Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür

Uskhal Khan (Chinese: 兀思哈勒汗), also called the Last Lord of Northern Yuan (Chinese: 北元末主)[4] or by his era name the Tianyuan Emperor (Chinese: 天元帝), born Tögüs Temür (Chinese: 脫古思帖木兒; 7 March 1342 – 18 November 1388 (1342-03-07 – 1388-11-18)), was an emperor of the Northern Yuan dynasty, reigning from 1378 to 1388. He was the last powerful khagan of the Mongols until the reign of the Dayan Khan.[5]

Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
Tianyuan Emperor of Yuan
Emperor of the Great Yuan
Togus.jpg
Emperor of Northern Yuan dynasty
ReignMay 1378 – November 1388
CoronationMay 1378
PredecessorBiligtü Khan Ayushiridara
SuccessorJorightu Khan Yesüder
Born1342[1]
Died18 November 1388(1388-11-18) (aged 46)
Tuul River, Outer Mongolia
Names
Mongolian: ᠲᠥᠭᠥᠰᠲᠥᠮᠥᠷ
Chinese: 脫古思帖木兒
Tögüs Temür
Era dates
Xuanguang (宣光) 1378–1379
Tianyuan/Tianguang (天元/天光) 1379–1388
Regnal name
Uskhal Khan (兀思哈勒汗)
Posthumous name
Emperor Ningxiao (寧孝皇帝)
Temple name
Yizong (益宗)[2][3]
HouseBorjigin
DynastyNorthern Yuan dynasty
FatherUkhaghatu Khan Toghon Temür

Tögüs Temür was Biligtü Khan's younger brother and son of Toghon Temür, the last Yuan emperor in China proper. Before ascending to the Northern Yuan throne, he held the noble title of Prince of Yi (益王).[6] He succeeded to the throne with the title of Uskhal Khan (Усхал хаан) after Biligtü Khan died in 1378. During the funeral of the late king, the Ming court sent an embassy to participate in it and released the Northern Yuan prince, Maidarbal, who had been captured at the battle of Yingchang in 1378.

Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür mobilized troops near Yingchang and Karakorum.[7] He continued to press the Ming from the north, cooperating with Naghachu of the Jalayir in Manchuria. The Ming launched a massive attack on the Northern Yuan in return in 1380, sacking Karakorum.

The Ming army crushed the Northern Yuan garrison under Iliyasan in northern China in June 1380. Uskhal Khan's commanders, Öljei-Buqa and Nair-Buqa, invaded Lulun city, killing the Ming officer Liu Guang in the same year. The Ming dispatched a large army against the Northern Yuan the next year.

The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty decided to exterminate Naghachu's force in Manchuria in 1387 and two sides suffered heavier losses at a battle near Changchung city. Tögüs Temür suddenly faced a predicament in 1387 when Naghachu surrendered to the Ming due to a devastating famine. The Ming now turned their attention to the Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür who lived in Yingchang. In 1388, he was raided by the Ming on the Buir Lake. In his escape to Karakorum, he was suddenly attacked and defeated on the Tuul River by Yesüder, a descendant of Ariq Böke, who allied with the Oirats.[8] Yesüder's general killed the king and his son. Uskhal Khan had intended to flee westwards to join his commander Markhas. This event marked the decline of the Kublaid power and the rise of the Oirats on the Mongolian Plateau.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sh.Tseyen-Oidov – Chinggis bogdoos Ligden khutaghtu hurtel (khaad), p. 129.
  2. ^ 中國蒙古史學會, ed. (1986). 《中國蒙古史學會論文選集(1981)》 (in Chinese). 中華人民共和國: 內蒙古人民出版社. p. 74. 烏薩哈爾可汗,必力克圖可汗的弟弟,名脫古思帖木兒。生於一三四二年(至正二年、壬午年)。於一三七九年(己未年) ,即可汗位,時年三十八歲。詔改明年為天元元年。於一三八八年(戊辰年)十月,被也速迭兒縊死。在位十年,享年四十七歲。謚號益宗,蒙古語稱烏薩哈爾可汗。
  3. ^ 鄭天挺吳澤 (2007). 《中國歷史大辭典: A-J》 (in Chinese). 中華人民共和國: 上海辭書出版社. p. 2669. ISBN 9787532622740. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 脫古思帖木兒(1342-1388)明代蒙古可汗。元順帝妥懂帖睦爾之子。洪武二年(1379)即汗位,號烏薩哈爾汗,年號天元。明太祖致書勸降,不從。次年,被明將沐英擊敗於和林(今蒙古國烏蘭巴托西南)。十四年,又遭明將徐達襲擊,損失慘重。二十一年,與明將藍玉所率十五萬軍戰於捕魚兒海(今貝爾湖),兵敗,僅惜數十騎脫走,行至土刺河,為蒙古別部領主也速迭兒襲殺。廟號益宗。
  4. ^ 郑天挺 [Zheng Tianting], 吴泽 [Wu Ze], 杨志玖 [Yang Zhijiu] (2007). 中國歷史大辞典: A-J [Comprehensive Dictionary of Chinese History: A-J] (in Chinese). 上海辞书出版社 [Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House]. p. 589.
  5. ^ Denis Crispin Twitchett; John King Fairbank (Ed.). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8, p. 227.
  6. ^ Wang [王], Shizhen [世貞]. 《北虏始末志》.
  7. ^ L. Jamsran-Mongol ulsyin tuuh, vol. III, p. 28.
  8. ^ Reuven Amitai-Preiss, Reuven Amitai, David Morgan-The Mongol empire and its legacy, p. 293.
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
 Died: 1388 
Regnal titles
Preceded by Emperor of the Northern Yuan dynasty
1378–1388
Succeeded by