List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government

The following is a list of women who have been elected or appointed head of state or government of their respective countries since the interwar period (1918–1939). The first list includes female presidents who are heads of state and may also be heads of government, as well as female heads of government who are not concurrently head of state, such as prime ministers. The list does not include female monarchs who are heads of state (but not of government).[a]

Map showing countries which currently have women as heads of state or government, counting Governors-General but not monarchs. (Dependent territories are treated separately.)
Map showing countries which since independence have had women as heads of state or government.
  Female head of government
  Female head of state
  Female head of state/government (combined)
  Female head of state and female head of government
  Female prime minister / state counselor acting as deputy to the combined head of state and government
Three former sovereign states had a female head of state or government in the 20th century: East Germany, Tannu Tuva and Yugoslavia.

Yevgenia Bosch is sometimes considered the first modern woman leader of a national republican government. She was Minister of Interior and the Acting Leader of the People's Secretariat of Ukraine in the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets of 1917–18, one of Lenin's Soviet puppet states that existed on the territory of Ukraine during the Soviet–Ukrainian War.[1][2] Khertek Anchimaa-Toka, of the mostly unrecognized and now defunct Tuvan People's Republic, is regarded as "first ever elected woman head of state in the world".[3] She became the chair of the country's presidium in 1940.

The first woman to be democratically elected as prime minister of a country was Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka), when she led her party to victory at the 1960 general election.[4] The first woman to serve as president of a country was Isabel Perón of Argentina, who as vice-president succeeded to the presidency in 1974 after the death of her husband. The first woman elected president of a country was Vigdís Finnbogadóttir of Iceland, who won the 1980 presidential election as well as three later elections, to become the longest-serving non-hereditary female head of state in history (16 years and 0 days in office).[3]

Prime ministers of Namibia, Peru, and Uganda are included in the list of elected or appointed female deputy heads of government as they are neither heads of government, nor deputy heads of state due to the existence of the office of vice president in these countries; whereas prime ministers of South Korea are included in the lists of elected or appointed female deputy heads of state and government.

Elected or appointed female chief executivesEdit

This list includes women who were appointed by a governing committee or parliament where heads of state or government are not directly elected by citizens. The list does not include women chosen by a hereditary monarch.

