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Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082[citation needed] – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He was also a very well-known calligrapher. Born as the 11th son of Emperor Shenzong, he ascended the throne in 1100 upon the death of his elder brother and predecessor, Emperor Zhezong, because Emperor Zhezong's only son died prematurely. He lived in luxury, sophistication and art in the first half of his life. In 1126, when the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty invaded the Song dynasty during the Jin–Song Wars, Emperor Huizong abdicated and passed on his throne to his eldest son, Emperor Qinzong, while he assumed the honorary title of Taishang Huang (or "Retired Emperor"). The following year, the Song capital, Bianjing, was conquered by Jin forces in an event historically known as the Jingkang Incident. Emperor Huizong, along with Emperor Qinzong and the rest of their family, were taken captive by the Jurchens and brought back to the Jin capital, Huining Prefecture in 1128. The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong, gave the former Emperor Huizong a title, Duke Hunde (literally "Besotted Duke"), to humiliate him. Emperor Huizong died in Wuguo after spending about nine years in captivity.

Emperor Huizong of Song
Huizong.jpg
Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign 23 February 1100 – 18 January 1126
Coronation 23 February 1100
Predecessor Emperor Zhezong
Successor Emperor Qinzong
Born Zhao Ji
(1082-06-07)7 June 1082[citation needed]
Died 4 June 1135(1135-06-04) (aged 52)
Burial 1137 (Qin Records)
Era dates
Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國; 1101)
Chongning (崇寧; 1102–1106)
Daguan (大觀; 1107–1110)
Zhenghe (政和; 1111 – October 1118)
Chonghe (重和; November 1118 – February 1119)
Xuanhe (宣和; February 1119 – 1125)
Posthumous name
Tishen Hedao Junlie Xungong Shengwen Rende Xianci Xianxiao Huangdi
(體神合道駿烈遜功聖文仁德憲慈顯孝皇帝) (awarded in 1143)
Temple name
Huizong (徽宗)
House House of Zhao
Father Emperor Shenzong
Mother Empress Qinci
Emperor Huizong of Song
Chinese 宋徽宗
Literal meaning "Fine/beautiful Ancestor of the Song"
Zhao Ji
Traditional Chinese 趙佶
Simplified Chinese 赵佶
Duke Hunde
Chinese 昏德公
Literal meaning Besotted Duke

Despite his incompetence in rulership, Emperor Huizong was known for his promotion of Taoism and talents in poetry, painting, calligraphy and music. He sponsored numerous artists at his imperial court, and the catalogue of his collection listed over 6,000 known paintings.[1]

Contents

LifeEdit

Emperor Huizong, besides his partaking in state affairs that favoured the reformist party that supported Wang Anshi's New Policies, was a cultured leader who spent much of his time admiring the arts. He was a collector of paintings, calligraphy, and antiques of previous dynasties, building huge collections of each for his amusement. He wrote poems of his own, was known as an avid painter, created his own calligraphy style, had interests in architecture and garden design, and even wrote treatises on medicine and Taoism.[2] He assembled an entourage of painters that were first pre-screened in an examination to enter as official artists of the imperial court, and made reforms to court music.[2] Like many learned men of his age, he was quite a polymath personality, and is even considered to be one of the greatest Chinese artists of all time. However, his reign would be forever scarred by the decisions made (by counsel he received) on handling foreign policy, as the end of his reign marked a period of disaster for the Song Empire.

