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The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map for 2018.[1]

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), a UK-based company. Its intention is to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The index was first published in 2006, with updates for 2008, 2010 and later years. The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories, measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorises each country in one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes and authoritarian regimes.

Contents

MethodEdit

As described in the report,[2] the democracy index is a weighted average based on the answers of 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted alternative answers. Most answers are "experts' assessments". Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are grouped into five categories: electoral process and pluralism, civil liberties, functioning of government, political participation, and political culture. Each answer is converted to a score, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer questions, 0, 0.5 or 1. With the exceptions mentioned below, within each category the scores are added, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g. if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?", is not considered, but automatically scored zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the Democracy Index for a given country. Finally, the Democracy Index, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis is placed on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living standards are not weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators[who?] have done).[3][4]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer reviewed academic journals.[5]

Classification definitionsEdit

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and basic political freedoms are not only respected, but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, an independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and diverse and independent media. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[vague][6]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honored but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Hybrid regimes are nations where consequential[clarification needed] irregularities exist in elections, regularly preventing them from being fair and free. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opponents, non-independent judiciaries, widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anemic[vague] rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[6]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism has vanished or is extremely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meager significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair and free, the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and there is omnipresent censorship and suppression of governmental criticism.[6]

Democracy Index by country 2018Edit

Listing by country is available on The Economist website.[1]