Name Portrait Country Office Mandate start Mandate end Term length Head of state
or government
Executive or
non-executive
Khertek Anchimaa-Toka     Tannu Tuva[b] Chairman of the Presidium
of the Little Khural
6 April 1940 11 October 1944 4 years, 188 days Head of state
Sirimavo Bandaranaike     Ceylon/
  Sri Lanka
Prime Minister 21 July 1960 27 March 1965 4 years, 249 days Head of government Executive
29 May 1970 23 July 1977 7 years, 55 days
14 November 1994 9 August 2000 5 years, 269 days
Indira Gandhi     India Prime Minister 24 January 1966 24 April 1977 11 years, 90 days Head of government Executive
15 January 1980 31 October 1984
(assassinated)
4 years, 290 days
Golda Meir     Israel Prime Minister 17 March 1969 3 June 1974 5 years, 78 days Head of government Executive
Isabel Perón     Argentina President 1 July 1974 24 March 1976 1 year, 267 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Elisabeth Domitien     Central African Republic Prime Minister 2 January 1975 7 April 1976 1 year, 96 days Head of government
Margaret Thatcher     United Kingdom Prime Minister 4 May 1979 28 November 1990 11 years, 208 days Head of government Executive
Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo     Portugal Prime Minister 1 August 1979 3 January 1980 155 days Head of government Executive
Eugenia Charles     Dominica Prime Minister 21 July 1980 14 June 1995 14 years, 328 days Head of government Executive
Vigdís Finnbogadóttir     Iceland President 1 August 1980 1 August 1996 16 years, 0 days Head of state
Gro Harlem Brundtland     Norway Prime Minister 4 February 1981 14 October 1981 252 days Head of government Executive
9 May 1986 16 October 1989 3 years, 160 days
3 November 1990 25 October 1996 5 years, 357 days
Soong Ching-ling     China Honorary President 16 May 1981 28 May 1981 12 days Head of state
Agatha Barbara     Malta President 15 February 1982 15 February 1987 5 years, 0 days Head of state
Milka Planinc     Yugoslavia Prime Minister 16 May 1982 15 May 1986 3 years, 364 days Head of government Executive
Corazon Aquino     Philippines President 25 February 1986 30 June 1992 6 years, 126 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Stella Sigcau     Transkei Prime Minister 5 October 1987 30 December 1987 86 days Head of government Executive
Benazir Bhutto     Pakistan Prime Minister 2 December 1988 6 July 1990 1 year, 216 days Head of government Executive
19 October 1993 5 November 1996 3 years, 17 days
Kazimira Prunskienė     Lithuania Prime Minister 17 March 1990 10 January 1991 299 days Head of government Executive
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl     East Germany President of the People's Chamber 5 April 1990 2 October 1990 180 days Head of state
Violeta Chamorro     Nicaragua President 25 April 1990 10 January 1997 6 years, 260 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Mary Robinson     Ireland President 3 December 1990 12 September 1997 6 years, 283 days Head of state
Khaleda Zia     Bangladesh Prime Minister 27 February 1991 30 March 1996 5 years, 32 days Head of government Executive
1 October 2001 29 October 2006 5 years, 28 days
Édith Cresson     France Prime Minister 15 May 1991 2 April 1992 323 days Head of government
Hanna Suchocka     Poland Prime Minister 11 July 1992 25 October 1993 1 year, 106 days Head of government
Tansu Çiller     Turkey Prime Minister 13 June 1993 6 March 1996 2 years, 267 days Head of government
Kim Campbell     Canada Prime Minister 25 June 1993 4 November 1993 132 days Head of government Executive
Sylvie Kinigi     Burundi Prime Minister 10 July 1993 27 October 1993 109 days Head of government
Agathe Uwilingiyimana     Rwanda Prime Minister 18 July 1993 7 April 1994
(assassinated)
263 days Head of government
Chandrika Kumaratunga     Sri Lanka President 12 November 1994 19 November 2005 11 years, 7 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Claudette Werleigh     Haiti Prime Minister 7 November 1995 27 February 1996 112 days Head of government
Sheikh Hasina     Bangladesh Prime Minister 12 June 1996 15 July 2001 5 years, 33 days Head of government Executive
6 January 2009 Incumbent 13 years, 133 days
Ruth Perry     Liberia Chairwoman of the Council of State 3 September 1996 2 August 1997 333 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Mary McAleese     Ireland President 11 November 1997 10 November 2011 13 years, 364 days Head of state
Jenny Shipley     New Zealand Prime Minister 8 December 1997 10 December 1999 2 years, 2 days Head of government Executive
Janet Jagan     Guyana President 19 December 1997 11 August 1999 1 year, 235 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga     Latvia President 8 July 1999 8 July 2007 8 years, 0 days Head of state
Mireya Moscoso     Panama President 1 September 1999 1 September 2004 5 years, 0 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Helen Clark     New Zealand Prime Minister 10 December 1999 19 November 2008 8 years, 350 days Head of government Executive
