List of emperors of the Han dynasty

The emperors of the Han dynasty were the supreme heads of government during the second imperial dynasty of China; the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) followed the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and preceded the Three Kingdoms (220–265 AD). The era is conventionally divided between the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and Eastern Han (25–220 AD) periods.

Western-Han miniature pottery infantry (foreground) and cavalry (background); in 1990, when the tomb complex of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157 – 141 BC) and his wife Empress Wang Zhi (d. 126 BC) was excavated north of Yangling, over 40,000 miniature pottery figures were unearthed. All of them were one-third life size, smaller than the 8,000-some fully life size soldiers of the Terracotta Army buried alongside the First Emperor of Qin. Smaller miniature figurines, on average 60 centimeters (24 in) in height, have also been found in various royal Han tombs where they were placed to guard the deceased tomb occupants in their afterlife.[1]

The Han dynasty was founded by the peasant rebel leader (Liu Bang), known posthumously as Emperor Gao (r. 202 –195 BC) or Gaodi. The longest reigning emperor of the dynasty was Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC), or Wudi, who reigned for 54 years. The dynasty was briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang, but he was killed during a rebellion on 6 October 23 AD.[2] The Han dynasty was reestablished by Liu Xiu, known posthumously as Emperor Guangwu (r. 25–57 AD) or Guangwu Di, who claimed the throne on 5 August 25 AD.[3][4] The last Han emperor, Emperor Xian (r. 189–220 AD), was a puppet monarch of Chancellor Cao Cao (155–220 AD), who dominated the court and was made King of Wei.[5] In 220 AD, Cao's son Pi usurped the throne as Emperor Wen of Wei (r. 220–226 AD) and ended the Han dynasty.

The emperor was the supreme head of government.[6] He appointed all of the highest-ranking officials in central, provincial, commandery, and county administrations.[7] He also functioned as a lawgiver, the highest court judge, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and high priest of the state-sponsored religious cults.[8]

Naming conventionsEdit

EmperorEdit

 
Emperor Guangwu of Han (r. 25–57 AD), as depicted by the Tang artist Yan Liben (600–673 AD)
 
A gilded bronze handle (with traces of red pigment) in the shape of a dragon's head, made during the Eastern Han; depending on circumstance, the dragon could be a symbol of either good or bad omen for the Han emperors.[9]

In ancient China, the rulers of the Shang (c. 1600 – c. 1050 BC) and Zhou (c. 1050 – 256 BC) dynasties were referred to as kings (王 wang).[10] By the time of the Zhou dynasty, they were also referred to as Sons of Heaven (天子 Tianzi).[10] By 221 BC, the King of Qin, Ying Zheng, conquered and united all the Warring States of ancient China. To elevate himself above the Shang and Zhou kings of old, he accepted the new title of emperor (皇帝 huangdi) and is known to posterity as the First Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang). The new title of emperor was created by combining the titles for the Three Sovereigns (Sanhuang) and Five Emperors (Wudi) from Chinese mythology.[11] This title was used by each successive ruler of China until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911.[12]

Posthumous, temple, and era namesEdit

From the Shang to Sui (581–618 AD) dynasties, Chinese rulers (both kings and emperors) were referred to by their posthumous names in records and historical texts.[12] Temple names, first used during the reign of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157–141 BC), were used exclusively in later records and historical texts when referring to emperors who reigned during the Tang (618–907 AD), Song (960–1279 AD), and Yuan (1271–1368 AD) dynasties.[12] During the Ming (1368–1644 AD) and Qing (1644–1911 AD) dynasties, a single era name was used for each emperor's reign and became the preferred way to refer to Ming and Qing emperors in historical texts.[13]

Use of the era name was formally adopted during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC), yet its origins can be traced back further. The oldest method of recording years—which had existed since the Shang—set the first year of a ruler's reign as year one.[14] When an emperor died, the first year of a new reign period would begin.[15] This system was changed by the 4th century BC when the first year of a new reign period did not begin until the first day of the lunar New Year following a ruler's death.[16] When Duke Huiwen of Qin assumed the title of king in 324 BC, he changed the year count of his reign back to the first year.[16] For his newly adopted calendar established in 163 BC, Emperor Wen of Han (r. 180–157 BC) also set the year count of his reign back to the beginning.[17]

