The Twenty-Four Histories (Chinese: 二十四史; pinyin: Èrshísì Shǐ; Wade–Giles: Erh-shih-szu shih), also known as the Orthodox Histories (Chinese: 正史; pinyin: Zhèngshǐ; Wade–Giles: Chêng4shih3), are the Chinese official dynastic histories covering from the earliest dynasty in 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
The Han dynasty official Sima Qian established many of the conventions of the genre, but the form was not fixed until much later. Starting with the Tang dynasty, each dynasty established an official office to write the history of its predecessor using official court records, partly in order to establish its own link to the earliest times. As fixed and edited in the Qing dynasty, the whole set contains 3,213 volumes and about 40 million words. It is considered one of the most important sources on Chinese history and culture.
The title "Twenty-Four Histories" dates from 1775, which was the 40th year in the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. This was when the last volume, the History of Ming, was reworked and a complete set of the histories was produced.
Inheritance works edit
These works were begun by one historian and completed by an heir, usually of the next generation.
- Records of the Grand Historian, inherited from Sima Tan 司馬談 (father) by Sima Qian 司馬遷 (son)
- Book of Han, inherited from Ban Biao 班彪 (father), Ban Gu (son) by Ban Zhao 班昭 (daughter/sister)
- Book of Liang and Book of Chen, inherited from Yao Cha 姚察 (father) by Yao Silian 姚思廉 (son)
- Book of Northern Qi, inherited from Li Delin 李德林 (father) by Li Baiyao 李百藥 (son)
- History of the Southern Dynasties and History of the Northern Dynasties, inherited from Li Dashi 李大師 (father) by Li Yanshou 李延壽 (son)
Related works edit
There were attempts at producing new traditional histories after the fall of the Qing dynasty, but they either never gained widespread acceptance as part of the official historical canon or they remain unfinished.
|Title||Corresponding dynasty||Main author||Year of compilation||Notes|
|New History of Yuan
|Yuan dynasty||Ke Shaomin
(Republic of China)
|1920||Part of the Twenty-Five Histories (二十五史)|
|Draft History of Qing
|Qing dynasty||Zhao Erxun
(Republic of China)
Modern attempts at creating the official Qing history edit
In 1961, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the declaration of the Republic of China (ROC), the ROC government in Taiwan published the History of Qing, adding 21 supplementary chapters to the Draft History of Qing and revising many existing chapters to denounce the People's Republic of China (PRC) as an illegitimate, impostor regime. It also removed passages that were derogatory towards the Xinhai Revolution. This edition has not been widely accepted as the official Qing history because it is recognized that it was a rushed job motivated by political objectives. It does not correct most of the errors known to exist in the Draft History of Qing.
An additional project, attempting to write a New History of Qing incorporating new materials and improvements in historiography, lasted from 1988 to 2000. Only 33 chapters out of the projected 500 were published. This project was later abandoned following the rise of the Pan-Green Coalition, which sees Taiwan as a distinct entity from Mainland China, both culturally and politically. As such, it is argued that it is not the duty of the Taiwanese regime to compile the Qing history.
In 2002, the PRC once again announced that it would complete the History of Qing. The project was approved in 2002, and put under the leadership of historian Dai Yi. Initially planned to be completed in 10 years, the project suffered multiple delays, pushing completion of the first draft to 2016. Chinese Social Sciences Today reported in April 2020 that the project's results were being reviewed.
Modern editions edit
In Korean and Vietnamese, only the Records has been translated. Most of the histories have been translated into Japanese.
See also edit
- Ch 49, "Standard Histories," in Endymion Wilkinson. Chinese History: A New Manual. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 2012). ISBN 9780674067158. Also see "Standard Histories" link to the Googlebook of the 2000 edition of Wilkinson.
- Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
- Xu Elina-Qian, p. 23.
- 台灣版《清史》一年速成 筆墨官司幾上幾下. big5.huaxia.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Chen, Hsi-yuan (2004). "Last chapter unfinished: The making of the official Qing History and the crisis of Traditional Chinese Historiography". Historiography East and West. 2 (2): 173–204. doi:10.1163/157018606779068306. ISSN 1570-1867. S2CID 153377177.
- Wilkinson, Endymion (2012). Chinese history: a new manual. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Asia Center. pp. 834–5. ISBN 978-0674067158.
- Huáiràng, Yuè (3 April 2019). 新修《清史》已进入稿件通读阶段，预计今年出版问世. Péngpài Xīnwén 澎湃新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 12 April 2019.
- Mao, Liping; Ma, Zhao (2012). ""Writing History in the Digital Age": The New Qing History Project and the Digitization of Qing Archives". History Compass. 10 (5): 367–374. doi:10.1111/j.1478-0542.2012.00841.x.
- Chéng, Chóngdé (3 January 2021). 戴逸先生与清史纂修前的准备工作. Guangming 光明 (in Chinese).
- 中新社网站 (26 August 2003). 两岸学者聚京共商清史纂修大计 预计10年完成. 新浪军事 (in Chinese).
- Rèn, Mǐn (18 December 2013). Sòng, Yǔchéng (ed.). "Guójiā Qīngshǐ Biānzuǎn Gōngchéng yǐ wánchéng chūgǎo" 国家清史编纂工程已完成初稿 [The first draft of the National Qing History Compilation Project has been completed]. Běijīng Xīnwén 北京新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 19 December 2013.
- Guo, Fei (21 April 2020). Ma, Yuhong (ed.). "Dai Yi speaks on Qing history national compilation project". Chinese Social Sciences Today. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021.
- Xu Elina-Qian, p. 19.
- "二十四史全译 - 图书".
- The Grand Scribe's Records (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994- )
- Xu Elina-Qian, Historical Development of the Pre-Dynastic Khitan, University of Helsinki, 2005. 273 pages. 19 and 23