Tarja Halonen     Finland President 1 March 2000 1 March 2012 12 years, 0 days Head of state
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo     Philippines President 20 January 2001 30 June 2010 9 years, 161 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Mame Madior Boye     Senegal Prime Minister 3 March 2001 4 November 2002 1 year, 246 days Head of government Executive
Megawati Sukarnoputri     Indonesia President 23 July 2001 20 October 2004 3 years, 89 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Maria das Neves     São Tomé and Príncipe Prime Minister 3 October 2002 18 September 2004 1 year, 351 days Head of government
Anneli Jäätteenmäki     Finland Prime Minister 17 April 2003 24 June 2003 68 days Head of government Executive
Yulia Tymoshenko     Ukraine Prime Minister 24 January 2005 6 September 2005 225 days Head of government Executive
18 December 2007 3 March 2010 2 years, 75 days
Maria do Carmo Silveira     São Tomé and Príncipe Prime Minister 8 June 2005 21 April 2006 317 days Head of government
Angela Merkel     Germany Chancellor 22 November 2005 8 December 2021 16 years, 16 days Head of government Executive
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf     Liberia President 16 January 2006 22 January 2018 12 years, 6 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Michelle Bachelet     Chile President 11 March 2006 11 March 2010 4 years, 0 days Head of state
and government
Executive
11 March 2014 11 March 2018 4 years, 0 days
Portia Simpson-Miller     Jamaica Prime Minister 30 March 2006 11 September 2007 1 year, 165 days Head of government Executive
5 January 2012 3 March 2016 4 years, 58 days
Pratibha Patil     India President 25 July 2007 25 July 2012 5 years, 0 days Head of state
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner     Argentina President 10 December 2007 9 December 2015 7 years, 364 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Zinaida Greceanîi     Moldova Prime Minister 31 March 2008 14 September 2009 1 year, 167 days Head of government Executive
Michèle Pierre-Louis     Haiti Prime Minister 5 September 2008 11 November 2009 1 year, 67 days Head of government
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir     Iceland Prime Minister 1 February 2009 23 May 2013 4 years, 111 days Head of government Executive
Jadranka Kosor     Croatia Prime Minister 6 July 2009 23 December 2011 2 years, 170 days Head of government Executive
Dalia Grybauskaitė     Lithuania President 12 July 2009 12 July 2019 10 years, 0 days Head of state
Roza Otunbayeva     Kyrgyzstan President 7 April 2010 1 December 2011 1 year, 238 days Head of state
Laura Chinchilla     Costa Rica President 8 May 2010 8 May 2014 4 years, 0 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Kamla Persad-Bissessar     Trinidad and Tobago Prime Minister 26 May 2010 9 September 2015 5 years, 106 days Head of government Executive
Mari Kiviniemi     Finland Prime Minister 22 June 2010 22 June 2011 1 year, 0 days Head of government Executive
Julia Gillard     Australia Prime Minister 24 June 2010 27 June 2013 3 years, 3 days Head of government Executive
Iveta Radičová     Slovakia Prime Minister 8 July 2010 4 April 2012 1 year, 271 days Head of government Executive
Dilma Rousseff     Brazil President 1 January 2011 31 August 2016
Suspended 12 May 2016
5 years, 243 days
5 years, 132 days
Head of state
and government
Executive
Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé     Mali Prime Minister 3 April 2011 22 March 2012 354 days Head of government
Atifete Jahjaga     Kosovo President 7 April 2011 7 April 2016 5 years, 0 days Head of state
Yingluck Shinawatra     Thailand Prime Minister 3 July 2011 7 May 2014 2 years, 308 days Head of government Executive
Helle Thorning-Schmidt     Denmark Prime Minister 3 October 2011 28 June 2015 3 years, 268 days Head of government Executive
Joyce Banda     Malawi President 7 April 2012 31 May 2014 2 years, 54 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Park Geun-hye     South Korea President 25 February 2013 10 March 2017
Suspended 9 December 2016
4 years, 13 days
3 years, 288 days
Head of state
and government
Executive
Alenka Bratušek     Slovenia Prime Minister 20 March 2013 18 September 2014 1 year, 182 days Head of government Executive
Tatiana Turanskaya     Transnistria Prime Minister 10 June 2013 13 October 2015 2 years, 125 days Head of government Executive
30 November 2015 2 December 2015 2 days
Sibel Siber     Northern Cyprus Prime Minister 13 June 2013 2 September 2013 81 days Head of government Executive
Aminata Touré     Senegal Prime Minister 1 September 2013 8 July 2014 310 days Head of government Executive
Erna Solberg     Norway Prime Minister 16 October 2013 14 October 2021 7 years, 363 days Head of government Executive
