The Later Zhao (simplified Chinese: 后赵; traditional Chinese: 後趙; pinyin: Hòuzhào; 319–351) was a dynasty of the Sixteen Kingdoms in northern China. It was founded by the Shi family of the Jie ethnicity. According to Alexander Vovin, the Jie were most likely a Yeniseian people and spoke next to Chinese one of the Yeniseian languages.[2] However, according to most of other authors, they were a Turkic people.[3] The Later Zhao was the second in territorial size to the Former Qin dynasty that once unified northern China under Fu Jiān.

Later Zhao (後趙)
Later Zhao in northern China
Later Zhao in northern China
CapitalXiangguo (319–335, 350–351)
Yecheng (335–350)
• 319–333
Shi Le
• 333–334
Shi Hong
• 334–349
Shi Hu
• 349
Shi Shi
• 349
Shi Zun
• 349–350
Shi Jian
• 350–351
Shi Zhi
• Established
• Destruction of Former Zhao
• Shi Le's claim of imperial title
• Shi Hu's seizing the throne from Shi Hong
• Ran Min's establishment of Ran Wei
• Disestablished
329 est.[1]2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Former Zhao
Jin dynasty (266–420)
Ran Wei
Former Qin
Former Yan
Jin dynasty (266–420)
Duan Qi
Today part ofChina

When Later Zhao was founded by former Han general Shi Le,[4] the capital was at Xiangguo (襄國, in modern Xingtai, Hebei), but in 335 Shi Hu moved the capital to Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei), where it would remain for the rest of the state's history (except for Shi Zhi's brief attempt to revive the state at Xiangguo).

Rulers of the Later Zhao Edit

Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Durations of reign Era names
Gaozu Ming Shi Le 319–333 Zhaowang (趙王) 319–328
Taihe (太和 Tàihé) 328–330
Jianping (建平) 330–333
Shi Hong 333–334 Yanxi (延熙) 334
Taizu Wu Shi Hu 334–349 Jianwu (建武) 335–349
Taining (太寧) 349
Shi Shi 349
Shi Zun 349
Shi Jian 349–350 Qinglong (青龍) 350
Shi Zhi 350–351 Yongning (永寧) 351

Rulers family tree Edit

Later Zhao monarchs family tree
Shi Xie 石邪Shi Beixie
Shi Zhouhezhu
Shi Koumi
Shi Le
石勒 (274–333)

r. 319–333
Shi Hu 石虎 (295–349)
(r. 334–349)
Ran Long 冉隆
Shi Hong 石弘
314–335; r. 333–334
Shi Zun 石遵
(d./r. 349)
Shi Jian 石鉴
d. 350; r. 349–350
Shi Zhi 石祗
d. 351; r. 350–351
Shi Shi 石世
339–349; r.349
Ran Zhan
冉瞻 (299?–328)
Ran Min 冉闵 (d. 352)
of Ran Wei (冉魏) state
r. 350–352
Ran Zhi 冉智 (d. 354)
of Ran Wei (冉魏) state
r. 352

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  2. ^ Vovin, Alexander. "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language?". Central Asiatic Journal 44/1 (2000), pp. 87–104.
  3. ^ Shimunek, Andrew; Beckwith, Christopher I.; North Washington, Jonathan; Kontovas, Nicholas; Niyaz, Kurban (2015). "The Earliest Attested Turkic Language: The Chieh (*Kir) Language of the Fourth Century A.D." Journal Asiatique. 303 (1): 143–151. doi:10.2143/JA.303.1.3085124.
  4. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.