Democracy Index 2018
Rank Country Score Elec­toral process
and plura­lism
Functio­ning of
govern­ment
Poli­tical
partici­pation
Poli­tical
culture
Civil
liber­ties
Regime
type
1   Norway 9.87 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.71 Full democracy
2   Iceland 9.58 10.00 9.29 8.89 10.00 9.71 Full democracy
3   Sweden 9.39 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41 Full democracy
4   New Zealand 9.26 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.13 10.00 Full democracy
5   Denmark 9.22 10.00 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.12 Full democracy
=6   Ireland 9.15 9.58 7.86 8.33 10.00 10.00 Full democracy
  Canada 9.15 9.58 9.64 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
8   Finland 9.14 10.00 8.93 8.33 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
9   Australia 9.09 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.75 10.00 Full democracy
10    Switzerland 9.03 9.58 9.29 7.78 9.38 9.12 Full democracy
11   Netherlands 8.89 9.58 9.29 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy
12   Luxembourg 8.81 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71 Full democracy
13   Germany 8.68 9.58 8.57 8.33 7.50 9.41 Full democracy
14   United Kingdom 8.53 9.58 7.50 8.33 8.13 9.12 Full democracy
15   Uruguay 8.38 10.00 8.57 6.11 7.50 9.71 Full democracy
16   Austria 8.29 9.58 7.86 8.33 6.88 8.82 Full democracy
17   Mauritius 8.22 9.17 8.21 5.56 8.75 9.41 Full democracy
18   Malta 8.21 9.17 8.21 6.11 8.75 8.82 Full democracy
19   Spain 8.08 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.82 Full democracy
20   Costa Rica 8.07 9.58 7.50 6.67 7.50 9.12 Full democracy
21   South Korea 8.00 9.17 7.86 7.22 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy[a]
22   Japan 7.99 8.75 8.21 6.67 7.50 8.82 Flawed democracy
=23   Chile 7.97 9.58 8.57 4.44 8.13 9.12 Flawed democracy
  Estonia 7.97 9.58 8.21 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
25   United States 7.96 9.17 7.14 7.78 7.50 8.24 Flawed democracy
26   Cape Verde 7.88 9.17 7.86 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
27   Portugal 7.84 9.58 7.50 6.11 6.88 9.12 Flawed democracy
28   Botswana 7.81 9.17 7.14 6.11 7.50 9.12 Flawed democracy
29   France 7.80 9.58 7.50 7.78 5.63 8.53 Flawed democracy
30   Israel 7.79 9.17 7.50 8.89 7.50 5.88 Flawed democracy
31   Belgium 7.78 9.58 8.93 5.00 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
32   Taiwan 7.73 9.58 8.21 6.11 5.63 9.12 Flawed democracy
33   Italy 7.71 9.58 6.07 7.78 6.88 8.24 Flawed democracy
34   Czech Republic 7.69 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
35   Cyprus 7.59 9.17 6.43 6.67 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
=36   Slovenia 7.50 9.58 6.79 6.67 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy
  Lithuania 7.50 9.58 6.43 6.11 6.25 9.12 Flawed democracy
38   Latvia 7.38 9.58 6.07 5.56 6.88 8.82 Flawed democracy
39   Greece 7.29 9.58 5.36 6.11 6.88 8.53 Flawed democracy
40   South Africa 7.24 7.42 7.50 8.33 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
41   India 7.23 9.17 6.79 7.22 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy
42   Timor-Leste 7.19 9.08 6.79 5.56 6.88 7.65 Flawed democracy
43   Trinidad and Tobago 7.16 9.58 7.14 6.11 5.63 7.35 Flawed democracy
44   Slovakia 7.10 9.58 6.79 5.56 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy
45   Panama 7.05 9.58 6.07 6.67 5.00 7.94 Flawed democracy
46   Bulgaria 7.03 9.17 6.43 7.22 4.38 7.94 Flawed democracy
=47   Argentina 7.02 9.17 5.36 6.11 6.25 8.24 Flawed democracy
  Jamaica 7.02 8.75 7.14 4.44 6.25 8.53 Flawed democracy
49   Suriname 6.98 9.17 6.43 6.67 5.00 7.65 Flawed democracy
50   Brazil 6.97 9.58 5.36 6.67 5.00 8.24 Flawed democracy
51   Colombia 6.96 9.17 6.79 5.00 5.63 8.24 Flawed democracy
52   Malaysia 6.88 7.75 7.86 6.67 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy
53   Philippines 6.71 9.17 5.71 7.22 4.38 7.06 Flawed democracy