Laimdota Straujuma     Latvia Prime Minister 22 January 2014 11 February 2016 2 years, 20 days Head of government Executive
Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca     Malta President 4 April 2014 4 April 2019 5 years, 0 days Head of state
Ewa Kopacz     Poland Prime Minister 22 September 2014 16 November 2015 1 year, 55 days Head of government
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović     Croatia President 19 February 2015 18 February 2020 4 years, 364 days Head of state
Ameenah Gurib-Fakim     Mauritius President 5 June 2015 23 March 2018 2 years, 291 days Head of state
Bidya Devi Bhandari       Nepal President 29 October 2015 Incumbent 6 years, 202 days Head of state
Beata Szydło     Poland Prime Minister 16 November 2015 11 December 2017 2 years, 25 days Head of government Executive
Hilda Heine     Marshall Islands President 28 January 2016 14 January 2020 3 years, 351 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Aung San Suu Kyi     Myanmar State Counsellor 6 April 2016 1 February 2021 4 years, 301 days De facto head
of government
Tsai Ing-wen     Taiwan President 20 May 2016 Incumbent 5 years, 364 days Head of state Executive
Theresa May     United Kingdom Prime Minister 13 July 2016 24 July 2019 3 years, 11 days Head of government Executive
Kersti Kaljulaid     Estonia President 10 October 2016 11 October 2021 5 years, 1 day Head of state
Ana Brnabić     Serbia Prime Minister 29 June 2017 Incumbent 4 years, 324 days Head of government Executive
Halimah Yacob     Singapore President 14 September 2017 Incumbent 4 years, 247 days Head of state
Jacinda Ardern     New Zealand Prime Minister 26 October 2017 Incumbent 4 years, 205 days Head of government Executive
Katrín Jakobsdóttir     Iceland Prime Minister 30 November 2017 Incumbent 4 years, 170 days Head of government Executive
Viorica Dăncilă     Romania Prime Minister 29 January 2018 4 November 2019 1 year, 279 days Head of government Executive
Paula-Mae Weekes     Trinidad and Tobago President 19 March 2018 Incumbent 4 years, 61 days Head of state
Mia Mottley     Barbados Prime Minister 25 May 2018 Incumbent 3 years, 359 days Head of government Executive
Sahle-Work Zewde     Ethiopia President 25 October 2018 Incumbent 3 years, 206 days Head of state
Salome Zourabichvili     Georgia President 16 December 2018 Incumbent 3 years, 154 days Head of state
Brigitte Bierlein     Austria Chancellor
(Interim)
3 June 2019 7 January 2020 218 days Head of government Executive
Maia Sandu     Moldova Prime Minister 8 June 2019 14 November 2019 159 days Head of government Executive
President 24 December 2020 Incumbent 1 year, 146 days Head of state
Zuzana Čaputová     Slovakia President 15 June 2019 Incumbent 2 years, 338 days Head of state
Mette Frederiksen     Denmark Prime Minister 27 June 2019 Incumbent 2 years, 326 days Head of government Executive
Sophie Wilmès     Belgium Prime Minister 27 October 2019 1 October 2020 340 days Head of government Executive
Jeanine Áñez     Bolivia President
(Interim)
12 November 2019 8 November 2020 362 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Sanna Marin     Finland Prime Minister 10 December 2019 Incumbent 2 years, 160 days Head of government Executive
Katerina Sakellaropoulou     Greece President 13 March 2020 Incumbent 2 years, 67 days Head of state
Rose Christiane Raponda     Gabon Prime Minister 16 July 2020 Incumbent 1 year, 307 days Head of government Executive[c]
Victoire Tomegah Dogbé     Togo Prime Minister 28 September 2020 Incumbent 1 year, 233 days Head of government Executive[d]
Ingrida Šimonytė     Lithuania Prime Minister 11 December 2020 Incumbent 1 year, 159 days Head of government Executive
Kaja Kallas     Estonia Prime Minister 26 January 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 113 days Head of government Executive
Samia Suluhu Hassan     Tanzania President 19 March 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 61 days Head of state
and government
Executive
Vjosa Osmani     Kosovo President 4 April 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 45 days Head of state
Fiamē Naomi Mataʻafa     Samoa Prime Minister 24 May 2021 Incumbent 360 days Head of government Executive
Natalia Gavrilița     Moldova Prime Minister 6 August 2021 Incumbent 286 days Head of government Executive
Najla Bouden     Tunisia Prime Minister 11 October 2021 Incumbent 220 days Head of government Executive
Sandra Mason     Barbados President 30 November 2021 Incumbent 170 days Head of state
Magdalena Andersson     Sweden Prime Minister 30 November 2021 Incumbent 170 days Head of government Executive
Xiomara Castro     Honduras President 27 January 2022 Incumbent 112 days Head of state and government Executive
Katalin Novák     Hungary President 10 May 2022 Incumbent 9 days Head of state
Élisabeth Borne     France Prime Minister 16 May 2022 Incumbent 3 days Head of government

