Southern Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)

The Southern Liang (Chinese: 南凉; pinyin: Nánliáng, 397-414) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. The founding family Tufa was of Xianbei ethnicity and distant relative of the Tuoba imperial house of Northern Wei. According to the Jin Shu, the name was changed from Tuoba to Tufa because one of the Tufa ancestors was born on a blanket, and in the Xianbei language, "Tufa" meant "blanket."[1]

Southern Liang (南涼)

西平 (397),
武威 (397-401),
河西 (401-408),
(408-414)
397–414
Sixteen Kingdoms 402 AD.jpg
StatusVassal of Later Qin
CapitalLianchuan (397-399)
Ledu (399, 402-406, 410-414)
Xiping (399-402)
Guzang (406-410)
GovernmentMonarchy
Prince 
• 397-399
Tufa Wugu
• 399-402
Tufa Lilugu
• 402-414
Tufa Rutan
History 
• Established
397
• Tufa Rutan's acceptance of Later Qin era name
404
• Tufa Rutan's entry into Guzang
406
• Tufa Rutan's defeat by Liu Bobo at Yangwu
407
• Tufa Rutan's reassertion of own era name
408
• Disestablished
414
• Tufa Rutan's death
415
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms)
Western Qin
Northern Liang
Today part ofChina

All rulers of the Southern Liang proclaimed themselves "Wang".

In 414 Southern Liang was conquered by the Western Qin state of the Xianbei ethnicity.

Rulers of the Southern LiangEdit

Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Durations of reign Era names
Liezu Wu Tufa Wugu 397-399 Taichu (太初) 397-399
Kang Tufa Lilugu 399-402 Jianhe (建和) 399-402
Jing Tufa Rutan 402-414 Hongchang (弘昌) 402-404
Jiaping (嘉平) 409-414

The family tree of Southern Liang rulersEdit

Southern Liang
Tufa Sifujian
Tufa Wugu
禿髮烏孤 d.399
Wu
r.397–399
Tufa Lilugu
禿髮利鹿孤 d.402

Kang
r.399-402
Tufa Rutan
禿髮傉檀 365–415
Jing
r.402-414
Princess Zhejue
Qifu Chipan
Wenzhao
of (Western) Qin
r.412-428
Princess Tufa
d.423
Yuan He 源賀
b.403–d.479

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cui Hong. "南涼錄" [Record of Southern Liang]. Shiliuguo Chunqiu. Volume 12. Retrieved 21 September 2011.