Jingnan (simplified Chinese: 荆南; traditional Chinese: 荊南; pinyin: Jīngnán), also known as Nanping (南平; alternatively written as Southern Ping[1]) and Northern Chu (北楚) in historiography, was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created in 924, marking the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960).

Jingnan (Nanping)
荆南 (南平)
Jingnan (Nanping) shown on map
Jingnan (Nanping) shown on map
Common languagesMiddle Chinese
• 909–928
Gao Jixing
• 928–948
Gao Conghui
• 948–960
Gao Baorong
• 960–962
Gao Baoxu
• 962–963
Gao Jichong
Historical eraFive Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
• Established
• Ended by the Song Dynasty
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Tang
Song Dynasty
Today part ofChina


Gao Jichang, also known as Gao Jixing (高季興), was appointed the regional military governor of Jiangling in 907 by the Later Liang, which took over northern China in the wake of the Tang Dynasty. He declared the foundation of the Kingdom of Jingnan (or Nanping) in 924 after the Later Liang fell to the Later Tang.

Territorial ExtentEdit

Jingnan was the smallest of the longer-lived southern kingdoms. Its capital was Jiangling, and in addition to the capital, it held two neighboring districts on the Yangtze River southwest of present-day Wuhan. In addition to bordering the succession of five dynasties beginning with the Later Tang, it also shared borders with the Chu kingdom to the south, though that was replaced by the Southern Tang when it absorbed the kingdom in 951. It was also bordered by the Later Shu on the west after it was formed in 934.


Jingnan was a small and weak state, and in many ways was vulnerable to its larger, more powerful neighbors. As such, the court placed great importance in maintaining proper relations with the succession of dynasties that ruled northern China. However, because of its location, Jingnan was a central hub in trade, a feature that protected it from invasion.

Fall of the KingdomEdit

The Song Dynasty was formed in 960, ending the Five Dynasties period in the north, and though that is the date traditionally used to denote the end of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, many kingdoms in the south maintained their independence for nearly two decades after the rise of the Song Dynasty. However, due to its size and location, Jingnan was the first of the kingdoms to succumb to the Song Dynasty, surrendering when armies from the north invaded in 963, ending the kingdom.


Sovereigns in Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907–960
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Did not exist Prince Wuxin (武信王) Gao Jixing (高季興) 909–928 Did not exist
Did not exist Prince Wenxian (文獻王) Gao Conghui (高從誨) 928–948 Did not exist
Did not exist Prince Zhenyi (貞懿王) Gao Baorong (高保融) 948–960 Did not exist
Did not exist Prince Zhenan (貞安王) Gao Baoxu (高保勗) 960–962 Did not exist
Did not exist Prince Deren (德仁王) Gao Jichong (高繼沖) 962–963 Did not exist

Rulers family treeEdit

Rulers family tree
Gao Jixing 高季興 b.858-d.929
Wǔxìng 武信
Gao Conghui 高從誨 891-948
Wénxiàn 文獻
Gao Baoxu 高保勗 924-962
Zhenan 貞安王
Gao Baorong 高保融 920-960
Zhenyi 貞懿王
Gao Jichong 高繼沖 943–973
Deren 德仁王


  1. ^ Dillon, Michael (2016). Encyclopedia of Chinese History. ISBN 9781317817154.
  • Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China (900-1800). Harvard University Press. pp. 11, 16. ISBN 0-674-01212-7.

External linksEdit