Since six was considered a lucky number, Han Emperors Jing and Wu changed the year count of their reigns back to the beginning every six years.[17] Since every six-year period was successively marked as yuannian (元年), eryuan (二元), sanyuan (三元), and so forth, this system was considered too cumbersome by the time it reached the fifth cycle wuyuan sannian (五元三年) in 114 BC.[18] In that year a government official suggested that the Han court retrospectively rename every "beginning" with new characters, a reform Emperor Wu accepted in 110 BC.[19] Since Emperor Wu had just performed the religious feng (封) sacrifice at Mount Taishan, he named the new era yuanfeng (元封). This event is regarded as the formal establishment of era names in Chinese history.[20] Emperor Wu changed the era name once more when he established the 'Great Beginning' (太初 Taichu) calendar in 104 BC.[21] From this point until the end of Western Han, the court established a new era name every four years of an emperor's reign. By Eastern Han there was no set interval for establishing new era names, which were often introduced for political reasons and celebrating auspicious events.[21]

Regents and empress dowagersEdit

 
The story of Jin Midi. Wu Liang shrines, Jiaxiang, Shandong province, China, 2nd century AD; an ink rubbing of an Eastern-Han stone-carved relief

At times, especially when an infant emperor was placed on the throne, a regent, often the empress dowager or one of her male relatives, would assume the duties of the emperor until he reached his majority. Sometimes the empress dowager's faction—the consort clan—was overthrown in a coup d'état. For example, Empress Lü Zhi (d. 180 BC) was the de facto ruler of the court during the reigns of the child emperors Qianshao (r. 188–184 BC) and Houshao (r. 184–180 BC).[22] Her faction was overthrown during the Lü Clan Disturbance of 180 BC and Liu Heng was named emperor (posthumously known as Emperor Wen).[23] Before Emperor Wu died in 87 BC, he had invested Huo Guang (d. 68 BC), Jin Midi (d. 86 BC), and Shangguan Jie (上官桀)(d. 80 BC) with the power to govern as regents over his successor Emperor Zhao of Han (r. 87–74 BC). Huo Guang and Shangguan Jie were both grandfathers to Empress Shangguan (d. 37 BC), wife of Emperor Zhao, while the ethnically-Xiongnu Jin Midi was a former slave who had worked in an imperial stable. After Jin died and Shangguan was executed for treason, Huo Guang was the sole ruling regent. Following his death, the Huo-family faction was overthrown by Emperor Xuan of Han (r. 74–49 BC), in revenge for Huo Guang poisoning his wife Empress Xu Pingjun (d. 71 BC) so that he could marry Huo's daughter Empress Huo Chengjun (d. 54 BC).[24]

Since regents and empress dowagers were not officially counted as emperors of the Han dynasty, they are excluded from the list of emperors below.

EmperorsEdit

Below is a complete list of emperors of the Han dynasty, including their personal, posthumous, and era names. Excluded from the list are de facto rulers such as regents and empress dowagers.

