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The Later Zhao (simplified Chinese: 后赵; traditional Chinese: 後趙; pinyin: Hòuzhào; 319-351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. It was founded by the Shi family of the Jie ethnicity. The Jie were most likely a Yeniseian people and spoke next to Chinese one of the Yeniseian languages.[2] The Later Zhao was the second in territories to the Former Qin that once unified Northern China under Fu Jiān.

Later Zhao (後趙)

319–351
Later Zhao in the northern China
Later Zhao in the northern China
CapitalXiangguo (319-335, 350-351)
Yecheng (335-350)
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 319-333
Shi Le
• 333-334
Shi Hong
• 334-349
Shi Hu
• 349
Shi Zun
• 349-350
Shi Jian
• 350-351
Shi Zhi
History 
• Established
319
• Destruction of Han Zhao
329
• Shi Le's claim of imperial title
330
• Shi Hu's seizing the throne from Shi Hong
335
• Ran Min's establishment of Ran Wei
350
• Disestablished
351
Area
329 est.[1]2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Han Zhao
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Ran Wei
Former Qin
Former Yan
Jin Dynasty (265-420)
Today part ofChina

When Later Zhao was founded by Shi Le,[3] the capital was at Xiangguo (襄國, in modern Xingtai, Hebei), but in 335 Shi Hu moved the capital to Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei), where it would remain for the rest of the state's history (except for Shi Zhi's brief attempt to revive the state at Xiangguo).

Rulers of the Later ZhaoEdit

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Gaozu (高祖 Gāozǔ) Ming (明 míng) Shi Le (石勒 Shí Lè) 319-333 Zhaowang (趙王 Zhàowáng) 319-328
Taihe (太和 Tàihé) 328-330
Jianping (建平 Jiànpíng) 330-333
Did not exist Prince of Haiyang (海陽王 Hǎiyáng wáng) Shi Hong (石弘 Shí Hóng) 333-334 Yanxi (延熙 Yánxī) 334
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Wu (武 Wǔ) Shi Hu (石虎 Shí Hǔ) 334-349 Jianwu (建武 Jiànwǔ) 335-349
Taining (太寧 Tàiníng) 349
Did not exist Prince of Qiao (譙王 Qiáo wáng) Shi Shi (石世 Shí Shì) 33 days in 349 Taining (太寧 Tàiníng) 33 days in 349
Did not exist Prince of Pengcheng (彭城王 Péngchéng wáng) Shi Zun (石遵 Shí Zūn) 183 days in 349 Taining (太寧 Tàiníng) 183 days in 349
Did not exist Prince of Yiyang (義陽王 Yìyáng wáng) Shi Jian (石鑒 Shí Jiàn) 103 days within 349-350 Qinglong (青龍 Qīnglóng) 103 days within 349-350
Did not exist Prince of Xinxing (新興王 Xīnxīng wáng) Shi Zhi (石祗 Shí Zhī) 350-351 Yongning (永寧 Yǒngníng) 350-351

Rulers family treeEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  2. ^ Vovin, Alexander. "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language?". Central Asiatic Journal 44/1 (2000), pp. 87–104.
  3. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.