Manchu Restoration

The Manchu Restoration of July 1917 was an attempt to restore the monarchy in China by General Zhang Xun, whose army seized Beijing and briefly reinstalled the last emperor of the Qing dynasty, Puyi, to the throne. The restoration lasted only a few days, from July 1 to 12, and was quickly reversed by Republican troops. Despite the uprising's popular name ("Manchu Restoration"), almost all reactionary putschists were ethnic Han Chinese.[1]

Manchu Restoration
Part of the Warlord Era
TropasRepublicanasCiudadProhibida19170712--fightforrepublic00putn.jpeg
Republican troops fighting to retake the Forbidden City on July 12, 1917, after Zhang Xun’s attempted imperial restoration
DateJuly 1–12, 1917
Location
Result Republic of China victory, Restoration attempt failed
Belligerents

Restored Qing Imperial Government

Republic of China (1912–1949) Republic of China

Commanders and leaders
Zhang Xun
Puyi
Kang Youwei
Jiang Chaozong
Wang Shizhen
Qing dynasty Zhu Jiabao
Zaitao
Tang Yulin
Shen Zengjié
Puwei[1]
Republic of China (1912–1949) Li Yuanhong
Republic of China (1912–1949) Feng Guozhang
Republic of China (1912–1949) Duan Qirui
Republic of China (1912–1949) Feng Yuxiang
Republic of China (1912–1949) Song Zheyuan
Republic of China (1912–1949) Zhang Shaozeng
Republic of China (1912–1949) Wang Chengbin
Republic of China (1912–1949) Wu Peifu
Republic of China (1912–1949) Zhang Zuolin
Republic of China (1912–1949) Lu Jianzhang

BackgroundEdit

Royalist warlord Zhang Xun, above, tried to restore the last Qing emperor Puyi, right, to the throne in Beijing.

Though the Manchu Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911/12, many people in China wished for its restoration. Manchus and Mongols believed that they were discriminated against by China's new Republican government, and restorationism consequently became popular among these ethnic groups. The Qing also enjoyed support among sections of the Han Chinese population as well, such as in Northeastern China. Many were disappointed about the Republican government's inability to solve China's problems.[2][3] Finally, there were numerous reactionaries and disempowered ex-Qing officials who conspired to overthrow the Republic.[4] As result, pro-Qing restorationist groups, most notably the Royalist Party, remained an underrepresented, but powerful factor in Chinese politics during the 1910s.[2][5] Several royalist uprisings were launched, but all failed.[5][6]

The confrontation between President Li Yuanhong and Premier Duan Qirui about whether to join the Allied Powers in World War I and declare war on Germany led to political unrest in the capital Beijing in the spring of 1917.[7]

The military governors left Beijing after Duan Qirui's dismissal as Premier. They gathered in Tianjin, calling on the troops from the provinces to rebel against Li and take the capital, despite the opposition of the navy and the southern provinces. In response, on June 7, 1917, Li requested that General Zhang Xun mediate the situation. General Zhang demanded that parliament be dissolved, which Li considered unconstitutional.

RestorationEdit

Republican troops scaling the wall of the Forbidden City.
Monarchist supporters and spectators gather at the Temple of Heaven in Beijing during Zhang Xun's attempted restoration of the Qing dynasty.

On the morning of July 1, 1917, the royalist general Zhang Xun took advantage of the unrest and entered the capital, proclaiming the restoration of Puyi as Emperor of China at 4 am with a small entourage and reviving the Qing monarchy which had been abolished earlier on February 12, 1912. The capital police soon submitted to the new government.[7][8] General Xu later published an edict of restoration that falsified the approval of the president of the republic, Li Yuanhong.[9] He was also supported by several other officials, including Beiyang General Jiang Chaozong,[10] former Qing war minister Wang Shizhen,[11][12] civil affairs minister Zhu Jiabao,[12] and diplomat Xie Jieshi.[13]

Over the next 48 hours, edicts were proclaimed in an attempt to shore up the restoration, to the astonishment of the general public. On July 3, Li fled the presidential palace with two of his aides and took refuge in the embassy district, first in French legation and later in the Japanese embassy.[14]

Before taking refuge in the Japanese embassy, Li had taken certain measures, including leaving the presidential seal in the Presidential Palace, appointing Vice President Feng Guozhang as Acting President, and restoring Duan Qirui as Premier, in an attempt to enlist them in the defense of the republic.[14]

Duan immediately took command of the republican troops stationed in nearby Tianjin.[15] On July 5, 1917, his troops seized the Beijing–Tianjin railway 40 kilometers from the capital.[16] On the same day, General Zhang left the capital to meet the republicans, his forces further bolstered by Manchu reinforcements.[16] Zhang was faced with overwhelming odds; almost all of the Northern Army was opposed to him and he was forced to withdraw after republican troops seized control of the two main railway lines to the capital.[16] Duan Qirui ordered an aerial bombardment of the Forbidden City compound, and a Caudron Type D aircraft, piloted by Pan Shizhong (潘世忠) with bombardier Du Yuyuan (杜裕源) was dispatched from Nanyuan Airbase to drop three bombs over the Forbidden City, causing the death of an eunuch, but otherwise causing minor damage;[17] other sources state that the Caudron aircraft was piloted the principal of the Nanyuan Aviation School, Qin Guoyong (秦國鏞).[18] This was the first recorded instance of aerial bombardment deployed by the early-republican era Chinese Air Force.[19]