Elected or appointed acting female chief executivesEdit

This list includes women elected or appointed in an acting capacity, wherein they assumed a vacated office on a temporary basis.

Name Portrait Country Office Mandate start Mandate end Term length Head of state
or government
Sükhbaataryn Yanjmaa     Mongolia Acting Chairman of the Presidium
of the State Great Khural
7 September 1953 7 July 1954 303 days Head of state
Soong Ching-ling     China Acting Co-Chairperson 31 October 1968 24 April 1972 3 years, 176 days Head of state
Acting Chairperson 6 July 1976 5 March 1978 1 year, 242 days
Lidia Gueiler Tejada     Bolivia Acting President 16 November 1979 17 July 1980 244 days Head of state
Carmen Pereira     Guinea-Bissau Acting President 14 May 1984 16 May 1984 2 days Head of state
Ertha Pascal-Trouillot     Haiti Acting President 13 March 1990 7 February 1991 331 days Head of state
Sylvie Kinigi     Burundi Acting President 27 October 1993 5 February 1994 101 days Head of state
Reneta Indzhova     Bulgaria Acting Prime Minister 17 October 1994 25 January 1995 100 days Head of government
Rosalía Arteaga     Ecuador Acting President 9 February 1997 11 February 1997 2 days Head of state
and government
Irena Degutienė     Lithuania Acting Prime Minister 4 May 1999 18 May 1999 14 days Head of government
27 October 1999 3 November 1999 7 days
Nyam-Osoryn Tuyaa     Mongolia Acting Prime Minister 22 July 1999 30 July 1999 8 days Head of government
Nino Burjanadze     Georgia Acting President 23 November 2003 25 January 2004 63 days Head of state
  Georgia 25 November 2007 20 January 2008 56 days
Barbara Prammer     Austria Co-Acting President 6 July 2004 8 July 2004 2 days Head of state
Radmila Šekerinska     Macedonia Acting Prime Minister 12 May 2004 12 June 2004 31 days Head of government
3 November 2004 15 December 2004 42 days
Dalia Itzik     Israel Acting President 25 January 2007 15 July 2007 171 days Head of state
Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri     South Africa Acting President 25 September 2008 14 hours[7][8] Head of state
and government
Rose Francine Rogombé     Gabon Acting President 10 June 2009 16 October 2009 128 days Head of state
Cécile Manorohanta     Madagascar Acting Prime Minister 18 December 2009 20 December 2009 2 days Head of government
Adiato Djaló Nandigna     Guinea-Bissau Acting Prime Minister 10 February 2012 12 April 2012 62 days Head of government
Monique Ohsan Bellepeau     Mauritius Acting President 31 March 2012 21 July 2012 112 days Head of state
29 May 2015 5 June 2015 7 days
Slavica Đukić Dejanović     Serbia Acting President 5 April 2012 31 May 2012 56 days Head of state
Catherine Samba-Panza     Central African Republic Acting President 23 January 2014 30 March 2016 2 years, 67 days Head of state
Florence Duperval Guillaume     Haiti Acting Prime Minister 20 December 2014 16 January 2015 27 days Head of government
Natalia Gherman     Moldova Acting Prime Minister 22 June 2015 30 July 2015 38 days Head of government
Vassiliki Thanou     Greece Acting Prime Minister 27 August 2015 21 September 2015 25 days Head of government
Maya Parnas     Transnistria Acting Prime Minister 13 October 2015 30 November 2015 48 days Head of government
2 December 2015 23 December 2015 21 days
Doris Bures     Austria Co-Acting President 8 July 2016 26 January 2017 202 days Head of state
Đặng Thị Ngọc Thịnh     Vietnam Acting President 21 September 2018 23 October 2018 32 days Head of state
Vjosa Osmani     Kosovo Acting President 5 November 2020 22 March 2021 137 days Head of state
Maya Tskitishvili     Georgia Acting Prime Minister 18 February 2021 22 February 2021 4 days Head of government