=54   Poland 6.67 9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy
  Guyana 6.67 9.17 5.71 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy
56   Lesotho 6.64 9.17 5.00 6.67 5.63 6.76 Flawed democracy
=57   Ghana 6.63 8.33 5.71 6.67 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy
  Hungary 6.63 8.75 6.07 5.00 6.25 7.06 Flawed democracy
59   Peru 6.60 9.17 5.00 5.56 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy
60   Croatia 6.57 9.17 6.07 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy
61   Dominican Republic 6.54 9.17 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy
62   Mongolia 6.50 9.17 5.71 5.56 5.00 7.06 Flawed democracy
=63   Serbia 6.41 8.25 5.36 6.11 5.00 7.35 Flawed democracy
  Tunisia 6.41 6.42 5.71 7.78 6.25 5.88 Flawed democracy
65   Indonesia 6.39 6.92 7.14 6.67 5.63 5.59 Flawed democracy
=66   Singapore 6.38 4.33 7.86 6.11 6.25 7.35 Flawed democracy
  Romania 6.38 9.17 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.65 Flawed democracy
68   Ecuador 6.27 8.75 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Flawed democracy
69   Namibia 6.25 5.67 5.36 6.67 5.63 7.94 Flawed democracy
70   Paraguay 6.24 8.75 5.71 5.00 4.38 7.35 Flawed democracy
=71   Sri Lanka 6.19 7.83 5.71 5.00 6.25 6.18 Flawed democracy
  Mexico 6.19 8.33 6.07 7.22 3.13 6.18 Flawed democracy
=73   Hong Kong 6.15 3.08 6.07 5.56 7.50 8.53 Flawed democracy
  Senegal 6.15 7.50 6.07 4.44 6.25 6.47 Flawed democracy
75   Papua New Guinea 6.03 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.65 Flawed democracy
76   Albania 5.98 7.00 4.71 5.56 5.00 7.65 Hybrid regime
77   El Salvador 5.96 9.17 4.29 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
78   North Macedonia 5.87 6.50 5.36 6.67 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
=79   Moldova 5.85 7.08 4.64 6.11 4.38 7.06 Hybrid regime
  Fiji 5.85 6.58 5.36 6.11 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
=81   Montenegro 5.74 6.08 5.36 6.11 4.38 6.76 Hybrid regime
  Benin 5.74 6.50 5.71 5.00 5.63 5.88 Hybrid regime
83   Bolivia 5.70 7.50 4.64 5.56 3.75 7.06 Hybrid regime
84   Ukraine 5.69 6.17 3.21 6.67 6.25 6.18 Hybrid regime
85   Honduras 5.63 8.50 4.64 4.44 4.38 6.18 Hybrid regime
86   Zambia 5.61 6.17 4.64 3.89 6.88 6.47 Hybrid regime
87   Guatemala 5.60 7.92 5.36 3.89 4.38 6.47 Hybrid regime
88   Bangladesh 5.57 7.83 5.07 5.56 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime
89   Georgia 5.50 7.83 3.57 6.11 4.38 5.59 Hybrid regime
90   Malawi 5.49 6.58 4.29 4.44 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime
=91   Tanzania 5.41 7.00 5.00 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
  Mali 5.41 7.42 3.93 3.89 5.63 6.18 Hybrid regime
93   Liberia 5.35 7.42 2.57 5.56 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
94   Bhutan 5.30 8.75 6.79 2.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
95   Madagascar 5.22 6.08 3.57 6.11 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
96   Uganda 5.20 5.25 3.57 4.44 6.88 5.88 Hybrid regime
97     Nepal 5.18 4.33 5.36 5.00 5.63 5.59 Hybrid regime
=98   Kenya 5.11 3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
  Kyrgyzstan 5.11 6.58 2.93 6.67 4.38 5.00 Hybrid regime
100   Morocco 4.99 5.25 4.64 5.00 5.63 4.41 Hybrid regime
101   Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.98 6.50 2.93 5.56 3.75 6.18 Hybrid regime
102   Haiti 4.91 5.58 2.93 3.89 6.25 5.88 Hybrid regime
103   Armenia 4.79 5.67 4.64 5.56 2.50 5.59 Hybrid regime
104   Burkina Faso 4.75 4.42 4.29 4.44 5.63 5.00 Hybrid regime
105   Sierra Leone 4.66 6.58 1.86 3.33 6.25 5.29 Hybrid regime
=106   Lebanon 4.63 3.92 2.21 6.67 5.63 4.71 Hybrid regime
  Thailand 4.63 3.00 4.29 5.00 5.00 5.88 Hybrid regime
108   Nigeria 4.44 6.08 4.64 3.33 3.75 4.41 Hybrid regime
109   Palestine 4.39 3.83 2.14 7.78 4.38 3.82 Hybrid regime
110   Turkey 4.37 4.50 5.00 5.00 5.00 2.35 Hybrid regime
111   Gambia 4.31 4.48 4.29 3.33 5.63 3.82 Hybrid regime
112   Pakistan 4.17 6.08 5.36 2.22 2.50 4.71 Hybrid regime
