Qingyuan Jiedushi

Qingyuan Jiedushi (Chinese: 清源節度使) (i.e., the Jiedushi of Qingyuan Circuit) was a military/governance administrative unit (circuit) late in China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, later renamed to Pinghai Jiedushi (平海節度使). It was an office created in 949 by Southern Tang's second emperor Li Jing for the warlord Liu Congxiao, who nominally submitted to him but controlled Quan (泉州, in modern Quanzhou, Fujian) and Zhang (漳州, in modern Zhangzhou, Fujian) Prefectures in de facto independence from the Southern Tang state.[1] (Zhang Prefecture was, at times during the circuit's existence, also known as Nan Prefecture (南州).)[2] Starting in 960, in addition to being nominally submissive to Southern Tang, the Qingyuan Circuit was also nominally submissive to the Song, which had itself become Southern Tang's nominal overlord.[3]

Map showing the location of Qingyuan Jiedushi (Circuit)

After Liu's death, the circuit was briefly ruled by his biological nephew/adoptive son Liu Shaozi, who was then overthrown by the officers Zhang Hansi and Chen Hongjin. Zhang then ruled the circuit briefly, before Chen deposed him and took over.[2] In 978, with Song's determination to unify Chinese lands in full order, Chen decided that he could not stay de facto independent, and offered the control of the circuit to Song's Emperor Taizong, ending Qingyuan Circuit as a de facto independent entity.[4]


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