44 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
151   Eritrea 2.37 0.00 2.14 1.67 6.88 1.18 Authoritarian Africa
  Laos 2.37 0.83 2.86 1.67 5.00 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
153   Burundi 2.33 0.00 0.43 3.89 5.00 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
154   Libya 2.19 1.00 0.36 1.67 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian Africa
155   Sudan 2.15 0.00 1.79 2.78 5.00 1.18 Authoritarian Africa
156   Uzbekistan 2.01 0.08 1.86 2.22 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
157   Guinea-Bissau 1.98 1.67 0.00 2.78 3.13 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
158   Yemen 1.95 0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
159   Saudi Arabia 1.93 0.00 2.86 2.22 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian Asia
  Tajikistan 1.93 0.08 0.79 1.67 6.25 0.88 Authoritarian Asia
161   Equatorial Guinea 1.92 0.00 0.43 3.33 4.38 1.47 Authoritarian Africa
162   Turkmenistan 1.72 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian Asia
163   Chad 1.61 0.00 0.00 1.67 3.75 2.65 Authoritarian Africa
164   Central African Republic 1.52 2.25 0.00 1.11 1.88 2.35 Authoritarian Africa
165   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.49 0.50 0.71 2.22 3.13 0.88 Authoritarian Africa
166   Syria 1.43 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00 Authoritarian Asia
167   North Korea 1.08 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00 Authoritarian Asia
Rank Country Score Electoral process
and pluralism
Functioning of
government
Political
participation
Political
culture
Civil
liberties
Regime
type
Continent

Recent changes

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[7] its score, which had been declining for some years, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was caused by a myriad of factors dating back to at least the late 1960s which have eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[7][8][9]

The 2017 Democracy index registered the worst year for global democracy since 2010–11, with Asia the worst-performing region overall. Venezuela was downgraded from a "hybrid regime" to an "authoritarian regime".

Australia (ranked 8th) and Taiwan (ranked 33rd) both legalised same-sex marriage in 2017. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, further entrenched his power by writing his contribution to the Chinese Communist Party's ideology, dubbed "Xi Jinping Thought", into the party's constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a "flawed democracy" to a "hybrid regime" as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia was re-upgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime"[10] as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[11]

In 2017 the Gambia was re-upgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime" after Yahya Jammeh, who was president from 1996 to 2017, was defeated by Adama Barrow, an opposition candidate in the 2016 presidential elections.

Criticism

The Democracy Index has been criticised for lacking transparency and accountability beyond the numbers. To generate the index, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a scoring system in which various experts are asked to answer 60 questions and assign each reply a number, with the weighted average deciding the ranking. However, the final report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts.[12]

Democracy Index by regime type

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2018:[1]

Type of regime Score (s) Number of
countries
Percentage
of countries
Percentage of
world population
Full democracies 8 < s 20 12.0 4.5
Flawed democracies 6 < s ≤ 8 55 32.9 43.2
Hybrid regimes 4 < s ≤ 6 39 23.4 16.7
Authoritarian regimes s ≤ 4 53 31.7 35.6

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries covered by the Index. Since this excludes only microstates, this is nearly equal to the entire estimated world population.

Democracy Index by region

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2017. Note that some regional groups (e.g. Eastern Europe and Asia and Australasia) are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[4] 2008[13] 2010[3] 2011[14] 2012[2] 2013[15] 2014[16] 2015[6] 2016[17] 2017[18] 2018[1]
1 Northern America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.56
2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.40 8.38 8.35
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.37 6.33 6.26 6.24
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70 5.74 5.74 5.63 5.67
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.55 5.43 5.40 5.42
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34 4.38 4.37 4.35 4.36
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.56 3.54 3.54
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55 5.55 5.52 5.48 5.48

See also

Notes

  1. ^ An exact score of 8.00 is considered a Flawed democracy per the EIU website.

References

  1. ^ a b c d The Economist Intelligence Unit (8 January 2019). "Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  4. ^ a b Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit's index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus | JIA SIPA". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  7. ^ a b Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  8. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  9. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Democracy Index 2017". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 : Free Speech Under Attack" (PDF). www.eiu.com. 30 January 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  12. ^ "Peter Tasker: The flawed 'science' behind democracy rankings". asia.nikkei.com. Archived from the original on 2019-02-23. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  13. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.

External links