Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

The Later Jìn (simplified Chinese: 后晋; traditional Chinese: 後晉; pinyin: Hòu Jìn, 936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang and became a vassal of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty, its protector. After Jin's second ruler, Shi Chonggui, fell out with the Liao, the Liao invaded in 946 and 947, destroying and annexing the Later Jin.

Jin

936–947
Later Jin
Later Jin
CapitalTaiyuan (936)
Luoyang (937)
Kaifeng (937–947)
Common languagesChinese
Religion
Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 936–942
Shi Jingtang (Gaozu)
• 942–947
Shi Chonggui (Chudi)
Historical eraFive Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
• Shi Jingtang proclaimed Emperor by Liao
November 28, 936
• Emperor Chu's surrender to Liao
January 11, 947
Currencyancient Chinese coinage
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Tang
Later Han
Liao dynasty
Today part ofChina

Founding the Later JinEdit

The first sinicized Shatuo state,[1] Later Tang, was founded in 923 by Li Cunxu, son of the Shatuo chieftain Li Keyong. It extended Shatuo domains from their base in Shanxi to most of North China, and into Sichuan.

After Li Cunxu’s death, his adopted son, Li Siyuan became emperor. However, the Shatuo relationship with the Khitans, which was vital to their rise to power, had soured. Shi Jingtang, the son-in-law of Li Cunxu, rebelled against him, and with the help of the Khitan, declared himself emperor of the Later Jin in 936.

The Later Jin founder Shi Jingtang claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[2] Noting that Shi 石 is a typical Chinese surname borne by Sogdians, Barenghi (2014) traces Shi Jingtang's origin to the Anqing Shi (安慶石). Anqing was one of the three Shatuo tribes, besides Chuyue (處月) and formerly Türgesh-associated Suoge (娑葛).[3][4][5]

In the Later Jin, there were Dukedoms for the offspring of the royal families of the Zhou dynasty, Sui dynasty, and Tang dynasty.[6] This practice was referred to as the two crownings and the three respects (二王三恪).

The Tang Imperial Longxi Li lineage (隴西李氏) also included sub-lineages like the Guzang Li (姑臧李). Li Zhuanmei (李專美) descended from the Guzang Li and served the Later Jin.[7]

TerritoryEdit

The Later Jin held essentially the same territories as the Later Tang, except for Sichuan, which had been lost by the Later Tang in its waning years and had become independent as Later Shu.

The other major exception was a region known as the Sixteen Prefectures. By this time in history, the Khitan had formed the Liao dynasty out of their steppe base. They had also become a major power broker in North China. They forced the Later Jin to cede the strategic Sixteen Prefectures to the Liao. Consisting of a region about 70 to 100 miles wide and including modern-day Beijing and points westward, it was considered a highly strategic region, and gave the Liao even more influence in North China.

Relations with the KhitanEdit

The Later Jin had often been described as a puppet of the emerging Liao dynasty. The help of their powerful northern neighbors was vital in the formation of the Later Jin. The cession of the Sixteen Prefectures led to their derision as being the servants of the Khitan.

After the death of the founder of the dynasty, Shi Jingtang, his nephew, adopted son and successor Shi Chonggui defied the Liao, resulting in the latter invading in 946 and 947, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin.

After the Liao conquest of the Later Jin, the Liao took the dynastic element Water, which follows from the Later Jin's dynastic element Metal, according to the theory of Five Elements (wuxing).[8]

List of emperorsEdit

Sovereigns of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, 907–960
Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Period of reign Chinese era name and dates
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936–947
高祖 Gāozǔ Too tedious, thus not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭 Shí Jìngtáng 936–942 Tiānfú (天福) 936–942
Did not exist 出帝 Chūdì Shi Chonggui 石重貴 Shí Chóngguì 942–947 Tiānfú (天福) 942–944

Kāiyùn (開運) 944–947

Later Jin and Later Tang rulers family treeEdit

Rulers family tree
adopted
Marriage
Li Siyuan 李嗣源
Mingzong 明宗
of (Later) Tang
867–926–933
Shi Shaoyong
石紹雍
Empress Li
d.950
Shi Jingtang
石敬瑭 892–942

Gaozu
高祖
936–942
Shi Jingru
石敬儒
Shi Chonggui
石重貴 914–974

Chudi
出帝
942–947

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Mote, Frederick W (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. pp. 12–13.
  2. ^ Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in early 3rd century.
  3. ^ Golden, Peter Benjamin (1992). "An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis Ans State Formation in the Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East". Turcologica. 9. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. p. 165
  4. ^ Atwood, Christopher P. (2010). "The Notion of Tribe in Medieval China: Ouyang Xiu and the Shatup Dynastic Myth". Miscellanea Asiatica: 610–613.
  5. ^ Barenghi, Maddalena (2014). Historiography and Narratives of the Later Tang (923–936) and Later Jin (936–947) Dynasties in Tenth- to Eleventh century Sources (PhD). p. 3-4.
  6. ^ Ouyang, Xiu (5 April 2004). Historical Records of the Five Dynasties. Translated by Richard L. Davis. Columbia University Press. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-231-50228-3.
  7. ^ Ong, Chang Woei (2008). Men of Letters Within the Passes: Guanzhong Literati in Chinese History, 907–1911. Harvard University Asia Center. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-674-03170-8.
  8. ^ Chen, Yuan Julian. ""Legitimation Discourse and the Theory of the Five Elements in Imperial China." Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 44 (2014): 325-364". Journal of Song-Yuan Studies. doi:10.1353/sys.2014.0000. S2CID 147099574.

SourcesEdit