113   Ivory Coast 4.15 4.83 2.86 3.33 5.63 4.12 Hybrid regime
114   Iraq 4.06 4.75 0.07 6.67 5.00 3.82 Hybrid regime
115   Jordan 3.93 3.58 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian
=116   Mozambique 3.85 3.58 2.14 5.00 5.00 3.53 Authoritarian
  Kuwait 3.85 3.17 4.29 3.89 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian
118   Myanmar 3.83 3.67 3.93 3.89 5.63 2.06 Authoritarian
119   Mauritania 3.82 3.00 3.57 5.00 3.13 4.41 Authoritarian
120   Niger 3.76 5.25 1.14 3.33 4.38 4.71 Authoritarian
121   Comoros 3.71 4.33 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.82 Authoritarian
122   Nicaragua 3.63 2.67 1.86 3.89 5.63 4.12 Authoritarian
123   Angola 3.62 1.75 2.86 5.56 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian
124   Gabon 3.61 2.58 2.21 4.44 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian
125   Cambodia 3.59 1.33 5.00 2.78 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
126   Algeria 3.50 2.58 2.21 3.89 5.00 3.82 Authoritarian
127   Egypt 3.36 3.58 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.94 Authoritarian
=128   Ethiopia 3.35 0.00 3.57 5.56 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian
  Rwanda 3.35 1.67 5.00 2.78 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
130   China 3.32 0.00 5.00 3.89 6.25 1.47 Authoritarian
131   Republic of the Congo 3.31 3.17 2.50 3.89 3.75 3.24 Authoritarian
132   Cameroon 3.28 3.17 2.86 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian
133   Qatar 3.19 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 3.82 Authoritarian
=134   Zimbabwe 3.16 0.50 2.00 4.44 5.63 3.24 Authoritarian
  Venezuela 3.16 1.67 1.79 4.44 4.38 3.53 Authoritarian
136   Guinea 3.14 3.50 0.43 4.44 4.38 2.94 Authoritarian
137   Belarus 3.13 0.92 2.86 3.89 5.63 2.35 Authoritarian
138   Togo 3.10 3.17 0.79 3.33 5.00 3.24 Authoritarian
139   Vietnam 3.08 0.00 3.21 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian
140   Oman 3.04 0.00 3.93 2.78 4.38 4.12 Authoritarian
141   Eswatini 3.03 0.92 2.86 2.22 5.63 3.53 Authoritarian
142   Cuba 3.00 1.08 3.57 3.33 4.38 2.65 Authoritarian
143   Afghanistan 2.97 2.92 1.14 4.44 2.50 3.82 Authoritarian
=144   Kazakhstan 2.94 0.50 2.14 4.44 4.38 3.24 Authoritarian
  Russia 2.94 2.17 1.79 5.00 2.50 3.24 Authoritarian
146   Djibouti 2.87 0.42 1.79 3.89 5.63 2.65 Authoritarian
147   United Arab Emirates 2.76 0.00 3.93 2.22 5.00 2.65 Authoritarian
148   Bahrain 2.71 0.83 3.21 2.78 4.38 2.35 Authoritarian
149   Azerbaijan 2.65 0.50 2.14 3.33 3.75 3.53 Authoritarian
150   Iran 2.45 0.00 3.21 4.44 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
=151   Eritrea 2.37 0.00 2.14 1.67 6.88 1.18 Authoritarian
  Laos 2.37 0.83 2.86 1.67 5.00 1.47 Authoritarian
153   Burundi 2.33 0.00 0.43 3.89 5.00 2.35 Authoritarian
154   Libya 2.19 1.00 0.36 1.67 5.00 2.94 Authoritarian
155   Sudan 2.15 0.00 1.79 2.78 5.00 1.18 Authoritarian
156   Uzbekistan 2.01 0.08 1.86 2.22 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian
157   Guinea-Bissau 1.98 1.67 0.00 2.78 3.13 2.35 Authoritarian
158   Yemen 1.95 0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 0.88 Authoritarian
=159   Saudi Arabia 1.93 0.00 2.86 2.22 3.13 1.47 Authoritarian
  Tajikistan 1.93 0.08 0.79 1.67 6.25 0.88 Authoritarian
161   Equatorial Guinea 1.92 0.00 0.43 3.33 4.38 1.47 Authoritarian
162   Turkmenistan 1.72 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.59 Authoritarian
163   Chad 1.61 0.00 0.00 1.67 3.75 2.65 Authoritarian
164   Central African Republic 1.52 2.25 0.00 1.11 1.88 2.35 Authoritarian
165   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.49 0.50 0.71 2.22 3.13 0.88 Authoritarian
166   Syria 1.43 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00 Authoritarian
167   North Korea 1.08 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00 Authoritarian
Rank Country Score Elec­toral process
and plura­lism
Functio­ning of
govern­ment
Poli­tical
partici­pation
Poli­tical
culture
Civil
liber­ties
Regime
type