Female members of collective head-of-state bodiesEdit

Name Portrait Country Office Mandate start Mandate end Term length Head of state or government
Nadezhda Krupskaya     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 12 December 1937 27 February 1939 1 year, 77 days Member of the collective head of state
Klavdiya Nikolayeva     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 12 December 1937 10 February 1946 8 years, 60 days Member of the collective head of state
Anna Pankratova     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 14 March 1954 25 May 1957 3 years, 41 days Member of the collective head of state
Yekaterina Furtseva     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 12 March 1950 18 April 1962 12 years, 6 days Member of the collective head of state
Alicja Musiałowa-Afanasjew     Poland Member of the Council of State 20 November 1952 24 June 1965 12 years, 216 days Member of the collective head of state
Yadgar Nasriddinova     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 24 March 1959 25 September 1970 11 years, 154 days Member of the collective head of state
Luise Ermisch     East Germany Member of the State Council 12 September 1960 13 November 1963 3 years, 62 days Member of the collective head of state
Irmgard Neumann     East Germany Member of the State Council 12 September 1960 13 November 1963 3 years, 62 days Member of the collective head of state
Tursunoy Akhunova     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 18 April 1962 16 June 1974 12 years, 59 days Member of the collective head of state
Lieselott Herforth     East Germany Member of the State Council 13 November 1963 25 June 1981 17 years, 224 days Member of the collective head of state
Else Merke     East Germany Member of the State Council 13 November 1963 26 November 1971 8 years, 13 days Member of the collective head of state
Brunhilde Hanke     East Germany Member of the State Council 19 November 1964 5 April 1990 25 years, 137 days Member of the collective head of state
Anni Neumann     East Germany Member of the State Council 19 November 1964 26 November 1971 7 years, 7 days Member of the collective head of state
Eugenia Krassowska-Jodłowska     Poland Member of the Council of State 24 June 1965 28 March 1972 6 years, 278 days Member of the collective head of state
Zoya Pukhova     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 12 June 1966 25 May 1989 22 years, 347 days Member of the collective head of state
Maria Schneider     East Germany Member of the State Council 13 July 1967 26 November 1971 4 years, 136 days Member of the collective head of state
Margarete Müller     East Germany Member of the State Council 26 November 1971 11 January 1990 18 years, 46 days Member of the collective head of state
Ilse Thiele     East Germany Member of the State Council 26 November 1971 11 January 1990 18 years, 46 days Member of the collective head of state
Rosel Walther     East Germany Member of the State Council 26 November 1971 5 April 1990 18 years, 130 days Member of the collective head of state
Halina Koźniewska     Poland Member of the Council of State 28 March 1972 2 April 1980 8 years, 5 days Member of the collective head of state
Valentina Tereshkova     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet June 1974 March or April 1989 c. 14 years Member of the collective head of state
Rimma Gavrilova     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 16 June 1974 4 March 1984 9 years, 293 days Member of the collective head of state
Kamshat Donenbaeva     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 16 June 1974 25 May 1989 14 years, 343 days Member of the collective head of state
Eugenia Kempara     Poland Member of the Council of State 18 December 1976 6 November 1985 8 years, 323 days Member of the collective head of state
Yekaterina Mukhina     Soviet Union Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 4 March 1979 4 March 1984 5 years, 0 days Member of the collective head of state
Violeta Chamorro     Nicaragua Member of the Junta of National Reconstruction 18 July 1979 19 April 1980 276 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Krystyna Marszałek-Młyńczyk     Poland Member of the Council of State 2 April 1980 23 March 1983 2 years, 355 days Member of the collective head of state
Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 1981 1 October 1981 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Johanna Töpfer     East Germany Member of the State Council 25 June 1981 17 November 1989 8 years, 145 days Member of the collective head of state
Gloriana Ranocchini     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 1984 1 October 1984 183 days Member of the collective head of state
1 October 1989 1 April 1990 182 days
Elisabeth Kopp      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 21 October 1984 12 January 1989 4 years, 83 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Elżbieta Gacek     Poland Member of the Council of State 6 November 1985 17 June 1988 2 years, 224 days Member of the collective head of state
Monika Werner     East Germany Member of the State Council 16 June 1986 5 April 1990 3 years, 293 days Member of the collective head of state
Eveline Klett     East Germany Member of the State Council 16 June 1986 5 April 1990 3 years, 293 days Member of the collective head of state
Edda Ceccoli     San Marino Captain Regent 1 October 1991 1 April 1992 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Biljana Plavšić     Bosnia and Herzegovina Serb Member of the Presidency 1 March 1992 9 April 1992 39 days Member of the collective head of state
Tatjana Ljujić-Mijatović[9]     Bosnia and Herzegovina Serb Member of the Presidency 24 December 1992 5 October 1996 3 years, 286 days Member of the collective head of state
Ruth Dreifuss      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 April 1993 31 December 2002 9 years, 296 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Patrizia Busignani     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 1993 1 October 1993 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Ruth Metzler      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 January 1999 31 December 2003 4 years, 364 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Rosa Zafferani     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 1999 1 October 1999 183 days Member of the collective head of state
1 April 2008 1 October 2008 183 days
Maria Domenica Michelotti     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 2000 1 October 2000 183 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Micheline Calmy-Rey      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 January 2003 31 December 2011 8 years, 364 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Valeria Ciavatta     San Marino Captain Regent 1 October 2003 1 April 2004 183 days Member of the collective head of state
1 April 2014 1 October 2014 183 days
Fausta Morganti     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 2005 1 October 2005 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Doris Leuthard      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 August 2006 31 December 2018 12 years, 152 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 January 2008 31 December 2015 7 years, 364 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Assunta Meloni     San Marino Captain Regent 1 October 2008 1 April 2009 182 days Member of the collective head of state
Simonetta Sommaruga      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 November 2010 Incumbent 11 years, 199 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Maria Luisa Berti     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 2011 1 October 2011 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Denise Bronzetti     San Marino Captain Regent 1 October 2012 1 April 2013 182 days Member of the collective head of state
Antonella Mularoni     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 2013 1 October 2013 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Anna Maria Muccioli     San Marino Captain Regent 1 October 2013 1 April 2014 182 days Member of the collective head of state
Lorella Stefanelli     San Marino Captain Regent 1 October 2015 1 April 2016 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Mimma Zavoli     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 2017 1 October 2017 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Vanessa D'Ambrosio     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 2017 1 October 2017 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Karin Keller-Sutter      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 January 2019 Incumbent 3 years, 138 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Viola Amherd      Switzerland Member of the Swiss Federal Council 1 January 2019 Incumbent 3 years, 138 days Member of the collective head of state and government
Aisha Musa el-Said[10]     Sudan Member of the Sovereignty Council 21 August 2019 21 May 2021[11] 1 year, 273 days Member of the collective head of state
Raja Nicola[10]     Sudan Member of the Sovereignty Council 21 August 2019 25 October 2021[12] 2 years, 65 days Member of the collective head of state
Mariella Mularoni     San Marino Captain Regent 1 October 2019 1 April 2020 183 days Member of the collective head of state
Grazia Zafferani     San Marino Captain Regent 1 April 2020 1 October 2020 183 days Member of the collective head of state

