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In Communist states the presidium is the permanent committee of the legislative body, such as the Supreme Soviet in the USSR. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR existed from 1936, when the Supreme Soviet of the USSR replaced the Congress of Soviets with its Central Executive Committee that administered in between sessions, headed by "the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee". In 1936, this was replaced with the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet alone, no Central Executive Committee, and from this year to 1989, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the formal title of the head of state of the USSR until the office of Chairman of the Supreme Soviet was introduced in 1990, later to be replaced by the President of the Soviet Union. The republics of the Soviet Union were each led by Presidiums, such as the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, whose chairmen were the de facto head of state in those republics.
From 1952 to 1966, the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was known as the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, but despite the similarity in name with the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the two Presidia were very different in power and function.
The term presidium is currently used in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly) and in the People's Republic of China (Presidium of the National People's Congress, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress; the Chinese word for presidium is 主席团 while standing committee is 常务委员会). In the same way, the Workers' Party of Korea is led by the Presidium of the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea, made up of 5 members or fewer.
In Germany, the Presidium of the Bundestag consists of a president, who traditionally represents the largest party group, and at least one vice president from each party group. It is responsible for the legislature's routine administration, nowadays including its clerical and research activities. The Bundesrat of Germany is also led by a Presidium, of a President and 2 deputies. Earlier German states also had parliaments led by Presidiums; see Presidium of the Reichstag (German Empire), Presidium of the Reichstag (Weimar Republic), Presidium of the Reichstag (Nazi Germany) and Presidium of the Volkskammer in East Germany.
Similarly, Norway's Parliament, the Storting is led by a Presidium, with a President and 5 vice-presidents. The Swedish Riksdag is also led by a Presidium of a Speaker and 3 deputies. The Hellenic Parliament in Greece is led by a Presidium composed of the Speaker, 7 deputies, 3 deans and 6 secretaries.
The Presidium of the Socialist International advises its president and prepares questions for consideration. In Flemish and Scandinavian student organisations, presidium is an umbrella term for all the chairmen in the organisations' administration.
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