Han dynasty sovereigns
Sovereign Personal name Reign Posthumous name* Era name Range of years[note 1]
Western Han dynasty (202 BC–8 AD)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang 劉邦 202–195 BC[25][26] Gao Did not exist[27]
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying 劉盈 195–188 BC[28] Xiaohui 孝惠 Did not exist[29]
Emperor Qianshao of Han Liu Gong 劉恭 188–184 BC[30] Did not exist Did not exist[31]
Emperor Houshao of Han Liu Hong 劉弘 184–180 BC[30] Did not exist Did not exist[32]
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng 劉恆 180–157 BC[33] Xiaowen 孝文 Qianyuan 前元 179–164 BC[34]
Houyuan 後元 163–156 BC[35]
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi 劉啟 157–141 BC[33] Xiaojing 孝景 Qianyuan 前元 156–150 BC[36]
Zhongyuan 中元 149–143 BC[37]
Houyuan 後元 143–141 BC[38]
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che 劉徹 141–87 BC[39] Xiaowu 孝武 Jianyuan 建元 141–135 BC[40]
Yuanguang 元光 134–129 BC[41]
Yuanshuo 元朔 128–123 BC[42]
Yuanshou 元狩 122–117 BC[43]
Yuanding 元鼎 116–111 BC[44]
Yuanfeng 元封 110–105 BC[45]
Taichu 太初 104–101 BC[46]
Tianhan 天漢 100–97 BC[47]
Taishi 太始 96–93 BC[48]
Zhenghe 征和 92–89 BC[49]
Houyuan 後元 88–87 BC[50]
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 87–74 BC[51] Xiaozhao 孝昭 Shiyuan 始元 86–80 BC[52]
Yuanfeng 元鳳 80–75 BC[53]
Yuanping 元平 74 BC[54]
Marquis of Haihun Liu He 劉賀 74 BC[30] Did not exist Yuanping 元平 74 BC[54]
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Bingyi 劉病已 74–49 BC[51] Xiaoxuan 孝宣 Benshi 本始 73–70 BC[55]
Dijie 地節 69–66 BC[56]
Yuankang 元康 65–61 BC[57]
Shenjue 神爵 61–58 BC[58]
Wufeng 五鳳 57–54 BC[59]
Ganlu 甘露 53–50 BC[60]
Huanglong 黃龍 49 BC[61]
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi 劉奭 49–33 BC[62] Xiaoyuan 孝元 Chuyuan 初元 48–44 BC[63]
Yongguang 永光 43–39 BC[64]
Jianzhao 建昭 38–34 BC[65]
Jingning 竟寧 33 BC[66]
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao 劉驁 33–7 BC[62] Xiaocheng 孝成 Jianshi 建始 32–28 BC[67]
Heping 河平 28–25 BC[68]
Yangshuo 陽朔 24–21 BC[69]
Hongjia 鴻嘉 20–17 BC[70]
Yongshi 永始 16–13 BC[71]
Yuanyan 元延 12–9 BC[72]
Suihe 綏和 8–7 BC[72]
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin 劉欣 7–1 BC[62] Xiao'ai 孝哀 Jianping 建平 6–3 BC[73]
Yuanshou 元壽 2–1 BC[73]
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan 劉衎 1–6 AD[62] Xiaoping 孝平 Yuanshi 元始 1–5 AD[74]
Ruzi Ying1 Liu Ying 劉嬰 6–8 AD[62] Did not exist Jushe 居攝 6–8 AD[75]
Chushi 初始 8 AD
Xin dynasty (9–23 AD)
Continuation of Han dynasty
