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Emperor Renzong of Song (30 May 1010 – 30 April 1063, Chinese calendar: 14 April 1010(the 3rd year of Dazhongxiangfu, 大中祥符三年) - 29 March 1063 (the 8th year of Jiayou, 嘉祐八年)), personal name Zhao Zhen, was the fourth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He reigned for about 41 years from 1022 to his death in 1063, and was the longest reigning Song dynasty emperor. He was the sixth son of his predecessor, Emperor Zhenzong, and was succeeded by his cousin's son, Emperor Yingzong, because his own sons died prematurely. His original personal name was Zhao Shouyi but it was changed by imperial decree in 1018 to "Zhao Zhen", which means 'auspicious' in Chinese.

Emperor Renzong of Song
Renzong.jpg
Palace portrait on a hanging scroll, kept in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign 24 March 1022 – 30 April 1063
Coronation 24 March 1022
Predecessor Emperor Zhenzong
Successor Emperor Yingzong
Born Zhao Shouyi (1010–1018)
Zhao Zhen (1018–1063)
(1010-05-30)30 May 1010
Died 30 April 1063(1063-04-30) (aged 52)
Era dates
Tiansheng (天聖; 1023–1032)
Mingdao (明道; 1032–1033)
Jingyou (景祐; 1034–1038)
Baoyuan (寶元; 1038–1040)
Kangding (康定; 1040–1041)
Qingli (慶曆; 1041–1048)
Huangyou (皇祐; 1049–1053)
Zhihe (至和; 1054–1056)
Jiayou (嘉祐; 1056–1063)
Posthumous name
Titian Fadao Jigong Quande Shenwen Shengwu Ruizhe Mingxiao Huangdi
(體天法道極功全德神文聖武睿哲明孝皇帝) (awarded in 1083)
Temple name
Renzong (仁宗)
House House of Zhao
Father Emperor Zhenzong
Mother Consort Li
Emperor Renzong of Song
Chinese 宋仁宗
Literal meaning "Humane Ancestor of the Song"
Zhao Zhen
Traditional Chinese 趙禎
Simplified Chinese 赵祯
Zhao Shouyi
Traditional Chinese 趙受益
Simplified Chinese 赵受益

Compared to other famous Chinese emperors, Emperor Renzong is not widely known. His reign marked the high point of Song influence and power but was also the beginning of its slow disintegration that would persist over the next century and a half.[1] One possible reason behind its weakness is its interpretation of its own foreign policy. The official policy of the Song Empire at the time was one of pacifism and this caused the weakening of its military. The Tangut-led Western Xia state took advantage of this deterioration and waged small scale wars against the Song Empire near the borders.

When Emperor Renzong came to power, he issued decrees to strengthen the military and paid massive bribes to the Khitan-led Liao dynasty, an adversary of Western Xia, in the hope that this would ensure the safety of the Song Empire. However, these policies involved a heavy price. Taxes were increased severely and the peasants lived in a state of perpetual poverty. This eventually caused organised rebellions to take place throughout the country and the breakdown of the Song government.

However, according to the records of History of Song, Renzong was considered to be merciful, tolerant, modest and frugal, and seldom revealed his feelings on expressions. One popular folk story of him was about that Emperor Renzong felt hungry one night and was eager to eat mutton. When the servant was about to ordered the cooks to prepare, Renzong stopped him, explained that this may cause waste if the cook kept cooking mutton from then on, and he preferred to suffer hunger rather than waste too much. Renzong ordered that officers of government must be very cautious to use death penalty, and if an officer once wrongly sentenced an innocent person to death, he would never get promoted. Renzong once said to his near ministers that: "I have never used the word 'death' to scold others, how dare I abuse the death penalty?"[2]

During Emperor Renzong's reign, the culture of Song Dynasty, especially literature, began to prosper. Many most famous litterateurs and poets in Chinese history lived or started their creating careers during his reign, such as Fan Zhongyan, Ouyang Xiu and Mei Yaochen. In the 2nd year of Jiayou, the Imperial Examination enrolled some students who became even world-famous in the future, including Su Xun, Su Shi, Su Zhe, Zeng Gong and so on. They then became the most important litterateurs in Chinese history and began a new era of Chinese literature.

Emperor Renzong elevated the 46th-generation descendants of Confucius to the current title of Duke Yansheng. They were previously of lower noble ranks.[3]

Contents

LegendEdit

According to the 14th-century classical novel Water Margin, the first 27 years of Emperor Renzong's reign were known as the "Era of Three Abundances." But this was followed by a great plague around the year 1048 that decimated the population. It was only the prayers of the priests from the Taoist sect Way of the Celestial Masters that eventually lifted this pestilence. The imperial emissary who had been sent to the Taoist monastery recklessly entered the Suppression of Demons Hall, thinking the stories of demons was a hoax to delude gullible people.[4]

