Former Liang

The Former Liang (Chinese: 前涼; pinyin: Qián Liáng; 320–376) was a dynastic state, one of the Sixteen Kingdoms, in Chinese history. It was founded by the Zhang family of the Han ethnicity. Its territories included present-day Gansu and parts of Ningxia, Shaanxi, Qinghai and Xinjiang.

Former Liang (前涼)
西平, 涼
320–376
Former Liang in the northwest
Former Liang in the northwest
StatusVassal of Eastern Jin, Han Zhao, Later Zhao, Former Qin
CapitalGuzang
GovernmentMonarchy
Prince 
• 320–324
Zhang Mao
• 324–346
Zhang Jun
• 346–353
Zhang Chonghua
• 353–355
Zhang Zuo
• 355–363
Zhang Xuanjing
• 364–376
Zhang Tianxi
History 
• Zhang Gui's creation as Duke of Xiping
4 March 314[1][2]
• Zhang Mao's issuance of general pardon, usually viewed as establishment
320
• Zhang Mao's acceptance of Prince of Liang title
323
• Zhang Zuo's formal rejection of Eastern Jin suzerainty
354
• Zhang Xuanjing's formal acceptance of Eastern Jin suzerainty
361
• Disestablished
26 September[3][4] 376
• Zhang Tianxi's death
406
CurrencyChinese coin, Chinese cash (Wu Zhu)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jin dynasty (266–420)
Former Qin
Today part ofChina
Kyrgyzstan
Mongolia

All rulers of the Former Liang remained largely titularly under the court of the Eastern Jin dynasty as the Duke of Xiping except Zhang Zuo who proclaimed himself wang (prince/king). However, at times the other Former Liang rulers also used the wang title when imposed on them when they were forced to submit to their powerful neighbour states - initially the Han Zhao, then the Later Zhao, and finally Former Qin.

In 327, the Gaochang commandery was created by the Former Liang under Zhang Jun. After this, significant Han settlement occurred in Gaochang, a major, large part of the population becoming Han.[5]

In 376, the final ruler of Former Liang Zhang Tianxi surrendered to Former Qin, ending the state. However, in the aftermath of Former Qin's defeat at the Battle of Fei River in 383 and Emperor Fu Jian's death in 385, the general Lü Guang who controlled of the region declared his own era name for 386, thus establishing the Later Liang.

Also in 386, Zhang Tianxi's son Zhang Dayu 張大豫 claimed governorship of Liang province, and tried to re-establish Former Liang with the aid of Wang Mu (王穆), who was the Colonel of the Chang River Regiment (長水校尉) under Former Qin. In the autumn of 387 however, Lü Guang defeated and executed Zhang Dayu.

Rulers of the Former LiangEdit

Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Cheng Zhang Mao 320–324 Yongyuan 永元 320–324
Zhongcheng Zhang Jun 324–346 Taiyuan 太元 324–346
Huan Zhang Chonghua 346–353 Yongle 永樂 346–353
Zhang Yaoling 353
King Wei Zhang Zuo 353–355 Jin era names
Jingdao Zhang Xuanjing 355–363 Jin era names
Dao Zhang Tianxi 364–376 Taiqing 太清 364–376

Rulers family treeEdit

Former Liang rulers family tree
Zhang Gui 张轨 (255–314)
Wǔwáng 武王
(r. 301–314)
Zhang Shi 张寔 (d. 320)
Míngwáng 明王 / Zhāowáng 昭王
(r. 314–320)
Zhang Mao 張茂 (276–324)
Chenglie 成烈 / Cheng 成
r. (320–)323–324
Zhang Jun 張駿 (307–346)
Wen 文 / Zhongcheng 忠成
r. 324–346
Zhang Zuo 张祚 (d. 355)
Wei
(r. 353–355)
Zhang Chonghua 張重華 (327–353)
Jinglie 敬烈 / Huan 桓
r. 346–353
Zhang Tianxi 張天錫 (346–406)
Dao 悼
(r. 363–376)
Zhang Yaoling 張曜靈 (344–355)
Ai 哀
(r. 353–355)
Zhang Xuanjing 張玄靖 (350–363)
Jingdao 敬悼 / Chong 沖
r. 355–363
Zhang Dayu 张大豫
d. 387; r. 386–387


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "中央研究院網站".
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 89.
  3. ^ "中央研究院網站".
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 104.
  5. ^ Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved May 17, 2011.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved May 17, 2011.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)