Female viceregal representativesEdit

Below are women who have been appointed representatives of heads of state, such as female governors-general and French representatives of Andorra. As governors-general are appointed representatives of the monarch of the Commonwealth realms (currently Elizabeth II) and the French Representatives of Andorra are appointed representatives of the French Co-Prince of Andorra (currently Emmanuel Macron), they act as heads of state and carry out on a regular basis the functions and duties associated with such a role in the Commonwealth realms (excluding the United Kingdom, which has no governor-general, as the monarch of the Commonwealth realms primarily resides there) and Andorra, respectively.

Name Portrait Country Office Mandate start Mandate end Term length
Elmira Minita Gordon     Belize Governor-General 21 September 1981 17 November 1993 12 years, 57 days
Jeanne Sauvé     Canada Governor General 14 May 1984 29 January 1990 5 years, 260 days
Nita Barrow     Barbados Governor-General 6 June 1990 19 December 1995 5 years, 196 days
Catherine Tizard     New Zealand Governor-General 13 December 1990 21 March 1996 5 years, 99 days
Pearlette Louisy     Saint Lucia Governor-General 17 September 1997 31 December 2017 20 years, 105 days
Adrienne Clarkson     Canada Governor General 7 October 1999 27 September 2005 5 years, 324 days
Silvia Cartwright     New Zealand Governor-General 4 April 2001 4 August 2006 5 years, 122 days
Ivy Dumont     The Bahamas Governor-General 11 November 2001 30 November 2005 4 years, 19 days
Michaëlle Jean     Canada Governor General 27 September 2005 1 October 2010 5 years, 4 days
Emmanuelle Mignon     Andorra Representative of the French Co-Prince 6 June 2007 24 September 2008 1 year, 110 days
Louise Lake-Tack     Antigua and Barbuda Governor-General 17 July 2007 13 August 2014 7 years, 27 days
Quentin Bryce     Australia Governor-General 5 September 2008 28 March 2014 5 years, 204 days
Sylvie Hubac     Andorra Representative of the French Co-Prince 15 May 2012 5 January 2015 2 years, 235 days
Cécile La Grenade     Grenada Governor-General 7 May 2013 Incumbent 9 years, 12 days
Marguerite Pindling     The Bahamas Governor-General 8 July 2014 28 June 2019 4 years, 355 days
Patsy Reddy     New Zealand Governor-General 28 September 2016 28 September 2021 5 years, 0 days
Julie Payette     Canada Governor General 2 October 2017 21 January 2021 3 years, 111 days
Sandra Mason     Barbados Governor-General 8 January 2018 30 November 2021
(became inaugural president)
3 years, 326 days
Susan Dougan     Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Governor-General 1 August 2019 Incumbent 2 years, 291 days
Froyla Tzalam     Belize Governor-General 27 May 2021 Incumbent 357 days
Mary Simon     Canada Governor General 26 July 2021 Incumbent 297 days
Cindy Kiro     New Zealand Governor-General 21 October 2021 Incumbent 210 days