FamilyEdit

SpousesEdit

EmpressesEdit

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes
Empress
皇后
Lady Guo
郭氏
1012 1035 unknown unknown none Became Empress in 1024
Deposed in 1033
Empress Cisheng
慈圣皇后
Lady Cao
曹氏
1016 1079 Cao Qi
曹玘
Lady Feng
冯氏
none Entered Renzong's harem in 1033
Became Empress in 1034
Became Empress Dowager (皇太后) in 1063
Became Grand Empress Dowager (太皇太后) in 1067
Posthumously honoured in 1079
Empress
皇后
Lady Zhang
张氏
unknown 1028 unknown unknown none Became Talented Lady (才人) in 1026
Promoted to Beautiful Lady (美人) in 1028
Posthumously honoured in 1033
Empress Wencheng
温成皇后
Lady Zhang
张氏
1024 1054 Zhang Yaofeng, Prince of Qinghe
清河郡王张尧封
Lady Cao, Madame of Qi
齐国夫人曹氏
3. Princess of Deng
4. Princess of Zhen
8. Princess of Tang
Entered Renzong's harem in 1031
Became Lady of Qinghe Commandery (清河郡君) in 1041
Promoted to Lady of Cultivated Beauty (修媛)
Promoted to Noble Consort (贵妃) in 1048
Posthumously honoured in 1054

ConsortsEdit

Title Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes
Noble Consort Zhaojie
昭节贵妃
Lady Miao
苗氏
1017 1086 Miao Jizong
苗继宗
Lady Xu, Madame Sucheng
肃成夫人许氏
1. Princess of Zhou
2. Prince of Yong
Noble Consort Zhaoshu
昭淑贵妃
Lady Zhou
周氏
1022 1114 unknown unknown 10. Princess of Qin
12. Princess of Yan
Noble Consort Zhaoyi
昭懿贵妃
Lady Zhang
张氏
unknown 1104 unknown unknown none
Pure Consort
淑妃
Lady Dong
董氏
unknown 1062 unknown unknown 9. Princess of Chen
11. Princess of Gun
13. Princess of Yu
Virtuous Consort
德妃
Lady Yu
兪氏
unknown 1064 unknown unknown 1. Prince of Yang
2. Princess of Xu
Lady Yang
杨氏
1019 1073 Yang Zhong
杨忠
unknown 6. Princess of Shang
Able Consort
贤妃
Lady Feng
冯氏
unknown unknown unknown unknown 5. Princess of Chu
7. Princess of Lu

Imperial ConcubinesEdit

Title Name Born Died Issue Notes
Lady of Complete Deportment
充仪
Lady Zhang
张氏
unknown unknown none Lady of Handsome Fairness (婕妤)
Promoted in 1100
Lady Shang
尚氏
unknown 1050 none
Lady Zhu
朱氏
unknown unknown none

IssueEdit

SonsEdit

# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Prince of Yang
杨王
Fang
24 Jun 1037 24 Jun 1037 Virtuous Consort Yu Died in infancy
2 Prince of Yong
雍王
Xin
6 Sep 1039 24 Mar 1041 Noble Consort Zhaojie Died in infancy
3 Prince of Jing
荆王
Xi
23 Aug 1041 14 Feb 1043 Lady Zhu, Talented Lady
才人朱氏
Died in infancy

DaughtersEdit

# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes
1 Princess of Zhou
周国公主
unknown 1038 1071 Noble Consort Zhaojie
2 Princess of Xu
徐国公主
unknown unknown unknown Virtuous Consort Yu none none Died young
3 Princess of Deng
邓国公主
unknown unknown unknown Empress Wencheng none none Died young
4 Princess of Zhen
镇国公主
unknown 1042 1043 none none Died in infancy
5 Princess of Chu
楚国公主
unknown 1042 unknown Able Consort Feng none none Died young
6 Princess of Shang
商国公主
unknown 1042 1042 Virtuous Consort Yang none none Died in infancy
7 Princess of Lu
鲁国公主
unknown unknown unknown Able Consort Feng none none Died young
8 Princess of Tang
唐国公主
unknown unknown unknown Empress Wencheng none none Died young
9 Princess of Chen
陈国公主
unknown 1058 1067 Pure Consort Dong none none Died young
10 Princess of Qin
秦国公主
unknown 1058 1142 Noble Consort Zhaoshu
11 Princess of Gun
衮国公主
unknown 1059 1083 Pure Consort Dong
12 Princess of Yan
燕国公主
unknown unknown 1112 Noble Consort Zhaoshu
13 Princess of Yu
豫国公主
unknown 1061 1061 Pure Consort Dong none none Died in infancy

AncestryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zhenoao Xu; W. Pankenier; Yaotiao Jiang; David W. Pankenier (2000). East-Asian Archaeoastronomy: Historical Records of Astronomical Observations of China, Japan and Korea. CRC Press. ISBN 90-5699-302-X. 
  2. ^ Toqto, Alutu (1985). History of Song, China. 中華書局. ISBN 9787101003239. 
  3. ^ "Updated Confucius family tree has two million members". News.xinhuanet.com. 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  4. ^ Shi Nai'an; Luo Guanzhong; translated by Sidney Shapiro (1993). Outlaws of the Marsh (Volume I, Chapter 1). Foreign Languages Press, Beijing. ISBN 7-119-01662-8. 
Emperor Renzong of Song
Born: 30 May 1010 Died: 30 April 1063[aged 52]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Zhenzong
Emperor of the Song Dynasty
1022–1063
Succeeded by
Emperor Yingzong