Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the research division of the Economist Group, a UK-based private company which publishes the weekly newspaper The Economist. Akin to a Human Development Index but centrally concerned with political institutions and freedoms, the index attempts to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries and territories, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The 2021 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map

The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five different categories, measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorizes each country into one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes, and authoritarian regimes. The Economist has published reports with updated versions of the Democracy Index for 2006,[1] 2008,[2] 2010,[3] 2011,[4] 2012,[5] 2013,[6] 2014,[7] 2015,[8] 2016,[9] 2017,[10] 2018,[11] 2019,[12] 2020,[13] and 2021.[14] (The Democracy index studies were reported every two years initially, the first report was published in 2006, then in 2008 and 2010. From 2010 the index became annual.)

MethodologyEdit

As described in the report,[5] the Democracy Index produces a weighted average based on the answers to 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted answers. Most answers are experts' assessments. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are grouped into five categories:

Each answer is converted to a score, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer questions, 0, 0.5 or 1. With the exceptions mentioned below, within each category, the scores are added, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g. if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?", is not considered, but automatically scored zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the overall score for a given country. Finally, the score, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime-type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined, e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis is placed on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living-standards are not weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators have done).[3][1]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer-reviewed academic journals.[15]

DefinitionsEdit

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and fundamental political freedoms are not only respected but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, an independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and diverse and independent media. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[8]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honoured but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement and minor suppression of political opposition and critics). These nations have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[8]

Hybrid regimes are nations with regular electoral frauds, preventing them from being fair and free democracies. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opposition, non-independent judiciaries, widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anaemic rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[8]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism is nonexistent or severely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meagre significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair or free (including sham elections), the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and censorship and suppression of governmental criticism are commonplace.[8]

By regime typeEdit

The following table indicates the number of nations and the percentage of World population for each type of regime. Some microstates are not considered in the calculation.

Year 2021[16]
Type of regime Score Countries Proportion of
World population (%)
Number (%)
Full democracies
  9.01–10.00
  8.01–9.00
21 12.6% 6.4%
Flawed democracies
  7.01–8.00
  6.01–7.00
53 31.7% 39.3%
Hybrid regimes
  5.01–6.00
  4.01–5.00
34 20.4% 17.2%
Authoritarian regimes
  3.01–4.00
  0–3.00
59 35.3% 37.1%

By regionEdit

The following table lists the average score for each geographic region defined in the report. The By country section shows the countries in each region.

Region Coun­tries 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2008 2006
North America 2 8.36 8.58 8.59 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.63 8.64 8.64
Western Europe 21 8.23 8.29 8.35 8.35 8.38 8.40 8.42 8.41 8.41 8.44 8.40 8.45 8.61 8.60
Latin America and the Caribbean 24 5.83 6.09 6.13 6.24 6.26 6.33 6.37 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.35 6.37 6.43 6.37
Asia and Australasia 28 5.46 5.62 5.67 5.67 5.63 5.74 5.74 5.70 5.61 5.56 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.44
Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.36 5.36 5.42 5.42 5.40 5.43 5.55 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.50 5.55 5.67 5.76
Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.12 4.16 4.26 4.36 4.35 4.37 4.38 4.34 4.36 4.33 4.32 4.23 4.28 4.24
Middle East and North Africa 20 3.41 3.44 3.53 3.54 3.54 3.56 3.58 3.65 3.68 3.73 3.62 3.52 3.48 3.54
World 167 5.28 5.37 5.44 5.48 5.48 5.52 5.55 5.55 5.53 5.52 5.49 5.46 5.55 5.52

The following table lists the number of countries in each of the four democracy classifications.

Year 2021
Rank Region Countries Authoritarian Hybrid regime Flawed democracy Full democracy Average score
1 North America 2 0 0 1 1 8.36
2 Western Europe 21 0 1 8 12 8.23
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 4 7 11 2 5.83
4 Asia and Australasia 28 7 6 10 5 5.46
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 8 4 16 0 5.36
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 23 14 6 1 4.12
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 17 2 1 0 3.41
World 167 59 34 53 21 5.28

By countryEdit

The following table shows each nation's score over the years. The regions are assigned by the Economist Intelligence Unit, and may differ from conventional classifications (for example, Turkey is grouped in Western Europe).