Jurchen invasionEdit

Emperor Huizong neglected the military, and the Song dynasty became increasingly weak and at the mercy of foreign invaders, despite his recasting of the symbolic Nine Tripod Cauldrons in 1106 in an attempt to assert his authority.[3] When the Jurchens founded the Jin dynasty and attacked the Khitan-led Liao dynasty to the north of the Song, the Song dynasty allied with the Jin dynasty and attacked the Liao from the south. This succeeded in destroying the Liao, a longtime enemy of the Song. However, an enemy of the even more formidable Jin dynasty was now on the northern border. Not content with the annexation of the Liao domain, and perceiving the weakness of the Song army, the Jurchens soon declared war on their former ally, and by the beginning of 1126 the troops of the Jin "Western Vice-Marshal" Wolibu crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of Bianjing, the capital of the Song Empire. Stricken with panic, Emperor Huizong abdicated on 18 January 1126 in favour of his son, now known as Emperor Qinzong (欽宗), and departed the capital.[4]

 
Pigeon on a Peach Branch, by Emperor Huizong

Overcoming the walls of Bianjing was a difficult undertaking for the Jurchen cavalry, and this, together with fierce resistance from some Song officials who had not totally lost their nerve, as Emperor Huizong had, resulted in the Jurchens lifting the siege of Bianjing and returning north. The Song Empire, however, had to sign a humiliating treaty with the Jin Empire, agreeing to pay a colossal war indemnity and to give a tribute to the Jurchens every year. From 1126 until 1138, refugees from the Song Empire migrated south towards the Yangtze River valley.[5]

But even such humiliating terms could not save the Song dynasty. Within a matter of months, the troops of both Jurchen vice-marshals, Wolibu and Nianhan,[6] were back south again, and this time they were determined to overcome the walls of Bianjing. After a bitter siege, the Jurchens eventually entered Bianjing on 9 January 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Emperor Huizong, his son Emperor Qinzong, as well as the entire imperial court and harem were captured by the Jurchens in an event known historically as the Jingkang Incident, and transported north, mostly to the Jin capital of Shangjing (in present-day Harbin). One of the sons of Emperor Huizong managed to escape to southern China where, after many years of struggle, he would establish the Southern Song dynasty, of which he was the first ruler, Emperor Gaozong.

Emperors Huizong and Qinzong were demoted to the rank of commoners by the Jurchens on 20 March 1127. Then on 10 May 1127, Emperor Huizong was deported to Heilongjiang, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive. In a humiliating episode, in 1128 the two former Song emperors had to venerate the Jin ancestors at their shrine in Shangjing, wearing mourning dress.[7] The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong, granted the two former Song emperors degrading titles to humiliate them: Emperor Huizong was called "Duke Hunde" (昏德公; literally "Besotted Duke") while Emperor Qinzong was called "Marquis Chonghun" (重昏侯; literally "Doubly Besotted Marquis").[7]

In 1137, the Jin Empire formally notified the Southern Song Empire about the death of their former Emperor Huizong.[7] Emperor Huizong, who had lived in opulence and art for the first half of his life, died a broken man in faraway northern Heilongjiang in June 1135, at the age of 52.

A few years later (1141), as the peace negotiations leading up to the Treaty of Shaoxing between the Jin and the Song empires were proceeding, the Jin Empire posthumously honored the former Emperor Huizong with the neutral-sounding title of "Prince of Tianshui Commandery" (天水郡王), after a commandery in the upper reaches of the Wei River.

Art, calligraphy, music, and cultureEdit

 
Emperor Huizong's calligraphy "Chong Ning Tongbao"

Emperor Huizong was a great painter, poet, and calligrapher. He was also a player of the guqin (as exemplified by his famous painting 聽琴圖 Listening to the Qin); he also had a Wanqin Tang (萬琴堂; "10,000 Qin Hall") in his palace.

The emperor took huge efforts to search for art masters. He established the "Hanlin Huayuan" (翰林畫院; "Hanlin imperial painting house") where top painters around China shared their best works.

The primary subjects of his paintings are birds and flowers. Among his works is Five-Colored Parakeet on Blossoming Apricot Tree. He also recopied Zhang Xuan's painting Court Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk, and Emperor Huizong's reproduction is the only copy of that painting that survives today.

Emperor Huizong invented the "Slender Gold" (瘦金體) style of calligraphy. The name "Slender Gold" came from the fact that the emperor's writing resembled gold filament, twisted and turned.

One of the emperor's era names, Xuanhe, is also used to describe a style of mounting paintings in scroll format. In this style, black borders are added between some of the silk planes.