Acting female viceregal representativesEdit

This list includes women appointed as viceregal representatives in an acting capacity, wherein they assumed a vacated office on a temporary basis.

Name Portrait Country Office Mandate start Mandate end Term length
Sian Elias     New Zealand Administrator of the Government
(Acting Governor-General)
22 March 2001 4 April 2001 13 days
4 August 2006 23 August 2006 19 days
23 August 2011 31 August 2011 8 days
31 August 2016 28 September 2016 28 days
Monica Dacon     Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Acting Governor-General 3 June 2002 2 September 2002 91 days
Sandra Mason     Barbados Acting Governor-General 30 May 2012 1 June 2012 2 days
Teniku Talesi Honolulu     Tuvalu Acting Governor-General 22 August 2019 15 January 2021 1 year, 146 days
Helen Winkelmann     New Zealand Administrator of the Government
(Acting Governor-General)
28 September 2021 21 October 2021 23 days

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ As of 2020, there are three female monarchs of sovereign states, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms, Margrethe II of Denmark and Ntfombi of Eswatini (as Queen Mother and co-head of state with her son, King Mswati III). In 2015, Elizabeth II (1952–present) became the longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in world history. In 2016, she became the longest currently serving head of state and longest currently reigning monarch.
  2. ^ A partially recognized state that is now a part of Russia.
  3. ^ Constitution of Gabon[5]

    Title II: The Executive Power, I. Of the President of the Republic, Article 8
    • The President of the Republic is the Chief of State; he or she ensures respect of the Constitution; the President assures, by his or her determination, the regular function of public powers as well as the continuity of the State.
    • The President determines, in concert with the Government, the policies of the Nation.
    • The President is the supreme bearer of executive power, which he or she shares with the Prime Minister.
    Title II: The Executive Power, II. Of the Government, Articles 29 and 31
    • The Prime Minister directs the actions of the Government. He or she assures the execution of the laws. According to the conditions of Article 20 mentioned above, the Prime Minister exercises regulatory power and nominates civil and military posts of the State.
    • The Government is composed of the Prime Minister and other members of Government.
    • The Prime Minister is the Chief of Government.
  4. ^ Constitution of Togo[6]

    Article 78
    • The Prime Minister is the head of the Government. He directs the action of the Government and coordinates the functions of the other members. He presides over the Committees of Defense.
    • Before his entry into office, the Prime Minister presents before the National Assembly the program of action of his Government.
    • The National Assembly accords its confidence to him by a vote with the absolute majority of its members.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Targino, Rafael (February 7, 2015). "Em 25 anos, dobra número de mulheres no comando de países em todo o mundo". Revista Fórum. (Portuguese). Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  2. ^ Serge, Victor (2002). Memoirs of a Revolutionary. University of Iowa. ISBN 978-0-87745-827-2.
  3. ^ a b "6 of the First Women Heads of State". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Sirimavo Bandaranaike". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Gabon's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2011" (PDF). constituteproject.org. 2011.
  6. ^ "Togo's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2007" (PDF). constituteproject.org. 2007.
  7. ^ "No wars, no drama for Matsepe-Casaburri". IOL News. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  8. ^ Chikane, Frank (28 April 2012). "Emotional farewell as Mbeki holds last cabinet meeting". Daily Nation. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  9. ^ "Institucije BiH u periodu 1992-1996: Ko su bili članovi Predsjedništva, premijeri i ministri RBiH". Faktor.ba (in Bosnian). 22 May 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  10. ^ a b "FFC finally agree on nominees for Sudan's Sovereign Council". Sudan Tribune. 20 August 2019. Archived from the original on 20 August 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  11. ^ "Woman on Sudan's ruling council quits, saying civilians are being ignored". Reuters. 22 May 2021.
  12. ^ see October 2021 Sudanese coup d'état.

External linksEdit