Region 2021 rank Country Regime type 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2008 2006
North America 12   Canada Full democracy 8.87 9.24 9.22 9.15 9.15 9.15 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.07 9.07
26   United States Flawed democracy 7.85 7.92 7.96 7.96 7.98 7.98 8.05 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.18 8.22 8.22
Western Europe 21   Austria Full democracy 8.07 8.16 8.29 8.29 8.42 8.41 8.54 8.54 8.48 8.62 8.49 8.49 8.49 8.69
36   Belgium Flawed democracy 7.51 7.51 7.64 7.78 7.78 7.77 7.93 7.93 8.05 8.05 8.05 8.05 8.16 8.15
37   Cyprus Flawed democracy 7.43 7.56 7.59 7.59 7.59 7.65 7.53 7.40 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.70 7.60
6   Denmark Full democracy 9.09 9.15 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.20 9.11 9.11 9.38 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52
3   Finland Full democracy 9.27 9.20 9.25 9.14 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.06 9.06 9.19 9.25 9.25
22   France Flawed democracy 7.99 7.99 8.12 7.80 7.80 7.92 7.92 8.04 7.92 7.88 7.77 7.77 8.07 8.07
15   Germany Full democracy 8.67 8.67 8.68 8.68 8.61 8.63 8.64 8.64 8.31 8.34 8.34 8.38 8.82 8.82
34   Greece Flawed democracy 7.56 7.39 7.43 7.29 7.29 7.23 7.45 7.45 7.65 7.65 7.65 7.92 8.13 8.13
5   Iceland Full democracy 9.18 9.37 9.58 9.58 9.58 9.50 9.58 9.58 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.71
7   Ireland Full democracy 9.00 9.05 9.24 9.15 9.15 9.15 8.85 8.72 8.68 8.56 8.56 8.79 9.01 9.01
31   Italy Flawed democracy 7.68 7.74 7.52 7.71 7.98 7.98 7.98 7.85 7.85 7.74 7.74 7.83 7.98 7.73
14   Luxembourg Full democracy 8.68 8.68 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 9.10 9.10
33   Malta Flawed democracy 7.57 7.68 7.95 8.21 8.15 8.39 8.39 8.39 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.39 8.39
11   Netherlands Full democracy 8.88 8.96 9.01 8.89 8.89 8.80 8.92 8.92 8.84 8.99 8.99 8.99 9.53 9.66
1   Norway Full democracy 9.75 9.81 9.87 9.87 9.87 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.80 9.80 9.68 9.55
28   Portugal Flawed democracy 7.82 7.90 8.03 7.84 7.84 7.86 7.79 7.79 7.65 7.92 7.81 8.02 8.05 8.16
24   Spain Flawed democracy 7.94 8.12 8.29 8.08 8.08 8.30 8.30 8.05 8.02 8.02 8.02 8.16 8.45 8.34
4   Sweden Full democracy 9.26 9.26 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.45 9.73 9.73 9.73 9.50 9.50 9.88 9.88
9    Switzerland Full democracy 8.90 8.83 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.15 9.02
103   Turkey Hybrid regime 4.35 4.48 4.09 4.37 4.88 5.04 5.12 5.12 5.63 5.76 5.73 5.73 5.69 5.70
18   United Kingdom Full democracy 8.10 8.54 8.52 8.53 8.53 8.36 8.31 8.31 8.31 8.21 8.16 8.16 8.15 8.08
Central and Eastern Europe 68   Albania Flawed democracy 6.11 6.08 5.89 5.98 5.98 5.91 5.91 5.67 5.67 5.67 5.81 5.86 5.91 5.91
89   Armenia Hybrid regime 5.49 5.35 5.54 4.79 4.11 3.88 4.00 4.13 4.02 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.15
141   Azerbaijan Authoritarian 2.68 2.68 2.75 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.71 2.83 3.06 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.19 3.31
146   Belarus Authoritarian 2.41 2.59 2.48 3.13 3.13 3.54 3.62 3.69 3.04 3.04 3.16 3.34 3.34 3.34
95   Bosnia and Herzegovina Hybrid regime 5.04 4.84 4.86 4.98 4.87 4.87 4.83 4.78 5.02 5.11 5.24 5.32 5.70 5.78
53   Bulgaria Flawed democracy 6.64 6.71 7.03 7.03 7.03 7.01 7.14 6.73 6.83 6.72 6.78 6.84 7.02 7.10
56   Croatia Flawed democracy 6.50 6.50 6.57 6.57 6.63 6.75 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.73 6.81 7.04 7.04
29   Czech Republic Flawed democracy 7.74 7.67 7.69 7.69 7.62 7.82 7.94 7.94 8.06 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.17
27   Estonia Flawed democracy 7.84 7.84 7.90 7.97 7.79 7.85 7.85 7.74 7.61 7.61 7.61 7.68 7.68 7.74
91   Georgia Hybrid regime 5.12 5.31 5.42 5.50 5.93 5.93 5.88 5.82 5.95 5.53 4.74 4.59 4.62 4.90
56   Hungary Flawed democracy 6.50 6.56 6.63 6.63 6.64 6.72 6.84 6.90 6.96 6.96 7.04 7.21 7.44 7.53
128   Kazakhstan Authoritarian 3.08 3.14 2.94 2.94 3.06 3.06 3.06 3.17 3.06 2.95 3.24 3.30 3.45 3.62
115   Kyrgyzstan Authoritarian 3.62 4.21 4.89 5.11 5.11 4.93 5.33 5.24 4.69 4.69 4.34 4.31 4.05 4.08
38   Latvia Flawed democracy 7.31 7.24 7.49 7.38 7.25 7.31 7.37 7.48 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.23 7.37
40   Lithuania Flawed democracy 7.18 7.13 7.50 7.50 7.41 7.47 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.36 7.43
69   Moldova Flawed democracy 6.10 5.78 5.75 5.85 5.94 6.01 6.35 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.33 6.50 6.50
74   Montenegro Flawed democracy 6.02 5.77 5.65 5.74 5.69 5.72 6.01 5.94 5.94 6.05 6.15 6.27 6.43 6.57
73   North Macedonia Flawed democracy 6.03 5.89 5.97 5.87 5.57 5.23 6.02 6.25 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.21 6.33