In 1114, following a request from the Goryeo ruler Yejong, Emperor Huizong sent to the palace in the Goryeo capital at Gaeseong a set of musical instruments to be used for royal banquet music. Two years later, in 1116, he sent another, even larger gift of musical instruments (numbering 428 in total) to the Goryeo court, this time yayue instruments, beginning that nation's tradition of aak.[8]

Emperor Huizong was also a great tea enthusiast. He wrote the Treatise on Tea, the most detailed and masterful description of the Song sophisticated style of tea ceremony.

Titles from birthEdit

  • Prince of Suining Commandery (遂寧郡王)
  • Prince of Duan (端王)
  • Emperor
  • Emperor Jiaozhu Daojun (教主道君皇帝)
  • Duke Hunde (昏德公)
  • Prince of Tianshui Commandery (天水郡王)

AncestryEdit

FamilyEdit

Consorts and their Respective Issue:

  1. Empress Xiangong of the Wang clan (显恭皇后 王氏; 1084 – 1108)[9][10]
    1. 1st son: Zhao Huan, Qinzong (钦宗 桓; 23 May 1100 – 1156)[11]
    2. 2nd daughter: Zhao Jinnu, Princess of Rongde (荣德帝姬 金奴; b. 1103)[12][13][14][15]
  2. Empress Xiansu of the Zheng clan (显肃皇后 郑氏; 1079 – 1131)[16][17]
    1. 1st daughter: Zhao Yupan, Princess of Jiade (嘉德帝姬 玉盘; 1100 – 1141)[18][19][20][21]
    2. 2nd son (died in infancy): Zhao Cheng, Prince of Yan (兖王 柽; 1101)
    3. 4th daughter (died young): Princess of Shoushu (寿淑帝姬; c. 1104 – c. 1106)[22]
    4. 8th daughter: Zhao Jinluo, Princess of Ande (安德帝姬 金罗; 1106 – 1127)[23][24][25][26]
    5. 11th daughter (died young): Princess of Rongshu (荣淑帝姬; c. 1107 – c. 1110)
    6. 13th daughter: Zhao Hu'er, Princess of Chengde (成德帝姬; b. 1110)[27]
  3. Empress Mingda of the Liu clan (明达皇后 刘氏; c. 1087 – 1113)[28]
    1. 6th daughter (died young): Princess of Anshu (安淑帝姬; c. 1105 – c. 1109)[29]
    2. 9th daughter: Zhao Fujin, Princess of Maode (茂德帝姬 福金; 1106 – 1128)[30][31][32][33][34]
    3. 8th son: Zhao Yu, Prince of Yi (益王 棫; 1107 – 1137)
    4. 11th son: Zhao Mo, Prince of Qi (祁王 模; 1107 – 1138)
    5. 14th daughter: Zhao Fujin, Princess of Xunde (洵德帝姬 富金; b. 1110)[35][36]
    6. 18th son: Zhao Zhen, Prince of Xin (信王 榛; 1111 – 16 July 1139)
  4. Empress Mingjie of the Liu clan (明节皇后 刘氏; 1088 – 1121)[37][38]
    1. 25th son (died young): Zhao Yang, Prince of Jian'an (建安郡王 柍; 1115 – 1127)
    2. 29th daughter: Zhao Jinzhu, Princess of Hefu (和福帝姬 金珠; b. 1116)
    3. 26th son (died young): Zhao Yi, Duke of Jia (嘉国公 椅; 1118 – 1130)
    4. 28th son: Zhao Si, Duke of Ying (英国公 楒; b. 1120)
  5. Empress Xianren of the Wei clan (显仁皇后 韦氏; 1080 – 1159)[39][40]
    1. 9th son: Zhao Gou, Gaozong (高宗 构; 12 June 1107 – 9 November 1187)
  6. Noble Consort Yisu of the Wang clan (懿肃贵妃 王氏; c. 1087 – 1117)[41]
    1. 5th daughter (died in infancy): Princess of Huishu (惠淑帝姬; c. 1105)
    2. 10th daughter (died young): Princess of Kangshu (康淑帝姬; c. 1106 – c. 1108)
    3. 12th son: Zhao Zhi, Prince of Shen (莘王 植; 1108 – 1148)
