Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Hinghwa Romanized, also known as Hing-hua̍ báⁿ-uā-ci̍ (興化平話字) or Báⁿ-uā-ci̍ (平話字), is a Latin alphabet of the Putian dialect of Pu-Xian Chinese. It was invented by William N. Brewster (蒲魯士), an American Methodist pioneer missionary in Hinghwa (modern Putian) in 1890.

Hinghwa Romanized
Hing-hua̍ báⁿ-uā-ci̍
A sample of Hinghwa Romanized text
Bible in Hinghwa (Xinghua) Romanized (Genesis), published by the British and Foreign Bible Society.
Type
Latin alphabet (modified)
Languages Putian dialect of the Pu-Xian Min language
Creator William N. Brewster
Time period
1890 — 1950
Parent systems
Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Foochow Romanized
  • Hinghwa Romanized

Contents

Writing systemEdit

AlphabetEdit

Hinghwa Romanized has 23 letters: a a̤ b c ch d e e̤ g h i k l m n ng o o̤ p s t u ṳ.

Puxian Min Initial Chart
  Bilabial Alveolar Lateral Velar Glottal
Plosive unaspirated p 巴 (b) t 打 (d) k 家 (g) ʔ
aspirated 彭 (p) 他 (t) 卡 (k)
Nasals m 麻 (m) n 拿 (n) ŋ 雅 (ng)
Fricatives voiceless ɬ 沙 (s) h 下 (h)
voiced
Affricates unaspirated ts 渣 (c)
aspirated tsʰ 査 (ch)
Approximant l 拉 (l)

FinalsEdit

Vowel Diphthong Nasal Glottal
no glide a 鴉 (a) au 拗 (au) 王 (ang) 壓 (ah)
ɒ 奥 (o̤) ɒŋ 用 (o̤ng) ɒʔ 屋 (o̤h)
o 科 (eo) ɔu 烏 (o) 温 (eong) 熨 (eoh)
e 裔 (a̤) ai 愛 (ai) ɛŋ 煙 (eng) ɛʔ 黑 (eh)
œ 改 (e̤) œŋ 換 (e̤ng) œʔ 郁 (e̤h)
ŋ 伓 (ng)
/-i-/ i 衣 (i) iu 油 (iu) 引 (ing) 益 (ih)
ia 夜 (ia) iau 要 (a̤u) iaŋ 鹽 (iang) iaʔ 葉 (iah)
/-u-/ u 夫 (u) ui 位 (ui) 黄 (ng)
ua 画 (ua) ue 歪 (oi) uaŋ 碗 (uang) uaʔ 活 (uah)
/-y-/ y 余 (ṳ) 恩 (ṳng) 役 (ṳh)
安 (io̤ⁿ) yɒŋ 羊 (io̤ng) yɒʔ 藥 (io̤h)

ToneEdit

Tone Ing-báⁿ 陰平 Ing-siō̤ng 陰上 Ing-kṳ̍ 陰去 Ing-ci̍h 陰入 Ió̤ng-báⁿ 陽平 Ió̤ng-kṳ̍ 陽去 Ió̤ng-ci̍h 陽入
Hinghwa Romanized none (a) ˆ (â) ˈ (a̍) none (ah)  ́ (á)
ˈ (a̍h)
Putian ˥˧˧ (533) ˦˥˧ (453) ˦˨ (42) ʔ˨˩ (ʔ2) ˩˧ (13) ˩ (11) ʔ˦ (ʔ4)
Xianyou ˥˦˦ (544) ˧˧˨ (332) ˥˨ (52) ʔ˨ (ʔ2) ˨˦ (24) ˨˩ (21) ʔ˦ (ʔ4)

Example textEdit

Tai̍-che̤ ū Dō̤, Dō̤ gah Siō̤ng-Da̤̍ dó̤ng-cāi, Dō̤ cuh sī Siō̤ng-Da̤̍. Ca̤̍ Dō̤ ta̍i-che̤ gah Sio̤ng-Da̤̍ dó̤ng-cāi. Māng-beo̍h sī ciā da̤u̍h I cho̤̍ ē; hang pī cho̤̍, beo̍ seo̍h-ā̤uⁿ ng-sī ciā da̤u̍h I cho̤̍ ē.

太初有道,道佮上帝同在,道就是上帝。這道太初佮上帝同在。萬物是借著伊造兮,含被造兮,無一樣呣是借著伊造兮。

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. (John 1:1-3 KJV)

Compared with Pe̍h-ōe-jī and Foochow RomanizedEdit

IPA Hinghwa Romanized Foochow Romanized
p p
t t
k k
p b b
t d d
k g g
tsʰ ch ch
ts c c
Tone 陰平 Ing-báⁿ 陰上 Ing-siō̤ng 陰去 Ing-kṳ̍ 陰入 Ing-ci̍h 陽平 Ió̤ng-báⁿ 陽去 Ió̤ng-kṳ̍ 陽入 Ió̤ng-ci̍h
Hinghwa Romanized a â ah á ā a̍h
Pe̍h-ōe-jī a á à ah â ā a̍h

ReferencesEdit

  • 刘福铸:兴化话罗马字研究
  • 高德矞:兴化话与罗马字