Fuchien Province, Republic of China

Fuchien Province[1] [fǔ.tɕjɛ̂n] (listen) [I], also romanized as Fujian and rendered as Fukien, is a nominal province of the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) without formal administrative function. It includes three small archipelagos off the coast of the Fujian Province of the People's Republic of China, namely the Matsu Islands, which make up Lienchiang County, and the Wuqiu Islands and Kinmen Islands, which make up Kinmen County. The seat of the provincial government is Jincheng Township of Kinmen County serves as its de facto capital.[note 3]

Fuchien Province
福建省
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese福建省 (Fújiàn Shěng)
 • AbbreviationFJ / (pinyin: Mǐn, POJ: Bân)
 • FoochowHók-gióng
 • Hokkien POJHok-kiàn
Official seal of Fuchien Province
Map showing subdivisions under de facto administration of the nominal province in 2019
Map showing subdivisions under de facto administration of the nominal province in 2019
Coordinates: 24°25′N 118°19′E / 24.417°N 118.317°E / 24.417; 118.317Coordinates: 24°25′N 118°19′E / 24.417°N 118.317°E / 24.417; 118.317
Country Republic of China
Jiangnandong Circuit626
Fujian Circuit985
Partition of Taiwan1887
Fujian People's Government1933—1934
Division of Fujian17 August 1949
Streamlined16 July 1956
Demilitarised7 November 1992
Government dissolved31 December 2018
Named for
Provincial capitalFoochow (claimed, de jure)[note 1]
Largest cityChinchew (claimed, de jure)
Jincheng, Kinmen (de facto)
Divisions67 counties, 2 cities
Government
 • BodyKinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center[note 2]
Area
 • 1948121,580 km2 (46,940 sq mi)
 • 2018180.4560 km2 (69.6745 sq mi)
Population
 (2014)
 • Total133,456
Demonym(s)Fujianese, Fukienese, Kinmenese, Matsunese
Time zoneUTC+8 (Asia/Taipei)
Postal code
209–212, 890–896
Area code(s)(0)82, (0)826, (0)836
ISO 3166 codeTW
Websitewww.fkpg.gov.tw
Fuchien
Fujian (Chinese characters).svg
"Fuchien" in Chinese characters
Chinese福建
PostalFukien
Literal meaning"Fú(zhōu) and Jiàn(zhōu)"
Abbreviation
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaning[the Mǐn River]
Fujian Province
Chinese福建
Location of de jure Fujian Province inside de jure territory of ROC

The current Fuchien Province of the ROC, also known as the Golden Horse (after the literal reading of the Chinese character abbreviation for "Kinmen-Matsu"), comprise 0.5% of the current ROC's territories. The province was once part of the historical Fuchien Province based on Chinese mainland, encompassing both of mainland and island portions. The Chinese Civil War resulted in the effective partition of ROC's Fuchien in 1949, and the mainland portion has since been under the People's Republic of China's rule, while the offshore islands remained under ROC control, notwithstanding that both governments have not constitutionally recognized the resulting partition. During the Cold War period, Fujian was under the military administration. Travel restrictions from Taiwan island would remain in effect until 1992.

Following constitutional reforms launched in 1996, the ROC authorities decided to downsize the provincial structure to solve the problem of overlapping personnel and administrative resources between the provincial and central governments, and cut excessive public spending.[2] The provinces were streamlined and ceased to be self-governing bodies in December 1998, with their administrative functions transferred to the Executive Yuan's subsidiary, the National Development Council, as well as second-tier local governments such as counties. The Kinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center was founded in 2017 and all provincial governmental organs were de facto formally abolished by July 2018, with the remaining functions transferred to the ministries of the Executive Yuan and the NDC.[3][4][5]

HistoryEdit

Imperial ChinaEdit

The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly twenty years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.

The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Lin (林), Huang (黃), Chen (陳), Zheng (鄭), Zhan (詹), Qiu (邱), He (何), and Hu (胡). The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.

Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively backward economy and level of development, despite major population boost from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.

During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian.