    4. 20th daughter: Zhao Huanhuan, Princess of Roufu (柔福帝姬 嬛嬛; 1111 – 1142)[42][43][44][45][46]
    5. 26th daughter: Zhao Jin'er, Princess of Xianfu (贤福帝姬 金儿; 1112 – 1127)[47]
    6. 22nd son (died in infancy): Zhao Ji, Duke of Chen (陈国公 机; 1114)
  7. Noble Consort of the Wang clan (贵妃 王氏)[48]
    1. 3rd son: Zhao Kai, Prince of Yun (郓王 楷; 1101 – 1 August 1130)
    2. 7th daughter: Princess of Chongde (崇德帝姬; c. 1105 – 1121)[49][50]
    3. 12th daughter (died in infancy): Princess of Baoshu (保淑帝姬; c. 1107)
    4. 16th daughter (died young): Princess of Xishu (熙福帝姬; c. 1110 – c. 1112)[51]
    5. 23rd son: Zhao Chan, Duke of Xiang (相国公 梴; 1112 – 1137)
  8. Noble Consort of the Qiao clan (贵妃 乔氏; b. 1081)
    1. 6th son: Zhao Qi, Prince of Jing (景王 杞; 1104 – 1138)
    2. 7th son: Zhao Xu, Prince of Ji (济王 栩; b. 1106)
  9. Noble Consort of the Cui clan (贵妃 崔氏; 1091 – 1130)[52]
    1. 15th daughter (died young): Zhao Jinxian, Princess of Daomu (悼穆帝姬 金仙; c. 1110 – c. 1117)[53]
    2. 21st daughter (died in infancy): Zhao Sanjin, Princess of Dunfu (敦福帝姬 三金; c. 1111 – c. 1112)[54]
    3. 19th son (died in infancy): Zhao Chun, Prince of Han (汉王 椿; 1112 – 1113)
    4. 23rd daughter: Zhao Xiangyun, Princess of Renfu (仁福帝姬 香云; 1112 – 1127)[55]
    5. 25th daughter: Zhao Fubao, Princess of Yongfu (永福帝姬 佛保; b. 1112)
    6. 28th daughter: Zhao Chuanzhu, Princess of Ningfu (宁福帝姬 串珠; b. 1114)[56][57]
  10. Noble Consort of the Wang clan (贵妃 王氏; 1092 – 1127)[58]
    1. 15th son: Zhao E, Prince of Yi (沂王 㮙; 1110 – 1132)
    2. 27th daughter (died in infancy): Princess of Shenfu (申福帝姬; c. 1113 – c. 1114)
  11. Able Consort of the Yang clan (贤妃 杨氏; c. 1085 – 1115)[59]
    1. 3rd daughter (died young): Princess of Shunshu (顺淑帝姬; c. 1103 – c. 1105)[60]
    2. 17th son: Zhao Shi, Prince of He (和王 栻; 1111 – 1128)
  12. Qiuyue, "Guiyi" of the Jin clan (贵仪 金秋月)
  13. Guilin, "Guiyi" of the Zhu clan (贵仪 朱桂林)
  14. Nongyu, Decent Beauty of the Jin clan (淑仪 金弄玉)
  15. Yuezi, "Wanyi" of the Lin clan (婉仪 林月姊)
  16. Rou, "Shunyi" of the Cao clan (顺仪 曹柔)
  17. Sanhua, "Shunrong" of the Xu clan (顺容 徐散花)
  18. Jingqiu, "Shunrong" of the Zhou clan (顺容 周镜秋)
  19. Jiaozi, "Shurong" of the Chen clan (淑容 陈娇子)
  20. Chang'e, "Shurong" of the Peiyueli clan (淑容 裴月里嫦娥; b. 1109)
  21. ("Wanrong" of the Wang clan (婉容 王氏))
    1. 24th daughter: Zhao Zhuzhu (惠福帝姬 珠珠; b. 1112)[61]
  22. Baose, "Wanrong" of the Yan clan (婉容 阎宝瑟; 1109 – 1133)[62]
    1. 34th son: Zhao Zhu (柱; b. 1130)
  23. Jinnu, "Wanrong" of the Ren clan (婉容 任金奴)
  24. Yuegong, "Wanrong" of the Wang clan (婉容 王月宫)
  25. Lady of Bright Deportment of the Xia clan (昭仪 夏氏; d. 1115)[63]
  26. Suhui, Lady of Bright Deportment of the Zhu clan (昭仪 朱素辉)
  27. Zhuyuan, Lady of Bright Countenance of the Li clan (昭容 李珠媛)
  28. Baonu, Lady of Bright Countenance of the Wangsan clan (昭容 王三宝奴)
  29. Meiniang, Lady of Bright Beauty of the Zheng clan (昭媛 郑媚娘)