51   Poland Flawed democracy 6.80 6.85 6.62 6.67 6.67 6.83 7.09 7.47 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.05 7.30 7.30
61   Romania Flawed democracy 6.43 6.40 6.49 6.38 6.44 6.62 6.68 6.68 6.54 6.54 6.54 6.60 7.06 7.06
124   Russia Authoritarian 3.24 3.31 3.11 2.94 3.17 3.24 3.31 3.39 3.59 3.74 3.92 4.26 4.48 5.02
63   Serbia Flawed democracy 6.36 6.22 6.41 6.41 6.41 6.57 6.71 6.71 6.67 6.33 6.33 6.33 6.49 6.62
45   Slovakia Flawed democracy 7.03 6.97 7.17 7.10 7.16 7.29 7.29 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.33 7.40
35   Slovenia Flawed democracy 7.54 7.54 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.51 7.57 7.57 7.88 7.88 7.76 7.69 7.96 7.96
157   Tajikistan Authoritarian 1.94 1.94 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.89 1.95 2.37 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.45 2.45
161   Turkmenistan Authoritarian 1.66 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.83
86   Ukraine Hybrid regime 5.57 5.81 5.90 5.69 5.69 5.70 5.70 5.42 5.84 5.91 5.94 6.30 6.94 6.94
150   Uzbekistan Authoritarian 2.12 2.12 2.01 2.01 1.95 1.95 1.95 2.45 1.72 1.72 1.74 1.74 1.74 1.85
Latin America and the Caribbean 50   Argentina Flawed democracy 6.81 6.95 7.02 7.02 6.96 6.96 7.02 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.63 6.63
98   Bolivia Hybrid regime 4.65 5.08 4.84 5.70 5.49 5.63 5.75 5.79 5.79 5.84 5.84 5.92 6.15 5.98
47   Brazil Flawed democracy 6.86 6.92 6.86 6.97 6.86 6.90 6.96 7.38 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.38 7.38
25   Chile Flawed democracy 7.92 8.28 8.08 7.97 7.84 7.78 7.84 7.80 7.80 7.54 7.54 7.67 7.89 7.89
59   Colombia Flawed democracy 6.48 7.04 7.13 6.96 6.67 6.67 6.62 6.55 6.55 6.63 6.63 6.55 6.54 6.40
20   Costa Rica Full democracy 8.07 8.16 8.13 8.07 7.88 7.88 7.96 8.03 8.03 8.10 8.10 8.04 8.04 8.04
142   Cuba Authoritarian 2.59 2.84 2.84 3.00 3.31 3.46 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52
60   Dominican Republic Flawed democracy 6.45 6.32 6.54 6.54 6.66 6.67 6.67 6.67 6.74 6.49 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.13
81   Ecuador Hybrid regime 5.71 6.13 6.33 6.27 6.02 5.81 5.87 5.87 5.87 5.78 5.72 5.77 5.64 5.64
79   El Salvador Hybrid regime 5.72 5.90 6.15 5.96 6.43 6.64 6.64 6.53 6.53 6.47 6.47 6.47 6.40 6.22
99   Guatemala Hybrid regime 4.62 4.97 5.26 5.60 5.86 5.92 5.92 5.81 5.81 5.88 5.88 6.05 6.07 6.07
65   Guyana Flawed democracy 6.25 6.01 6.15 6.67 6.46 6.25 6.05 5.91 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.12 6.15
119   Haiti Authoritarian 3.48 4.22 4.57 4.91 4.03 4.02 3.94 3.82 3.94 3.96 4.00 4.00 4.19 4.19
92   Honduras Hybrid regime 5.10 5.36 5.42 5.63 5.72 5.92 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.76 6.18 6.25
42   Jamaica Flawed democracy 7.13 7.13 6.96 7.02 7.29 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.13 7.21 7.21 7.34
86   Mexico Hybrid regime 5.57 6.07 6.09 6.19 6.41 6.47 6.55 6.68 6.91 6.90 6.93 6.93 6.78 6.67
140   Nicaragua Authoritarian 2.69 3.60 3.55 3.63 4.66 4.81 5.26 5.32 5.46 5.56 5.56 5.73 6.07 5.68
48   Panama Flawed democracy 6.85 7.18 7.05 7.05 7.08 7.13 7.19 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.15 7.35 7.35
77   Paraguay Hybrid regime 5.86 6.18 6.24 6.24 6.31 6.27 6.33 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.16
71   Peru Flawed democracy 6.09 6.53 6.60 6.60 6.49 6.65 6.58 6.54 6.54 6.47 6.59 6.40 6.31 6.11
49   Suriname Flawed democracy 6.82 6.82 6.98 6.98 6.76 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.65 6.65 6.65 6.58 6.52
41   Trinidad and Tobago Flawed democracy 7.16 7.16 7.16 7.16 7.04 7.10 7.10 6.99 6.99 6.99 7.16 7.16 7.21 7.18
13   Uruguay Full democracy 8.85 8.61 8.38 8.38 8.12 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.10 8.08 7.96
151   Venezuela Authoritarian 2.11 2.76 2.88 3.16 3.87 4.68 5.00 5.07 5.07 5.15 5.08 5.18 5.34 5.42
Asia and Australasia 167   Afghanistan Authoritarian 0.32 2.85 2.85 2.97 2.55 2.55 2.77 2.77 2.48 2.48 2.48 2.48 3.02 3.06
9   Australia Full democracy 8.90 8.96 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.01 9.01 9.01 9.13 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.09 9.09
75   Bangladesh Hybrid regime 5.99 5.99 5.88 5.57 5.43 5.73 5.73 5.78 5.86 5.86 5.86 5.87 5.52 6.11
81   Bhutan Hybrid regime 5.71 5.71 5.30 5.30 5.08 4.93 4.93 4.87 4.82 4.65 4.57 4.68 4.30 2.62
134   Cambodia Authoritarian 2.90 3.10 3.53 3.59 3.63 4.27 4.27 4.78 4.60 4.96 4.87 4.87 4.87 4.77
148   China Authoritarian 2.21 2.27 2.26 3.32 3.10 3.18 3.14 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.14 3.14 3.04 2.97
84   Fiji Hybrid regime 5.61 5.72 5.85 5.85 5.85 5.64 5.69 5.61 3.61 3.67 3.67 3.62 5.11 5.66