Recent changesEdit

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[7] its score, which had been declining for some years, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report states that this was caused by a myriad of factors dating back to at least the late 1960s which have eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[7][8][9]

The 2017 Democracy index registered the worst year for global democracy since 2010–11. Asia was the worst-performing region overall. Venezuela was downgraded from a "hybrid regime" to an "authoritarian regime".

Australia (ranked 8th) and Taiwan (ranked 33rd) both legalised same-sex marriage in 2017. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, further entrenched his power by writing his contribution to the Chinese Communist Party’s ideology, dubbed "Xi Jinping Thought", into the party's constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a "flawed democracy" to a "hybrid regime" as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia was reupgraded from an "authoritarian regime" to a "hybrid regime".[10] as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[11]

CriticismEdit

The Democracy Index has been criticized for lacking transparency and accountability beyond the numbers. To generate the index, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a scoring system in which various experts are asked to answer 60 questions and assign each reply a number, with the weighted average deciding the ranking. However, the final report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts.[12]

Democracy Index by regime typeEdit

The following table gives the number and percentage of countries and the percentage of the world population for each regime type in 2018:[1]

Type of regime Score (s) Number of
countries
Percentage
of countries
Percentage of
world population
Full democracies 8 < s 20 12.0 4.5
Flawed democracies 6 < s ≤ 8 55 32.9 43.2
Hybrid regimes 4 < s ≤ 6 39 23.4 16.7
Authoritarian regimes s ≤ 4 53 31.7 35.6

World population refers to the total population of the 167 countries covered by the Index. Since this excludes only microstates, this is nearly equal to the entire estimated world population.

Democracy Index by regionEdit

The following table gives the index average by world region, and the number of covered countries in 2017. Note that some regional groups (e.g. Eastern Europe and Asia and Australasia) are very heterogeneous and composed of full democracies as well as authoritarian regimes:

Rank Region Countries 2006[4] 2008[13] 2010[3] 2011[14] 2012[2] 2013[15] 2014[16] 2015[6] 2016[17] 2017[18] 2018[1]
1 Northern America 2 8.64 8.64 8.63 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.56
2 Western Europe 21 8.60 8.61 8.45 8.40 8.44 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.40 8.38 8.35
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 6.37 6.43 6.37 6.35 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.37 6.33 6.26 6.24
4 Asia and Australasia 28 5.44 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.56 5.61 5.70 5.74 5.74 5.63 5.67
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.76 5.67 5.55 5.50 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.55 5.43 5.40 5.42
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.24 4.28 4.23 4.32 4.33 4.36 4.34 4.38 4.37 4.35 4.36
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 3.54 3.48 3.52 3.62 3.73 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.56 3.54 3.54
  World 167 5.52 5.55 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.53 5.55 5.55 5.52 5.48 5.48

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 8.00 is Flawed democracy in 2018 rules. Full democracy requires 8.01.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d The Economist Intelligence Unit (8 January 2019). "Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Democracy index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  4. ^ a b Laza Kekic, director, country forecasting services (15 November 2006). "The Economist Intelligence Unit's index of democracy" (PDF). The World in 2007. Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus | JIA SIPA". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  7. ^ a b Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  8. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com.
  9. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Democracy Index 2017". www.eiu.com. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 : Free Speech Under Attack" (PDF). www.eiu.com. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  12. ^ "Peter Tasker: The flawed 'science' behind democracy rankings". asia.nikkei.com. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  13. ^ "Index of Democracy 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Democracy index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 31 January 2018.

External linksEdit