    1. 35th son: Zhao Tan (檀; b. 1131)
  30. Jingshen, Lady of Cultivated Deportment of the Jiang clan (修仪 蒋敬身)
  31. Jiaonu, Lady of Cultivated Deportment of the Lu clan (修仪 陆娇奴)
  32. (Lady of Cultivated Countenance of the Han clan (修容 韩氏))
    1. 22nd daughter: Zhao Xianlang, Princess of Baofu (保福帝姬 仙郎; 1112 – 1127)[64]
  33. Baoqin, Lady of Cultivated Countenance of the Huang clan (修容 黄宝琴)
  34. Zhuying, Lady of Cultivated Countenance of the Mao clan (修容 毛朱英)
  35. Dahe, Lady of Cultivated Beauty of the Chen clan (修媛 陈大和)
  36. Guanyin, Lady of Complete Deportment of the Shen clan (充仪 申观音)
  37. Baoqin, Lady of Complete Deportment of the Zuo clan (充仪 左宝琴)
  38. Huaishan, Lady of Complete Countenance of the Qin clan (充容 秦怀珊)
  39. Liuniang, Lady of Complete Countenance of the Xin clan (充容 新刘娘)
  40. Qiaofang, Lady of Complete Beauty of the Xi clan (充媛 奚巧芳)
  41. Zhuzhu, Lady of Complete Beauty of the Xi clan (充媛 席珠珠)
  42. Lady of Handsome Fairness of the Wang clan (婕妤 王氏)[65]
    1. 33rd son: Zhao Ji (极; b. 1127)
  43. Talented Lady of the Qiao clan (才人 乔氏)
    1. 17th daughter: Zhao Qiaoyun, Princess of Xiande (显德帝姬 巧云; b. 1111)[66]
  44. (unknown consorts)
    1. 4th son (died in infancy): Zhao Ji, Prince of Jing (荆王 楫; 1102 – 1103)
    2. 5th son: Zhao Shu, Prince of Su (肃王 枢; 1103 – 1130)
    3. 10th son (died young): Zhao Cai, Prince of Bin (邠王 材; 1107 – 1116)
    4. 13th son: Zhao Pu, Prince of Yi (仪王 朴; 1109 – 1123)
    5. 14th son: Zhao Di, Prince of Xu (徐王 棣; b. 1109)
    6. 16th son (died young): Zhao Gong, Prince of Yun (郓王 栱; 1110 – 1112)
    7. 20th son: Zhao Wo, Prince of Ankang (安康郡王 楃; b. 1112)
    8. 21st son: Zhao Jian, Prince of Guangping (广平郡王 楗; b. 1112)
    9. 24th son: Zhao Yue, Duke of Ying (瀛国公 樾; 1115 – 1131)
    10. 27th son: Zhao Dong, Duke of Wen (温国公 栋; b. 1119)
    11. 29th son: Zhao Tong, Duke of Yi (仪国公 桐; 1121 – 1148)
    12. 30th son (died young): Zhao Bing, Duke of Chang (昌国公 柄; 1122 – 1132)
    13. 31st son: Zhao Cong, Duke of Run (润国公 枞; b. 1123)
    14. 32nd son: Zhao Xiang, Duke of Han (韩国公 相; b. 1125)
    15. 36th son
    16. 37th son
    17. 38th son
    18. 18th daughter: Zhao Yingluo, Princess of Shunde (顺德帝姬 缨络; 1111 – 1137)[67][68][69]
    19. 19th daughter: Zhao Yuanzhu, Princess of Yifu (仪福帝姬 圆珠; b. 1111)[70]
    20. 30th daughter: Zhao Jinyin, Princess of Lingfu (令福帝姬 金印; b. 1118)[71]
    21. 31st daughter: Zhao Saiyue, Princess of Huafu (华福帝姬 赛月; b. 1119)[72]
    22. 32nd daughter: Zhao Jingu, Princess of Qingfu (庆福帝姬 金姑; b. 1121)[73]
    23. 33rd daughter: Zhao Jinling, Princess of Chunfu (纯福帝姬 金铃; b. 1124)[74][75]
    24. 34th daughter (died young): Zhao Xiaojin, Princess of Gongfu (恭福帝姬 小金; c. 1126 – c. 1129)
    25. 35th daughter: Princess of Quanfu (全福帝姬)[76]
    26. 36th daughter
    27. 37th daughter
    28. 38th daughter
    29. 39th daughter
    30. 40th daughter
    31. 41st daughter
    32. 42nd daughter