85   Hong Kong Hybrid regime 5.60 5.57 6.02 6.15 6.31 6.42 6.50 6.46 6.42 6.42 5.92 5.92 5.85 6.03
46   India Flawed democracy 6.91 6.61 6.90 7.23 7.23 7.81 7.74 7.92 7.69 7.52 7.30 7.28 7.80 7.68
52   Indonesia Flawed democracy 6.71 6.30 6.48 6.39 6.39 6.97 7.03 6.95 6.82 6.76 6.53 6.53 6.34 6.41
17   Japan Full democracy 8.15 8.13 7.99 7.99 7.88 7.99 7.96 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.25 8.15
159   Laos Authoritarian 1.77 1.77 2.14 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.21 2.21 2.21 2.32 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.10
39   Malaysia Flawed democracy 7.24 7.19 7.16 6.88 6.54 6.54 6.43 6.49 6.49 6.41 6.19 6.19 6.36 5.98
62   Mongolia Flawed democracy 6.42 6.48 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.62 6.62 6.62 6.51 6.35 6.23 6.36 6.60 6.60
166   Myanmar Authoritarian 1.02 3.04 3.55 3.83 3.83 4.20 4.14 3.05 2.76 2.35 1.77 1.77 1.77 1.77
101     Nepal Hybrid regime 4.41 5.22 5.28 5.18 5.18 4.86 4.77 4.77 4.77 4.16 4.24 4.24 4.05 3.42
2   New Zealand Full democracy 9.37 9.25 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.19 9.01
165   North Korea Authoritarian 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 0.86 1.03
104   Pakistan Hybrid regime 4.31 4.31 4.25 4.17 4.26 4.33 4.40 4.64 4.64 4.57 4.55 4.55 4.46 3.92
69   Papua New Guinea Flawed democracy 6.10 6.10 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.36 6.32 6.32 6.54 6.54 6.54
54   Philippines Flawed democracy 6.62 6.56 6.64 6.71 6.71 6.94 6.84 6.77 6.41 6.30 6.12 6.12 6.12 6.48
66   Singapore Flawed democracy 6.23 6.03 6.02 6.38 6.32 6.38 6.14 6.03 5.92 5.88 5.89 5.89 5.89 5.89
16   South Korea Full democracy 8.16 8.01 8.00 8.00 8.00 7.92 7.97 8.06 8.06 8.13 8.06 8.11 8.01 7.88
67   Sri Lanka Flawed democracy 6.14 6.14 6.27 6.19 6.48 6.48 6.42 5.69 5.69 5.75 6.58 6.64 6.61 6.58
8   Taiwan Full democracy 8.99 8.94 7.73 7.73 7.73 7.79 7.83 7.65 7.57 7.57 7.46 7.52 7.82 7.82
72   Thailand Flawed democracy 6.04 6.04 6.32 4.63 4.63 4.92 5.09 5.39 6.25 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.81 5.67
43   East Timor Flawed democracy 7.06 7.06 7.19 7.19 7.19 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.16 7.22 7.22 7.22 6.41
131   Vietnam Authoritarian 2.94 2.94 3.08 3.08 3.08 3.38 3.53 3.41 3.29 2.89 2.96 2.94 2.53 2.75
Middle East and North Africa 113   Algeria Authoritarian 3.77 3.77 4.01 3.50 3.56 3.56 3.95 3.83 3.83 3.83 3.44 3.44 3.32 3.17
144   Bahrain Authoritarian 2.52 2.49 2.55 2.71 2.71 2.79 2.79 2.87 2.87 2.53 2.92 3.49 3.38 3.53
132   Egypt Authoritarian 2.93 2.93 3.06 3.36 3.36 3.31 3.18 3.16 3.27 4.56 3.95 3.07 3.89 3.90
154   Iran Authoritarian 1.95 2.20 2.38 2.45 2.45 2.34 2.16 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.94 2.83 2.93
116   Iraq Authoritarian 3.51 3.62 3.74 4.06 4.09 4.08 4.08 4.23 4.10 4.10 4.03 4.00 4.00 4.01
23   Israel Flawed democracy 7.97 7.84 7.86 7.79 7.79 7.85 7.77 7.63 7.53 7.53 7.53 7.48 7.48 7.28
118   Jordan Authoritarian 3.49 3.62 3.93 3.93 3.87 3.96 3.86 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.89 3.74 3.93 3.92
110   Kuwait Authoritarian 3.91 3.80 3.93 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.78 3.78 3.78 3.74 3.88 3.39 3.09
111   Lebanon Authoritarian 3.84 4.16 4.36 4.63 4.72 4.86 4.86 5.12 5.05 5.05 5.32 5.82 5.62 5.82
154   Libya Authoritarian 1.95 1.95 2.02 2.19 2.32 2.25 2.25 3.80 4.82 5.15 3.55 1.94 2.00 1.84
95   Morocco Hybrid regime 5.04 5.04 5.10 4.99 4.87 4.77 4.66 4.00 4.07 4.07 3.83 3.79 3.88 3.90
130   Oman Authoritarian 3.00 3.00 3.06 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.15 3.26 3.26 3.26 2.86 2.98 2.77
109   Palestine Authoritarian 3.94 3.83 3.89 4.39 4.46 4.49 4.57 4.72 4.80 4.80 4.97 5.44 5.83 6.01
114   Qatar Authoritarian 3.65 3.24 3.19 3.19 3.19 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.09 2.92 2.78
152   Saudi Arabia Authoritarian 2.08 2.08 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.82 1.82 1.71 1.77 1.84 1.90 1.92
145   Sudan Authoritarian 2.47 2.54 2.70 2.15 2.15 2.37 2.37 2.54 2.54 2.38 2.38 2.42 2.81 2.90
162   Syria Authoritarian 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.74 1.86 1.63 1.99 2.31 2.18 2.36
75   Tunisia Hybrid regime 5.99 6.59 6.72 6.41 6.32 6.40 6.72 6.31 5.76 5.67 5.53 2.79 2.96 3.06
134   United Arab Emirates Authoritarian 2.90 2.70 2.76 2.76 2.69 2.75 2.75 2.64 2.52 2.58 2.58 2.52 2.60 2.42
154   Yemen Authoritarian 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95 2.07 2.07 2.24 2.79 2.79 3.12 2.57 2.64 2.95 2.98
Sub-Saharan Africa 122   Angola Authoritarian 3.37 3.66 3.72 3.62 3.62 3.40 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.32 3.32 3.35 2.41
106   Benin Hybrid regime 4.19 4.58 5.09 5.74 5.61 5.67 5.72 5.65 5.87 6.00 6.06 6.17 6.06 6.16