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan 劉玄 23–25 AD[76] Did not exist Gengshi 更始 23–25 AD[77]
Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu 劉秀 25–57 AD[78] Guangwu 光武 Jianwu 建武 25–56 AD[79]
Jianwuzhongyuan 建武中元 56–57 AD[80]
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang 劉庄 57–75 AD[81] Xiaoming 孝明 Yongping 永平 57–75 AD[82]
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da 劉炟 75–88 AD[83] Xiaozhang 孝章 Jianchu 建初 76–84 AD[84]
Yuanhe 元和 84–87 AD[85]
Zhanghe 章和 87–88 AD[86]
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao 劉肇 88–106 AD[87] Xiaohe 孝和 Yongyuan 永元 89–105 AD[88]
Yuanxing 元興 105 AD[89]
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long 劉隆 106 AD[90] Xiaoshang 孝殤 Yanping 延平 106 AD[91]
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu 劉祜 106–125 AD[92] Xiao'an 孝安 Yǒngchū 永初 107–113 AD[93]
Yuanchu 元初 114–120 AD[94]
Yongning 永寧 120–121 AD[95]
Jianguang 建光 121–122 AD[95]
Yanguang 延光 122–125 AD[96]
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi 劉懿 125 AD[97] Did not exist Yanguang 延光 125 AD[96]
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao 劉保 125–144 AD[98] Xiaoshun 孝順 Yongjian 永建 126–132 AD[99]
Yangjia 陽嘉 132–135 AD[100]
Yonghe 永和 136–141 AD[101]
Han'an 漢安 142–144 AD[102]
Jiankang 建康 144 AD[102]
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing 劉炳 144–145 AD[103] Xiaochong 孝沖 Yongxi 永熹 145 AD[104]
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan 劉纘 145–146 AD[103] Xiaozhi 孝質 Benchu 本初 146 AD[104]
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi 劉志 146–168 AD[105] Xiaohuan 孝桓 Jianhe 建和 147–149 AD[106]
Heping 和平 150 AD[107]
Yuanjia 元嘉 151–153 AD[107]
Yongxing 永興 153–154 AD[107]
Yongshou 永壽 155–158 AD[108]
Yanxi 延熹 158–167 AD[109]
Yongkang 永康 167 AD[110]
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong 劉宏 168–189 AD[111] Xiaoling 孝靈 Jianning 建寧 168–172 AD[112]
Xiping 熹平 172–178 AD[113]
Guanghe 光和 178–184 AD[114]
Zhongping 中平 184–189 AD[115]
Liu Bian Liu Bian 劉辯 189 AD[97] Did not exist Guangxi 光熹 189 AD[116]
Zhaoning 昭寧 189 AD[116]
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie 劉協 189–220 AD[117] Xiaoxian 孝獻 Yonghan 永漢 189 AD[116]
Chuping 初平 190–193 AD[118]
Xingping 興平 194–195 AD[119]
Jian'an 建安 196–220 AD[120]
Yankang 延康 220 AD[121]
* — After the dynasty founders, the word Xiao ("filial") was regularly prefixed to imperial posthumous names. Commonly only the second word is used, e.g., "Wudi" or "Emperor Wu" for "Xiaowu Huangdi".[122]
1 — Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD.