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ebrey, Cambridge, 149.
  2. ^ a b Ebrey, 165.
  3. ^ Book of Song – Scroll 66
  4. ^ Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7. 
  5. ^ Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4. 
  6. ^ Tao (1976). Pages 20–21.
  7. ^ a b c Franke (1994), p. 233-234.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ daughter of Wang Zao (藻)
  10. ^ Empress (1100), Empress Xiangong (1108)
  11. ^ Emperor (1126–1127)
  12. ^ m1. Cao Cheng (曹晟)
  13. ^ m2. Wanyan Chang (完颜昌)
  14. ^ m3. Xizong of Jin
  15. ^ Princess of Yongqing (永庆), Princess of Rongfu (荣福)
  16. ^ daughter of Zheng Shen (绅), Prince of Leping (乐平)
  17. ^ Able Consort (1100), Noble Consort, Empress (1111), Empress Dowager Ningde (宁德; 1126)
  18. ^ m1. Ceng Yin (曾夤)
  19. ^ m2. Wanyan Zongpan (完颜宗磐)
  20. ^ m3. Xizong of Jin
  21. ^ Princess of Deqing (德庆; 1101), Princess of Jiafu (嘉福), Madame (1141)
  22. ^ Princess of Shouqing (寿庆), Princess of Yu (豫; 1106)
  23. ^ m1. Bang Guang (邦光)
  24. ^ m2. Wanyan Dumu (完颜阇母)
  25. ^ Princess of Shuqing (淑庆), Princess of Anfu (安福)
  26. ^ tortured by Wanyan Dumu
  27. ^ m. Xiang Zifang (向子房)
  28. ^ Talented Lady, Noble Consort, Empress Mingda (1113)
  29. ^ Princess of Anqing (安庆), Princess of Longfu (隆福), Princess of Shu (蜀; 1109)
  30. ^ m1. Cai Tiao (蔡鞗)
  31. ^ m2. Wanyan Zongwang (完颜宗望)
  32. ^ m3. Wanyan Xiyin
  33. ^ Princess of Yanqing (延庆), Princess of Kangfu (康福)
  34. ^ tortured by Wanyan Xiyin
  35. ^ m1. Tian Pi (田丕)
  36. ^ m2. Wanyan Sheyema (完颜设也马)
  37. ^ daughter of Liu Yanqing (彦清)
  38. ^ Talented Lady, Pure Consort, Empress Mingjie (1121)
  39. ^ daughter of Wei Andao (安道), Prince and Lady Song (宋), Madame of Yi (益)
  40. ^ Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌), Talented Lady, Lady of Handsome Fairness (1107), "Wanrong", Able Consort (1126)
  41. ^ Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌; 1100), Noble Consort Yisu (1117)
  42. ^ m1. Wanyan Zongwang (完颜宗望)
  43. ^ m2. Taizong of Jin
  44. ^ m3. Wanyan Zongxian (完颜宗贤)
  45. ^ m4. Xu Hai (徐还)
  46. ^ killed by Gaozong
  47. ^ tortured
  48. ^ Lady of Shouchang Commandery (寿昌), Beautiful Lady (1101), "Wanrong" (1103), Virtuous Consort (1104), Pure Consort (1105), Noble Consort (Elder; 1107)
  49. ^ m. Cao Shi (曹湜)
  50. ^ Princess of Heqing (和庆), Princess of Chongfu (崇福)
  51. ^ Princess of Xifu (熙福)
  52. ^ Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌), Talented Lady, Beautiful Lady, Lady of Handsome Fairness, Pure Consort, Noble Consort (?–1121)