30   Botswana Flawed democracy 7.73 7.62 7.81 7.81 7.81 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.98 7.85 7.63 7.63 7.47 7.60
111   Burkina Faso Authoritarian 3.84 3.73 4.04 4.75 4.75 4.70 4.70 4.09 4.15 3.52 3.59 3.59 3.60 3.72
149   Burundi Authoritarian 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.33 2.33 2.40 2.49 3.33 3.41 3.60 4.01 4.01 4.51 4.51
32   Cape Verde Flawed democracy 7.65 7.65 7.78 7.88 7.88 7.94 7.81 7.81 7.92 7.92 7.92 7.94 7.81 7.43
143   Cameroon Authoritarian 2.56 2.77 2.85 3.28 3.61 3.46 3.66 3.41 3.41 3.44 3.41 3.41 3.46 3.27
162   Central African Republic Authoritarian 1.43 1.32 1.32 1.52 1.52 1.61 1.57 1.49 1.49 1.99 1.82 1.82 1.86 1.61
160   Chad Authoritarian 1.67 1.55 1.61 1.61 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.62 1.62 1.52 1.52 1.65
126   Comoros Authoritarian 3.20 3.09 3.15 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.41 3.58 3.90
137   Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 2.79 3.11 3.11 3.31 3.25 2.91 2.91 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.94 3.19
105   Ivory Coast Hybrid regime 4.22 4.11 4.05 4.15 3.93 3.81 3.31 3.53 3.25 3.25 3.08 3.02 3.27 3.38
164   Democratic Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 1.40 1.13 1.13 1.49 1.61 1.93 2.11 1.75 1.83 1.92 2.15 2.15 2.28 2.76
139   Djibouti Authoritarian 2.74 2.71 2.77 2.87 2.76 2.83 2.90 2.99 2.96 2.74 2.68 2.20 2.37 2.37
158   Equatorial Guinea Authoritarian 1.92 1.92 1.92 1.92 1.81 1.70 1.77 1.66 1.77 1.83 1.77 1.84 2.19 2.09
153   Eritrea Authoritarian 2.03 2.15 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.44 2.40 2.40 2.34 2.31 2.31 2.31
128   Eswatini Authoritarian 3.08 3.08 3.14 3.03 3.03 3.03 3.09 3.09 3.20 3.20 3.26 2.90 3.04 2.93
123   Ethiopia Authoritarian 3.30 3.38 3.44 3.35 3.42 3.60 3.83 3.72 3.83 3.72 3.79 3.68 4.52 4.72
121   Gabon Authoritarian 3.40 3.54 3.61 3.61 3.61 3.74 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.56 3.48 3.29 3.00 2.72
101   Gambia Hybrid regime 4.41 4.49 4.33 4.31 4.06 2.91 2.97 3.05 3.31 3.31 3.38 3.38 4.19 4.39
56   Ghana Flawed democracy 6.50 6.50 6.63 6.63 6.69 6.75 6.86 6.33 6.33 6.02 6.02 6.02 5.35 5.35
147   Guinea Authoritarian 2.28 3.08 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.01 2.84 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.09 2.02
138   Guinea-Bissau Authoritarian 2.75 2.63 2.63 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.93 1.93 1.26 1.43 1.99 1.99 1.99 2.00
94   Kenya Hybrid regime 5.05 5.05 5.18 5.11 5.11 5.33 5.33 5.13 5.13 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.79 5.08
64   Lesotho Flawed democracy 6.30 6.30 6.54 6.64 6.64 6.59 6.59 6.66 6.66 6.66 6.33 6.02 6.29 6.48
90   Liberia Hybrid regime 5.43 5.32 5.45 5.35 5.23 5.31 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 5.07 5.07 5.25 5.22
83   Madagascar Hybrid regime 5.70 5.70 5.64 5.22 5.11 5.07 4.85 4.42 4.32 3.93 3.93 3.94 5.57 5.82
78   Malawi Hybrid regime 5.74 5.74 5.50 5.49 5.49 5.55 5.55 5.66 6.00 6.08 5.84 5.84 5.13 4.97
119   Mali Authoritarian 3.48 3.93 4.92 5.41 5.64 5.70 5.70 5.79 5.90 5.12 6.36 6.01 5.87 5.99
108   Mauritania Hybrid regime 4.03 3.92 3.92 3.82 3.82 3.96 3.96 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 3.86 3.91 3.12
19   Mauritius Full democracy 8.08 8.14 8.22 8.22 8.22 8.28 8.27 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.04
116   Mozambique Authoritarian 3.51 3.51 3.65 3.85 4.02 4.02 4.60 4.66 4.77 4.88 4.90 4.90 5.49 5.28
55   Namibia Flawed democracy 6.52 6.52 6.43 6.25 6.31 6.31 6.31 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.23 6.48 6.54
125   Niger Authoritarian 3.22 3.29 3.29 3.76 3.76 3.96 4.62 4.02 4.08 4.16 4.16 3.38 3.41 3.54
107   Nigeria Hybrid regime 4.11 4.10 4.12 4.44 4.44 4.50 3.85 3.76 3.77 3.77 3.83 3.47 3.53 3.52
127   Rwanda Authoritarian 3.10 3.10 3.16 3.35 3.19 3.07 3.07 3.25 3.38 3.36 3.25 3.25 3.71 3.82
88   Senegal Hybrid regime 5.53 5.67 5.81 6.15 6.15 6.21 6.08 6.15 6.15 6.09 5.51 5.27 5.37 5.37
97   Sierra Leone Hybrid regime 4.97 4.86 4.86 4.66 4.66 4.55 4.55 4.56 4.64 4.71 4.51 4.51 4.11 3.57
44   South Africa Flawed democracy 7.05 7.05 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.41 7.56 7.82 7.90 7.79 7.79 7.79 7.91 7.91
92   Tanzania Hybrid regime 5.10 5.10 5.16 5.41 5.47 5.76 5.58 5.77 5.77 5.88 5.64 5.64 5.28 5.18
136   Togo Authoritarian 2.80 2.80 3.30 3.10 3.05 3.32 3.41 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 2.43 1.75
100   Uganda Hybrid regime 4.48 4.94 5.02 5.20 5.09 5.26 5.22 5.22 5.22 5.16 5.13 5.05 5.03 5.14
79   Zambia Hybrid regime 5.72 4.86 5.09 5.61 5.68 5.99 6.28 6.39 6.26 6.26 6.19 5.68 5.25 5.25
133   Zimbabwe Authoritarian 2.92 3.16 3.16 3.16 3.16 3.05 3.05 2.78 2.67 2.67 2.68 2.64 2.53 2.62