The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China. As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon swallowed up by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.[6]

Quanzhou was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom, and is the largest seaport in the world. Its population is also greater than Fuzhou.[7][8] Due to the Ispah Rebellion, Quanzhou was severely damaged. In the early Ming dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban of the Ming dynasty, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550. Large scale piracy by Wokou (Japanese pirates) was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Qing DynastyEdit

Late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in Taiwan. Incoming refugees, however, did not translate into a major labor force owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan and annexed it into Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed, and the majority of people in Taiwan are descendants of Hoklo people from Southern Fujian. Fujian arrived at its present extent after Taiwan was split as its own province in 1885.[9] Just ten more years later, Taiwan Province would be lost to Japan due to the Qing losing the First Sino-Japanese War which ended in 1895.

Republic of ChinaEdit

The Xinhai Revolution deposed the Qing dynasty brought the province into the rule of the Republic of China. Fujian briefly gained independence from China again under the Fujian People's Government until it was recontrolled by the ROC during the Warlord Era.

Parts of the province in the northwestern area of Fujian were controlled by the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet, a component territory controlled by the Chinese Soviet Republic until its collapse in 1934 at the start of the Long March.

It came under Japanese sea blockade during Second Sino-Japanese War.

During the Chinese Civil War, the ROC lost control of mainland China, including most of Fujian province, and was forced to relocate to Taiwan, while the victorious Chinese Communist forces established the PRC in 1949, subsequently the capital of Fujian was also moved from Foochow to Jincheng. In the Battle of Guningtou, however, ROC forces were able to defend the island of Quemoy (Kinmen) just off the coast of Fujian from communist attack. As a result, the ROC has been able to hold on to a number of offshore islands of Fujian, and has continued to maintain a separate Fujian Provincial Government to govern these islands, parallel to the province of Fujian in mainland China.

In 1956, due to heightened potential for military conflict with the PRC, the ROC central government moved the Fujian provincial government out of Fujian to within Taiwan Province in Xindian (now part of New Taipei), and the islands were placed under an extraordinarily tight military administration due to their extreme proximity to mainland China. This was an unusual situation where the government of a province was located and operating in a different province. With the easing of cross-strait relations between the PRC and ROC and the democratization of the ROC in the 1990s, the islands were returned to civilian government in 1992. On 15 January 1996, the provincial government moved back to Kinmen, on Fujian soil.[10]

Beginning in 2010, the ROC significantly diluted the powers of the two provinces it governs, namely Taiwan and Fujian. Most of the authority at the Fujian province level has been delegated to the two county governments of Kinmen and Lienchiang.

GovernmentEdit

The Governor of Fujian Province was the head of the Fujian Provincial Government, the governor was also titled the "Chairperson of the Fujian Provincial Government". According to the Additional Articles of the Constitution, the governor is appointed by the central government.

The Fujian Provincial Government was located in Jincheng, Kinmen between January 1996 and 2018. In July 2018, the Executive Yuan decided to transfer the duties and functionalities of the provincial government to other branches under the Executive Yuan, including Kinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center[11] and National Development Council[12] The transformations were scheduled to be done by the end of year 2018.

 
Fujian Provincial Government building between January 1996 to 2018. Currently the Kinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center, Executive Yuan building.

SubdivisionsEdit

Fujian province nominally comprises two counties: Kinmen County and Lienchiang County. These islands have a total area of 182.66 km2 (70.53 sq mi) and a total population of 71,000 (2001).

The following are the islands of Fujian under the administration of the ROC, given by county:

Name Kinmen County Lienchiang County
Chinese 金門縣 連江縣
Hokkien Kim-mn̂g-koān Liân-kang-koān
Hakka Kîm-mùn-yen Lièn-kông-yen
Matsunese Gĭng-muòng-gâing Lièng-gŏng-gâing
Wuqiunese Ging-meóng-gā̤ⁿ Léng-gang-gā̤ⁿ
Map    
Islands numerous islands & islets[13][14][15] 36 islands
Administrative divisions 6 townships 4 townships

The PRC claims Kinmen as a county of Quanzhou, Fujian and the Matsu Islands as a township of Lianjiang County, Fuzhou, Fujian (with some islands claimed as parts of other areas).

