The Zizhi Tongjian (Chinese: 資治通鑑; literally: "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance") is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 , in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong of Song ordered the great historian Sima Guang (1019–1086 AD) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu, the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed, and, in 1084 AD, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song. The Zizhi Tongjian records Chinese history from 403 BC to 959 AD, covering 16 dynasties and spanning across almost 1,400 years, and contains 294 volumes (巻) and about 3 million Chinese characters.
Section from one of the original scrolls of the Zizhi Tongjian
|Author||Sima Guang et al.|
|Subject||History of China|
"Zizhi tongjian" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance"|
The principal text of the Zizhi Tongjian was recorded on 294 juan (Chinese: 卷), which are scrolls corresponding to a volume, chapter, or section of the work. The text is a chronological narrative of the history of China from the Warring States to the Five Dynasties. The major contributor, Sima Guang, was active in each step from collecting events and dates from various previous works to drafting and publication.
Sima Guang left the traditional usage in Chinese historiography. For almost 1,000 years since the Shiji was written, standard Chinese dynastic histories had primarily divided chapters between annals (紀) of rulers, and biographies (傳) of officials. In Chinese terms, the book changed the format of histories from biographical style (Chinese: 紀傳體) to chronological style (Chinese: 編年體), which is better suited for analysis, activism and criticism. According to Wilkinson: "It had an enormous influence on later Chinese historical writing, either directly or through its many abbreviations, continuations, and adaptations. It remains an extraordinarily useful first reference for a quick and reliable coverage of events at a particular time."
The 294 juan sweep through 11 Chinese historical periods (Warring States, Qin, Western Han, Eastern Han, Three Kingdoms, Jin and the Sixteen Kingdoms, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties). It was one of the largest historical magna opera in history.
Derivative and commented worksEdit
In the 12th century, Zhu Xi produced a reworked, condensed version of Zizhi Tongjian, known as Tongjian Gangmu, or Zizhi Tongjian Gangmu (通鑒綱目). This condensed version was itself later translated into Manchu as ᡨᡠᠩ
ᠮᡠ Wylie: Tung giyan g'ang mu, Möllendorff: Tung giyan g'ang mu, upon the request of Qing Dynasty Kangxi Emperor. This Manchu version was itself translated into French by French Jesuit missionary Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla. His twelve-volume translation, "Histoire générale de la Chine, ou Annales de cet Empire; traduit du Tong-kien-kang-mou par de Mailla" was published posthumously in Paris in 1777-1783.
Historian Rafe de Crespigny has published translations of chapters 54-59 and 59-69 under the titles "Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling" and "To Establish Peace" (Australian National University), respectively, covering 157-220 CE, while the next ten chapters (70-79) covering up to 265 CE were previously translated by Achilles Fang in "The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms" (Harvard University Press). Chapters 1-8, covering the years 403-207 BCE, have been translated into English with copious notes and annotations. Some additional sections of Zizhi tongjian pertaining to China's relations with the Xiongnu have been translated into English.
The book consisted of 294 chapters, of which the following number describe each respective dynastic era:
- 5 chapters - Zhou (1046-256 BC)
- 3 chapters - Qin (221-207 BC)
- 60 chapters - Han (206 BC-220 AD)
- 10 chapters - Wei (220-265)
- 40 chapters - Jin (265-420)
- 16 chapters - Liu Song (420-479)
- 10 chapters - Qi (479-502)
- 22 chapters - Liang (502-557)
- 10 chapters - Chen (557-589)
- 8 chapters - Sui (589-618 AD)
- 81 chapters - Tang (618-907)
- 6 chapters - Later Liang (907-923)
- 8 chapters - Later Tang (923-936)
- 6 chapters - Later Jin (936-947)
- 4 chapters - Later Han (947-951)
- 5 chapters - Later Zhou (951-960)
|Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Chen, Guangchong, Zizhi Tongjian ("Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government")[permanent dead link]. Encyclopedia of China (Chinese History Edition), 1st ed.
- Bo Yang. Modern Chinese Edition of Zizhi Tongjian. Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Co. Ltd, vol. 1 ISBN 957-32-0795-8 to vol. 72 ISBN 957-32-1810-0.
- De Crespigny, Rafe. (1973). "Universal Histories," in Essays on the Sources for Chinese History, Donald D. Leslie, Colin Mackerras, Wang Gungwu, eds., Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, pp. 64–70.
- Ji Xiao-bin. (2003). "Mirror for Government: Ssu-ma Kuang's Thought on Politics and Government in Tzu-chih t'ung-chien," in The New and the Multiple, Thomas H.C. Lee, ed. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, pp. 1–32.
- Partington, James Riddick (1960). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd.
- Wilkinson, Endymion. 2000. Chinese History: a manual. Revised and enlarged ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-00249-0
- Yap, Joseph P. (2009). Wars With The Xiongnu, A Translation from Zizhi tongjian. AuthorHouse, Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A. ISBN 978-1-4490-0604-4.
- Yap, Joseph P. (2016). Zizhi tongjian: Warring States and Qin by Sima Guang Volume 1 to 8 - 403-207 BCE. Translated by Joseph P. Yap. With annotations and translation of Yang Kuan's textual research on the Warring States. CreateSpace. North Charleston, S. C. ISBN 978-1533086938.
- Zizhi Tongjian "Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government" — Chinaknowledge
- Xu Elina-Qian, Historical Development of the Pre-Dynastic Khitan, University of Helsinki, 2005. 273 pages. 2.1 Introduction to the Sources on the Pre-dynastic Khitan (pp.19-23) > The Zizhi Tongjian, p.20
- Zizhi Tongjian (original text in Guoxue)