ComponentsEdit

The following table shows the five parameters that made up the score of each nation in 2021 and the changes that had occurred since 2020.

Year 2021
Rank Δ Rank Country Regime type Overall score Δ Score Elec­toral pro­cess
and plura­lism
Func­tioning
of govern­ment
Poli­tical
partici­pation
Poli­tical
cul­ture
Civil
liber­ties
Full democracies
1     Norway Full democracy 9.75   0.06 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.12
2   2   New Zealand Full democracy 9.37   0.12 10.00 8.93 8.89 8.75 9.71
3   3   Finland Full democracy 9.27   0.07 10.00 9.29 8.89 8.75 9.41
4   1   Sweden Full democracy 9.26   9.58 9.29 8.33 10.00 9.12
5   3   Iceland Full democracy 9.18   0.19 10.00 8.21 8.89 9.38 9.41
6   1   Denmark Full democracy 9.09   0.06 10.00 8.93 8.33 9.38 8.82
7   1   Ireland Full democracy 9.00   0.05 10.00 7.86 8.33 9.38 9.41
8   3   Taiwan Full democracy 8.99   0.05 10.00 9.64 7.78 8.13 9.41
9     Australia Full democracy 8.90   0.06 10.00 8.57 7.78 8.75 9.71
9   2    Switzerland Full democracy 8.90   0.07 9.58 8.93 7.78 9.38 8.82
11   1   Netherlands Full democracy 8.88   0.08 9.58 8.93 8.33 8.75 8.82
12   7   Canada Full democracy 8.87   0.37 10.00 8.21 8.89 8.13 9.12
13   2   Uruguay Full democracy 8.85   0.24 10.00 8.57 7.22 8.75 9.71
14   1   Luxembourg Full democracy 8.68   10.00 8.57 6.67 8.75 9.41
15   1   Germany Full democracy 8.67   9.58 8.21 8.33 8.13 9.12
16   7   South Korea Full democracy 8.16   0.15 9.58 8.57 7.22 7.50 7.94
17   3   Japan Full democracy 8.15   0.02 9.17 8.57 6.67 8.13 8.24
18   2   United Kingdom Full democracy 8.10   0.44 9.58 7.50 8.33 6.25 8.82
19   2   Mauritius Full democracy 8.08   0.06 9.17 7.86 6.11 8.75 8.53
20   2   Austria Full democracy 8.07   0.09 9.58 6.79 8.89 6.88 8.24
20   2   Costa Rica Full democracy 8.07   0.09 9.58 6.43 7.78 6.88 9.71
Flawed democracies
22   2   France Flawed democracy 7.99   9.58 7.50 7.78 6.88 8.24
23   4   Israel Flawed democracy 7.97   0.13 9.58 7.50 10.00 6.88 5.88
24   2   Spain Flawed democracy 7.94   0.18 9.58 7.14 7.22 7.50 8.24
25   8   Chile Flawed democracy 7.92   0.36 9.58 7.86 5.56 7.50 9.12
26   1   United States Flawed democracy 7.85   0.07 9.17 6.43 8.89 6.25 8.53
27     Estonia Flawed democracy 7.84   9.58 7.86 6.67 6.88 8.24
28   2   Portugal Flawed democracy 7.82   0.08 9.58 7.14 6.67 6.88 8.82
29   1   Czech Republic Flawed democracy 7.74   0.07 9.58 6.43 6.67 7.50 8.53
30   3   Botswana Flawed democracy 7.73   0.11 9.17 6.79 6.67 7.50 8.53
31   2   Italy Flawed democracy 7.68   0.06 9.58 6.43 7.22 7.50 7.65
32     Cape Verde Flawed democracy 7.65   0.13 9.17 7.00 6.67 6.88 8.53
33   3   Malta Flawed democracy 7.57   0.11 9.17 6.79 5.56 8.13 8.24
34   2   Greece Flawed democracy 7.56   0.17 9.58 6.07 6.11 7.50 8.53
35     Slovenia Flawed democracy 7.54   0.04 9.58 6.43 7.22 6.25 8.24
36     Belgium Flawed democracy 7.51   9.58 7.86 5.00 6.88 8.24
37   3   Cyprus Flawed democracy 7.43   0.13 9.17 5.36 7.22 6.88 8.24
38     Latvia Flawed democracy 7.31   0.07 9.58 6.07 6.67 6.25 8.53
39   4   Malaysia Flawed democracy 7.24   0.05 9.58 7.86 7.22 6.25 5.29
40   3   Lithuania Flawed democracy 7.18   0.05 9.58 6.07 5.56 5.63 8.53
41     Trinidad and Tobago Flawed democracy 7.16   9.58 7.14 6.11 5.63 7.35
42     Jamaica Flawed democracy 7.13   8.75 7.14 5.00 6.25 8.53
43   1   East Timor Flawed democracy 7.06   9.58 5.93 5.56 6.88 7.35
44   1   South Africa Flawed democracy 7.05   7.42 7.14 8.33 5.00 7.35
45   2   Slovakia Flawed democracy 7.03   0.06 9.58 6.43 5.56 5.63 7.94
46   7   India Flawed democracy 6.91   0.30 8.67 7.50 7.72 5.00 6.18
47   2   Brazil Flawed democracy 6.86   0.06 9.58 5.36 6.11 5.63 7.65
48   8   Panama Flawed democracy 6.85   0.33 9.58 6.43 7.22 5.00 7.65
49   2   Suriname Flawed democracy 6.82   0.03 9.58 6.07 6.11 5.00 7.35
50   2   Argentina Flawed democracy 6.81   0.14 9.17 5.00 7.22 5.00 7.65
51   1   Poland Flawed democracy 6.80   0.05 9.17 6.07 6.67 5.63 6.47
52   13   Indonesia Flawed democracy 6.71   0.41 7.92 7.86 7.22 4.38 6.18
53   1   Bulgaria Flawed democracy 6.64   0.07 9.17 5.36 7.22 5.63 7.06
54   1   Philippines Flawed democracy 6.56   0.06 9.17 5.00 7.78 4.38 6.76
55   3   Namibia Flawed democracy 6.52   7.00 5.36 6.67 5.63 7.94
56   3   Croatia Flawed democracy 6.50   9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 6.76
56   3   Ghana Flawed democracy 6.50   8.33 5.36 6.67 6.25 5.88
56   2   Hungary Flawed democracy 6.50   0.06 8.33 6.43 5.00 6.25 6.76
59   13   Colombia Flawed democracy 6.48   0.56 9.17 5.71 6.11 3.75 7.65
60   3   Dominican Republic Flawed democracy 6.45   0.12 9.17 5.00 6.67 4.38 7.06
61   1   Romania Flawed democracy 6.43   0.03 9.17 6.07 6.11 3.75 7.06
62   1   Mongolia Flawed democracy 6.42   0.06 8.75 5.71 6.11 5.63 5.88
63   3   Serbia Flawed democracy 6.36   0.14 8.25 5.36 6.67 3.75 7.06
64     Lesotho Flawed democracy 6.30   9.17 4.14 6.11 5.63 6.47
65   10   Guyana Flawed democracy 6.25   0.24 6.92 6.07 5.56 5.63 7.06
66   8   Singapore Flawed democracy 6.23   0.20 4.83 8.21 4.44 7.50 6.18
67   1   Sri Lanka Flawed democracy 6.14   7.00 5.71 5.56 6.25 6.18
68   3   Albania Flawed democracy 6.11   0.03 7.00 6.43 4.44 5.63 7.06
69   11   Moldova Flawed democracy 6.10   0.32 7.00 5.71 6.67 4.38 6.76
69   4   Papua New Guinea Flawed democracy 6.10   0.07 6.92 6.07 3.89 6.25 7.35
71   14   Peru Flawed democracy 6.09   0.44 8.75 5.36 5.56 3.75 7.06
72     Thailand Flawed democracy 6.04   7.00 5.00 6.67 6.25 5.29
73   5   North Macedonia Flawed democracy 6.03   0.14 7.42 6.43 6.11 3.13 7.06
74   7   Montenegro Flawed democracy 6.02   0.25 7.42 6.43 6.67 3.13 6.47
Hybrid regimes
75   1   Bangladesh Hybrid regime 5.99   7.42 6.07 5.56 5.63 5.29
75   21   Tunisia Hybrid regime 5.99   0.60 7.50 4.64 7.22 5.00 5.59
77   10   Paraguay Hybrid regime 5.86   0.32 8.75 5.36 5.00 3.13 7.06
78   4   Malawi Hybrid regime 5.74   7.00 4.29 5.00 6.25 6.18
79   6   El Salvador Hybrid regime 5.72   0.18 9.17 3.93 5.56 3.75 6.18
79   20   Zambia Hybrid regime 5.72   0.63 7.50 3.64 5.00 6.88 5.59
81   3   Bhutan Hybrid regime 5.71   8.75 6.79 3.33 5.00 4.71
81   12   Ecuador Hybrid regime 5.71   0.42 8.75 5.00 6.11 2.50 6.18
