Outer Mongolia

Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ
or ᠠᠷᠤ
Mongolian Cyrillic: Гадаад Монгол or Ар Монгол, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol; Manchu: ᡨᡠᠯᡝᡵᡤᡳ
Tülergi Monggo; Chinese: 外蒙古; pinyin: Wài Měnggǔ)[1] was a territory of the Qing dynasty from 1691 to 1911. Its area was roughly equivalent to that of the modern state of Mongolia, sometimes called "Outer Mongolia" in China today, plus the Russian republic of Tuva.

Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia within the Qing dynasty.
Location of Mongolia Area in the Republic of China
Map of the Republic of China in 1914
After the Treaty of Kyakhta (North) Mongolia in 1915

While the administrative Outer Mongolia only consisted of the four Khalkha aimags (Setsen Khan Aimag, Tüsheet Khan Aimag, Sain Noyon Khan Aimag, and Zasagt Khan Aimag), in the late Qing period "Outer Mongolia" was also used to refer to Khalkha plus Oirat areas Khovd and the directly-ruled Tannu Uriankhai.


The name "Outer Mongolia" is contrasted with Inner Mongolia,[1] which corresponds to the region of Inner Mongolia in China. Inner Mongolia was given its name because it was more directly administered by the Qing court; Outer Mongolia (which is further from the capital Beijing) had a greater degree of autonomy within the Qing empire.[2]

There are three alternate terms including Ar Mongol, Mobei Mongol, and Outer Mongolia.

Ar MongolEdit

The term ar mongol or Mobei Mongol (Chinese: 漠北蒙古; pinyin: Mòběi Měnggǔ; lit. 'North-of-the-Desert Mongolia') is sometimes used in Mongolian (or Chinese) language to refer to North Mongolia[3] when making a distinction with South Mongolia, so as to elide the history of Qing rule and rather imply a geographic unity or distinction of regions inhabited by Mongols in the Mongolian Plateau.[4] There also exists an English term Northern Mongolia.[4]

Ar Mongol can also be used to refer to Mongolia synchronically, during that time period.[5] In the Mongolian language, the word ar refers to the back side of something, which has been extended to mean the northern side of any spatial entity, e.g. a mountain or a yurt. The word öbür refers to the south (and thus protected) side of a mountain.[6] So the difference between South Mongolia and the Mongolian state is conceived as the metaphor of the backward northern side and the south side of a mountain.

In contrast to Mobei Mongol (Chinese: 漠北蒙古), there is also Monan Mongol (Chinese: 漠南蒙古; pinyin: Mònán Měnggǔ; lit. 'South of the Desert Mongolia'), roughly referring to the region now known as South Mongolia.

Modern usageEdit

Today, "Outer Mongolia" is sometimes still informally used to refer to Mongolia. "Outer Mongolia" is also used quite commonly in Taiwan. To avoid confusion between the nation of Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia, media in China generally refer to the former as "State of Mongolia" (Chinese: 蒙古国; pinyin: Ménggǔ Guó); that is, the translation of the official name in Mongolian, Монгол Улс/Mongol Uls, instead of just "Mongolia" (Chinese: 蒙古; pinyin: Ménggǔ), which could refer to the whole Mongolian area.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Huhbator Borjigin. 2004. The history and political character of the name of 'Nei Menggu' (South Mongolia). Inner Asia 6: 61-80.
  2. ^ The Cambridge History of China, volume 10, p 49.
  3. ^ cf. Norcin, C. (1999): Monggol kelen-ü toli. Ömnud monggol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya. Page 170.
  4. ^ a b Bulag, Uradyn (1998). Nationalism and Hybridity in Mongolia. Clarendon Press. pp. 179–180.
  5. ^ Bawden, Charles (1997): Mongolian-English dictionary. London: Kegan Paul. Page 23.
  6. ^ cf. Norcin, C. (1999): Monggol kelen-ü toli. Ömnud monggol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya. Page 169, 580. ömnud: agula dabagan-u engger tal-a-yin gajar.