Culture and DemographyEdit

Culturally, its population is predominantly of Chinese ethnicity, as Fujian remains the one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces of the country. Each dialects of the language group Min Chinese were most commonly spoken within the province, including the Fuzhou dialect of northeastern Fujian and various Hokkien dialects of southeastern Fujian. Hakka Chinese is also spoken, by the Hakka people in Fujian. Min dialects, Hakka and Mandarin Chinese are mutually unintelligible. Due to emigration, a sizable amount of the ethnic Chinese populations in Southeast Asia speak Southern Min (or Hokkien).

EducationEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^
  2. ^ Fujian Provincial Government
  3. ^ Between 1956 and 1996, Xindian City in Taipei County served as the seat of government.

Words in native languagesEdit

  1. ^

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Fuchien Provincial Government - 福建省政府 - 國家教育研究院雙語詞彙" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). National Academy for Educational Research.
  2. ^ Bi-yu Chang (24 March 2015), "The rise and fall of Sanminzhuyi Utopia", Place, Identity, and National Imagination in Post-war Taiwan, Routledge, pp. 136–138, ISBN 9781317658122.
  3. ^ Sarah Shair-Rosenfield (November 2020). "Taiwan combined" (PDF). The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  4. ^ Sherry Hsiao (29 June 2018). "Provincial-level agencies to be defunded next year". Taipei Times. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  5. ^ "賴清德宣示「省級機關走入歷史」". 28 June 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  6. ^ Fukien. (2008). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 December 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221639/Fujian
  7. ^ 伊本・白图泰(著)、马金鹏(译),《伊本・白图泰游记》,宁夏人民出版社,2005年
  8. ^ "中国网事:千年古港福建"泉州港"被整合改名引网民争议". 新华网. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  9. ^ Skinner, George William; Baker, Hugh D. R. (1977). The City in late imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  10. ^ Fujian Provincial Government website Archived 14 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "The personnel of the provincial government will be transferred to Kinmen-Matsu Joint Service Center, Executive Yuan". Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  12. ^ "Taiwan Provincial Government Official Website". Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  13. ^ 金門縣行政區域圖 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Retrieved 9 August 2019. 北碇島 母嶼 白巖 草嶼 東割 烽遂角 后嶼 官澳礁 西園嶼 建功嶼 黑巖 大巖嶼 烏礁 桂子礁 獅嶼 牛心礁 小擔 檳榔嶼 烈嶼 復興嶼 猛虎嶼 兔嶼 石山 大膽島 二擔島 三擔島 四擔島 五擔 大坵島 小坵島
  14. ^ "金門地區限制(禁止)水域圖" (PDF) (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Mainland Affairs Council. Retrieved 9 August 2019. 二.限制水域範圍:大金門地區低潮線向外延伸東方海面四千至六千公尺,南方海面八千至一萬公尺,北碇以東海面四千公 尺,大、二膽南海面二千公尺一線以內海域 三、禁止水域範圍:大金門地區低潮線向外延伸東方海面四千公尺,南方海面八千公尺,馬山北方一千五百公尺,北碇以東 海面四千公尺,大、二膽北、西、南海面二千公尺,小金門西海面、檳榔嶼、三腳礁、牛心礁、赤角礁一線以內海域
  15. ^ 辞海第六版. Cihai (Sixth Edition) (in Chinese). 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. p. 1124. ISBN 9787532628599. 金门 县名。在福建省东南海上、泉州市西南部。现由台湾省管辖。由以金门岛为主的大、小59个岛屿组成。面积149平方千米,人口约6.45万(2004年)。明置金门千户所,清设金门县丞,属同安县。1913年改隶思明县,1914年析置金门县。1928年直属福建省。农产有甘薯、花生等。矿产有玻璃砂、高岭土、铝土、煤。工业有机械、食品等。特产贡糖、高粱酒、金门马等。通公路。名胜古迹有成功洞、鲁王墓、水尾塔等。{...}金门岛 亦称"大金门岛"、"吾洲屿"。在福建省东南部、厦门港口外台湾海峡中。属金门县,现由台湾省管辖。岛形如哑铃,东西宽,南北狭,中多丘陵,沿海多港湾、口岸。东西长约20千米,面积131.7平方千米。其西有小金门岛。名胜古迹有牧马侯(陈渊)祠、鲁王墓、海印寺、古岗湖、中山纪念林等。

External linksEdit