83     Madagascar Hybrid regime 5.70   7.92 3.57 6.67 5.63 4.71
84   1   Fiji Hybrid regime 5.61   0.11 6.58 5.00 5.56 5.63 5.29
85   2   Hong Kong Hybrid regime 5.60   0.03 2.75 3.64 5.56 7.50 8.53
86   14   Mexico Hybrid regime 5.57   0.50 6.92 5.00 6.11 2.50 6.18
86   9   Ukraine Hybrid regime 5.57   0.24 8.25 2.71 7.22 5.00 5.88
88   2   Senegal Hybrid regime 5.53   0.14 5.67 5.71 4.44 6.25 5.59
89     Armenia Hybrid regime 5.49   0.14 7.50 5.00 6.11 3.13 5.00
90     Liberia Hybrid regime 5.43   0.11 7.42 2.71 5.56 5.63 5.29
91     Georgia Hybrid regime 5.12   0.19 7.83 3.57 6.11 3.75 5.29
92   4   Honduras Hybrid regime 5.10   0.26 8.75 3.93 4.44 2.50 5.88
93     Tanzania Hybrid regime 5.10   4.83 5.00 5.00 6.25 4.41
94     Kenya Hybrid regime 5.05   3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.12
95   6   Bosnia and Herzegovina Hybrid regime 5.04   0.20 7.00 3.29 5.56 3.75 5.29
95     Morocco Hybrid regime 5.04   5.25 4.64 5.56 5.63 4.12
97   3   Sierra Leone Hybrid regime 4.97   0.11 6.58 2.86 3.89 6.25 5.29
98   4   Bolivia Hybrid regime 4.65   0.43 4.75 4.29 6.11 2.50 5.88
99   2   Guatemala Hybrid regime 4.62   0.35 6.92 3.93 3.89 2.50 5.88
100   2   Uganda Hybrid regime 4.48   0.46 3.42 3.21 3.89 6.88 5.00
101   2   Gambia Hybrid regime 4.41   0.08 3.58 4.29 4.44 5.63 4.12
101   10     Nepal Hybrid regime 4.41   0.81 4.83 5.00 4.44 2.50 5.29
103   1   Turkey Hybrid regime 4.35   0.13 3.50 5.00 5.56 5.63 2.06
104   1   Pakistan Hybrid regime 4.31   5.67 5.36 3.33 2.50 4.71
105   4   Ivory Coast Hybrid regime 4.22   0.11 4.33 2.86 4.44 5.63 3.82
106   5   Benin Hybrid regime 4.19   0.39 1.67 5.36 3.89 5.63 4.41
107   2   Nigeria Hybrid regime 4.11   0.01 5.17 3.93 3.89 3.75 3.82
108   4   Mauritania Hybrid regime 4.03   0.11 3.50 3.57 5.56 3.13 4.41
Authoritarian regimes
109   4   Palestine Authoritarian 3.94   0.11 3.33 0.14 8.33 4.38 3.53
110   4   Kuwait Authoritarian 3.91   0.11 3.58 3.93 4.44 4.38 3.24
111   4   Burkina Faso Authoritarian 3.84   0.11 3.00 2.36 5.00 5.00 3.82
111   4   Lebanon Authoritarian 3.84   0.32 3.50 1.14 6.67 3.75 4.12
113   2   Algeria Authoritarian 3.77   3.08 2.50 4.44 5.00 3.82
114   12   Qatar Authoritarian 3.65   0.41 1.50 4.29 2.78 5.63 3.53
115   8   Kyrgyzstan Authoritarian 3.62   0.59 4.33 1.50 4.44 5.00 3.82
116   2   Iraq Authoritarian 3.51   0.11 5.25 0.00 6.11 5.00 1.18
116   5   Mozambique Authoritarian 3.51   2.58 1.43 5.00 5.00 3.53
118   1   Jordan Authoritarian 3.49   0.13 2.67 3.93 3.89 3.75 3.24
119   13   Haiti Authoritarian 3.48   0.74 3.08 0.00 2.78 6.25 5.29
119   9   Mali Authoritarian 3.48   0.45 2.42 0.00 5.56 5.63 3.82
121     Gabon Authoritarian 3.40   0.14 2.17 1.86 4.44 5.00 3.53
122   5   Angola Authoritarian 3.37   0.29 1.33 2.86 5.00 5.00 2.65
123     Ethiopia Authoritarian 3.30   0.08 0.42 3.21 6.11 5.00 1.76
124     Russia Authoritarian 3.24   0.07 1.75 2.14 4.44 3.75 4.12
125     Niger Authoritarian 3.22   0.07 2.00 1.14 3.33 4.38 4.71
126   6   Comoros Authoritarian 3.20   0.11 2.08 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.53
127   2   Rwanda Authoritarian 3.10   1.42 4.29 2.78 4.38 2.65
128     Eswatini Authoritarian 3.08   0.92 2.86 2.78 5.63 3.24
128     Kazakhstan Authoritarian 3.08   0.06 0.50 3.21 5.00 3.75 2.94
130   6   Oman Authoritarian 3.00   0.08 3.93 2.78 4.38 3.82
131   6   Vietnam Authoritarian 2.94   0.00 2.86 3.89 5.63 2.35
132   6   Egypt Authoritarian 2.93   1.33 3.21 3.33 5.00 1.76
133   6   Zimbabwe Authoritarian 2.92   0.24 0.00 2.50 3.89 5.00 3.24
134   4   Cambodia Authoritarian 2.90   0.20 0.00 3.93 3.89 5.63 2.06
134   10   United Arab Emirates Authoritarian 2.90   0.20 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 2.35
136   5   Togo Authoritarian 2.80   0.92 1.79 3.33 5.00 2.94
137   8   Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 2.79   0.32 0.00 2.50 4.44 3.75 3.24
138   9   Guinea-Bissau Authoritarian 2.75   0.12 4.92 0.00 3.33 3.13 2.35
139   5   Djibouti Authoritarian 2.74   0.03 0.00 1.29 4.44 5.63 2.35
140   20   Nicaragua Authoritarian 2.69   0.91 0.00 2.50 3.33 4.38 3.24
141   5   Azerbaijan Authoritarian 2.68   0.50 2.86 3.33 3.75 2.94
142   2   Cuba Authoritarian 2.59   0.25 0.00 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.65
143   1   Cameroon Authoritarian 2.56   0.21 0.33 2.14 3.89 4.38 2.06
144   6   Bahrain Authoritarian 2.52   0.03 0.42 2.71 3.33 4.38 1.76
145   4   Sudan Authoritarian 2.47   0.07 0.00 1.43 4.44 5.00 1.47
146   2   Belarus Authoritarian 2.41   0.18 0.00 2.00 3.89 5.00 1.76
147   13   Guinea Authoritarian 2.28   0.80 1.25 0.43 3.33 3.75 2.65
148   3   China Authoritarian 2.21   0.06 0.00 4.29 2.78 3.13 0.88
149   5   Burundi Authoritarian 2.13   0.01 0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 1.76
150   5   Uzbekistan Authoritarian 2.12   0.08 1.86 2.78 5.00 0.88
151   8   Venezuela Authoritarian 2.11   0.65 0.00 1.79 3.89 2.50 2.35
152     Saudi Arabia Authoritarian 2.08   0.00 3.57 2.22 3.13 1.47
153     Eritrea Authoritarian 2.03   0.12 0.00 2.14 0.56 6.88 0.59
154   3   Libya Authoritarian 1.95   0.00 0.00 3.33 3.75 2.65
154   1   Iran Authoritarian 1.95   0.25 0.00 2.50 3.89 1.88 1.47
154     Yemen Authoritarian 1.95   0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 0.88
157   2   Tajikistan Authoritarian 1.94   0.00 2.21 2.22 4.38 0.88
158   2   Equatorial Guinea Authoritarian 1.92   0.00 0.43 3.33 4.38 1.47
159   2   Laos Authoritarian 1.77   0.00 2.86 1.67 3.75 0.59
160   1   Chad Authoritarian 1.67   0.12 0.00 0.00 2.22 3.75 2.35
161   1   Turkmenistan Authoritarian 1.66   0.06 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.29
162   2   Syria Authoritarian 1.43   0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00
162   2   Central African Republic Authoritarian 1.43   0.11 1.25 0.00 1.67 1.88 2.35
164   2   Democratic Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 1.40   0.27 0.75 0.00 2.22 3.13 0.88
165   2   North Korea Authoritarian 1.08   0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00
166   31   Myanmar Authoritarian 1.02   2.04 0.00 0.00 1.67 3.13 0.29
167   28   Afghanistan Authoritarian 0.32   2.53 0.00 0.07 0.00 1.25 0.29