  53. ^ Princess of Huifu (徽福)
  54. ^ Princess of Shoufu (寿福)
  55. ^ tortured
  56. ^ m1. Wanyan Zongjuan (完颜宗隽)
  57. ^ m2. Xizong of Jin
  58. ^ Lady of Pingchang Commandery (平昌; 1107), Talented Lady (1108), Beautiful Lady (1108), Lady of Cultivated Countenance (1111), "Wanrong" (1113), Able Consort (1118), Virtuous Consort
  59. ^ Lady of Yongjia Commandery (永嘉; 1102), Talented Lady (1103), Beautiful Lady (1108), Lady of Cultivated Countenance (1111), Able Consort (1115)
  60. ^ Princess of Shunqing (顺庆), Princess of Yi (益; 1105)
  61. ^ m. Wanyan Xiebao (完颜斜保)
  62. ^ subjected to rape during the Jingkang march, she bore a son (died young) in 1128
  63. ^ Lady of Anding Commandery (安定; 1101), Talented Lady (1111)
  64. ^ tortured
  65. ^ Lady of Handsome Fairness (Younger)
  66. ^ m. Liu Wenyan (刘文彦)
  67. ^ m1. Xiang Ziyi (向子扆)
  68. ^ m2. Wanyan Zonghan
  69. ^ m3. Andahe (按打曷), Prince of Xigu (习古)
  70. ^ m. Wanyan Zongbi
  71. ^ m. Xizong of Jin
  72. ^ m. Xizong of Jin
  73. ^ m. Xizong of Jin
  74. ^ m1. Wanyan Sheyema (完颜设也马)
  75. ^ m2. Wang Chengdi (王成棣)
  76. ^ m. Li Dunfu (李敦复)
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (2013). Emperor Huizong (Harvard University Press; 2013) 661 pages; scholarly biography online review
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66991-X (paperback).
  • Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton and Mifflin.
  • Jing-shen Tao (1976) The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95514-7.
  • Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett. Alien Regimes and Border States, 907–1368 (Cambridge History of China, vol. 6). Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-24331-9. Partial text on Google Books.
  • Huiping Pang (2009), "Strange Weather: Art, Politics, and Climate Change at the Court of Northern Song Emperor Huizong," Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, Volume 39, 2009, pp. 1–41. ISSN 1059-3152.
Please see: References section in the guqin article for a full list of references used in all qin related articles.
Emperor Huizong of Song
Born: November 2 1082 Died: June 4 1135
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Zhezong
Emperor of the Song Dynasty
1100–1126
Succeeded by
Emperor Qinzong
Honorary titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang
Retired Emperor of China
1126–1135
Vacant
Title next held by
Emperor Gaozong of Song