On the ninth day of the Restoration, General Zhang resigned from his appointed positions, retaining only the command of his troops in the capital, which were surrounded by republican forces.[20] The restored imperial court prepared an edict of abdication for Puyi, but fearful of Zhang's royalist forces, did not dare proclaim it.[20] The imperial court began secret negotiations with republican forces to prevent an assault on the city, even asking the foreign legations to mediate between the parties.[20] The uncertainty over the imperial court's own fate and that of General Zhang caused negotiations to fall apart. The republican generals announced a general assault on the positions of the monarchists on the morning of July 12.[21]

The attack began the next day, with royalists troops entrenched on the wall of the Temple of Heaven.[21] Shortly after the fighting began, negotiations resumed, resulting in the royalists giving up their positions. General Zhang, dismayed, fled to the legations quarter.[21] Once General Zhang had fled, the royalist troops called for a ceasefire, which was immediately granted.[21]

AftermathEdit

The military failure of the royalist troops left the Qing court and imperial family in a precarious position with the republican government suspicious of the Qing remnants.[21]

President Li refused to return to his post, leaving it in the hands of Feng Guozhang.[7][21] The departure of Li from the republican leadership allowed Duan to take charge of the government, and a month after the recapture of capital, on August 14, 1917, China declared war on Germany as Duan had originally wished, without opposition from Li. The withdrawal of Li led to the strengthening of military cliques in northern China and left the already-fractured central government in the hands of the Feng Zhili-Anhui clique dominated by Duan. The weakening of the central government led to the further fragmentation of China into the warlord era and the rival government of Sun Yat-sen gaining popularity and traction in the south.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c Rhoads (2000), p. 243.
  2. ^ a b Rhoads (2000), p. 235.
  3. ^ Crossley (1990), p. 203.
  4. ^ Billingsley (1988), p. 56.
  5. ^ a b Crossley (1990), p. 273 (note 87).
  6. ^ Billingsley (1988), p. 57.
  7. ^ a b c Nathan (1998), p. 91
  8. ^ Putnam Weale (1917), p. 355
  9. ^ Putnam Weale (1917), p. 356
  10. ^ Sergei Leonidovich Tikhvinsky (1983). Modern History of China. Progress Publishers. p. 735. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  11. ^ Xu Youchun. People's Republic of China Zeng Dictionary (revised edition). Hebei People's Publishing House. 2007. ISBN 978-7-202-03014-1.
  12. ^ a b Liushou Lin. Republic of China Official Chronology. Zhonghua Book Company. 1995. ISBN 7-101-01320-1.
  13. ^ Yamamuro, Shinichi (2005). Manchuria Under Japanese Domination. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3912-1
  14. ^ a b Putnam Weale (1917), p. 360
  15. ^ Putnam Weale (1917), p.364
  16. ^ a b c Putnam Weale (1917), p. 366
  17. ^ 历史老斯. "段祺瑞轰炸故宫,让溥仪成为中国历史上唯一挨过轰炸的皇帝_张勋". 搜狐 Sohu.com. Retrieved November 21, 2020. 飞机由教官潘世忠驾驶,而投弹员则是杜裕源,据杜裕源回忆,因为没有瞄准设备,因此在紫禁城他是随意投下了3枚小炸弹,并没有针对特定目标。投下的炸弹中一枚还是哑弹,一共只炸死了一个太监,此外部分建筑物受到了一点小损伤。
  18. ^ 黃孝慈 (October 21, 2007). "caf02". web.archive.org - 中國飛機尋根. Retrieved November 21, 2020. 民國六年七月,安徽督軍張勳擁戴清廢帝溥儀在京復辟,舉國譁然。段祺瑞馬廠誓師,南苑航校秦國鏞校長親自駕機轟炸清宮枚平叛亂。以上自民國二年迄民國六年止,高式機除培訓完成我國首批航空人員八十三人外,並參加多次軍事行動,因器材不繼維修困難,加之經費拮据發展不易,終難逃脫汰除命運。
  19. ^ CEDBITE1945. "中国的第一批教练机之"高德隆D"——中国航空史系列". 每日头条 (in Chinese). Retrieved November 21, 2020. 南苑航校的“高德隆”机队,右侧3架方形垂尾者为“高德隆D”(照片)
  20. ^ a b c Putnam Weale (1917), p. 367
  21. ^ a b c d e f Putnam Weale (1917), p. 368

SourcesEdit