Recent changesEdit

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[17] its score, which had been declining for some years, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report stated that this was caused by myriad factors dating back to at least the late 1960s which have eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[18][19]

The 2017 Democracy Index registered, at the time, the worst year for global democracy since 2010–11. Asia was the region with the largest decline since 2016. Venezuela was downgraded from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), further entrenched his power by writing his contribution to the CCP's ideology, dubbed Xi Jinping Thought, into the party's constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a flawed democracy to a hybrid regime as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia was re-upgraded from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[10] In 2017, the Gambia was upgraded again from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime after Yahya Jammeh, who was president from 1996 to 2017, was defeated by Adama Barrow, an opposition candidate in the 2016 presidential elections.

In 2019, France, Portugal and Chile were upgraded from flawed democracies to full democracies. In fact, this was not a new experience for the former two, which suffered from the eurozone crisis many years before. By contrast, Malta was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy. Thailand and Albania were upgraded from hybrid regimes to flawed democracies.[12] Algeria was upgraded again from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime.

In 2020, Taiwan was upgraded from flawed democracy to full democracy following reforms in the judiciary,[20] and soared to 11th position from its previous position at 33. Japan and South Korea were also upgraded again to a full democracy, while France and Portugal were once again relegated to flawed democracies. Hong Kong was downgraded from a flawed democracy to a hybrid regime. Algeria was downgraded again from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime. The Economist Intelligence Unit noted that democracy "was dealt a major blow in 2020".[13] Almost 70% of countries covered by the Democracy Index recorded a decline in their overall score, as most of them imposed lockdowns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, in addition to some arresting journalists and citizens accused of spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The global average score fell to its lowest level since the index began in 2006.

In 2021, both the global and regional average scores continued downward trends, with the exception of the Central and Eastern Europe region. Spain and Chile were downgraded from full democracies to flawed democracies, while Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Tunisia were downgraded from flawed democracies to hybrid regimes. Haiti, Lebanon, and Kyrgyzstan were downgraded from hybrid regimes to authoritarian regimes. In addition, Moldova, Montenegro, and North Macedonia were upgraded from hybrid regimes to flawed democracies, whereas Mauritania was upgraded from authoritarian to hybrid regime. For the first time, two countries displaced North Korea as the lowest-ranked states in the Democracy Index. In Myanmar, the elected government was overthrown in a military coup, and protests were suppressed by the junta; thus, its score went down by 2.02 points. Afghanistan, as a result of the 2021 Taliban offensive and subsequent takeover of government, registered the lowest score of any state ever recorded on the Democracy Index at 0.32.

CriticismEdit

Investment analyst Peter Tasker has criticised the Democracy Index for lacking transparency and accountability beyond the numbers. To generate the index, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a scoring system in which various experts are asked to answer 60 questions and assign each reply a number, with the weighted average deciding the ranking. However, the final report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts.[21]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2006" (PDF). The World in 2007. 15 November 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  2. ^ "Democracy Index 2008" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 21 October 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Democracy Index 2011: Democracy under stress". Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  6. ^ "Democracy Index 2013: Democracy in limbo". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  7. ^ "Democracy Index 2014:Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  9. ^ "Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the "deplorables"". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?". The Economist Intelligence Unit. 8 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2019 A year of democratic setbacks and popular protest". EIU.com. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  13. ^ a b "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?". EIU.com. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Democracy Index 2021: the China challenge". EIU.com. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  15. ^ Manaev, Oleg; Manayeva, Natalie; Dzmitry, Yuran (1 December 2011). "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  16. ^ "Democracy Index 2021: the China challenge" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit.
  17. ^ Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  18. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Taiwan most democratic country in East Asia: The Economist". 3 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  21. ^ Tasker, Peter (25 February 2016). "Peter Tasker: The flawed 'science' behind democracy rankings". asia.nikkei.com. Archived from the original on 2019-02-23. Retrieved 2019-02-22.

External linksEdit