TimelineEdit

Emperor Xian of HanLiu BianEmperor Ling of HanEmperor Huan of HanEmperor Zhi of HanEmperor Chong of HanEmperor Shun of HanMarquess of BeixiangEmperor An of HanEmperor Shang of HanEmperor He of HanEmperor Zhang of HanEmperor Ming of HanEmperor Guangwu of HanLiu PenziGengshi EmperorRuzi YingEmperor Ping of HanEmperor Ai of HanEmperor Cheng of HanEmperor Yuan of HanEmperor Xuan of HanMarquis of HaihunEmperor Zhao of HanEmperor Wu of HanEmperor Jing of HanEmperor Wen of HanEmperor Houshao of HanEmperor Qianshao of HanEmperor Hui of HanEmperor Gaozu of Han

Legend:

  • Orange denotes Western Han monarchs
  • Teal denotes Han monarchs following the collapse of the Xin dynasty but prior to the Eastern Han
  • Pink denotes Eastern Han monarchs

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The years of the Chinese lunisolar calendar do not correspond exactly with the years given in the column for era names. Some years given in the table also belong to two reign periods because some era names were adopted before the beginning of the following year.

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Paludan (1998), 34–36.
  2. ^ de Crespigny 2007, pp. 568.
  3. ^ Hymes 2000, p. 36.
  4. ^ Beck 1990, p. 21.
  5. ^ Beck (1986), 354-355.
  6. ^ de Crespigny (2007), 1216; Bielenstein (1980), 143; Hucker (1975), 149–150.
  7. ^ Wang (1949), 141–142.
  8. ^ Wang (1949), 141–143; Ch'ü (1972), 71; Crespigny (2007), 1216-1217.
  9. ^ de Visser (2003), 43–49.
  10. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 105.
  11. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 105–106.
  12. ^ a b c Wilkinson (1998), 106.
  13. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 106–107.
  14. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 176.
  15. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 176–177.
  16. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 177.
  17. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 177; Sato (1991), 278.
  18. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 177–178; Sato (1991), 278.
  19. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 177–178; Sato (1991), 278–279.
  20. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 178; Sato (1991), 278–279.
  21. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 178.
  22. ^ Loewe (1986), 135; Hansen (2000), 115–116.
  23. ^ Loewe (1986), 136–137; Torday (1997), 78.
  24. ^ Loewe (1986), 174–187; Huang (1988), 44–46.
  25. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28 and Loewe (2000), 253–258.
  26. ^ Hinsch,Bret. Passions of The Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China. edited by Sheila Levine, U of California P,1992, EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com.fetch.mhsl.uab.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=10029&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_35. pp. 35-36. According to Hinsch's sources, and contrary to what Paludan writes (1998), Gaozu's reign did not begin until 206, the date that marks the beginning of the Western Han Dynasty. See Hinsch's bibliography and notes for further information on historical dates.
  27. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 433–440.
  28. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 31.
  29. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 441–442.
  30. ^ a b c Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Twitchett and Loewe (1986), xxxix.
  31. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 442–443.
  32. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 443.
  33. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 33.
  34. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 444–446.
  35. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 446–447.
  36. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 447–448.
  37. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 449–452.
  38. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 452.
  39. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 36 and Loewe (2000), 273–280.
  40. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 452–453.
  41. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 454–455.
  42. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 456–457.
  43. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 457–459.
  44. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 459–460.
  45. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 460–462.
  46. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 463–464.
  47. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 467–468.
  48. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 468.
  49. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 468–470.
  50. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 470–471.
  51. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 40.
  52. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 471–472.
  53. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 472–473.
  54. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 473.
  55. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 473–475.
  56. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 475.
  57. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 476.
  58. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 477.
  59. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 478–479.
  60. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 479–480.
  61. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 480.
  62. ^ a b c d e Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 40, 42.
  63. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 481–482.
  64. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 482–483.
  65. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 483–484.
  66. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 484.
  67. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 485–486.
  68. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 486–487.
  69. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 487.
  70. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 487–488.
  71. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 488–489.
  72. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 489.
  73. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 490.
  74. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 495. While traditional sources do not give a exact date when the Yuanshi era was announced, it was implied that the first year of Yuanshi did not start until the first month of the lunar calendar — ergo, in 1 AD. See, e.g., Ban Gu, Book of Han, vol. 12.
  75. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 495–496.
  76. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from de Crespigny (2007), 558–560.
  77. ^ Bo Yang (1977) 500–501.
  78. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44 and de Crespigny (2007), 557–566.
  79. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 501–509.
  80. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 509.
  81. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44, 49 and de Crespigny (2007), 604–609.
  82. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 509–513.
  83. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44, 49 and de Crespigny (2007), 495–500.
  84. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 514–515.
  85. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 515–516.
  86. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 516.
  87. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 588–592.
  88. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 517–523.
  89. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 523.
  90. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 531.
  91. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 524.
  92. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 580–583.
  93. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 524–526.
  94. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 526–527.
  95. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 528.
  96. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 529.
  97. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Twitchett and Loewe (1986), xl.
  98. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51 and de Crespigny (2007), 473–478.
  99. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 530–531.
  100. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 532.
  101. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 532–534.
  102. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 534.
  103. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51.
  104. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 535.
  105. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51 and de Crespigny (2007), 595–603
  106. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 535–536.
  107. ^ a b c Bo Yang (1977), 536.
  108. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 536–537.
  109. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 537–540.
  110. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 541.
  111. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50, 52 and de Crespigny (2007), 511–517.
  112. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 541–542.
  113. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 542–543.
  114. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 543–545.
  115. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 545–547.
  116. ^ a b c Bo Yang (1977), 547.
  117. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50, 55.
  118. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 547–550.
  119. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 551.
  120. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 552–564.
  121. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 564.
  122. ^ Dubs 1945, p. 29.

ReferencesEdit

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  • Beck, B. J. Mansvelt (1990). The Treatises of Later Han: Their Author, Sources, Contents, and Place in Chinese Historiography. BRILL. ISBN 9789004088955.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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