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The President of Bolivia (Spanish: Presidente de Bolivia) officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is head of state and head of government of Bolivia. According to the current Constitution, the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term, renewable once.[1] In 2016, in a referendum the country voted to maintain term limits.[2] Since 2009, if no candidate wins a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election. Prior to 2009, if no candidate won half the popular vote, the president was chosen by a vote in a joint legislative session from among the top two candidates (prior to 1995, the top three candidates were eligible).

President of the
Plurinational State of Bolivia
Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Coat of arms of Bolivia.svg
Coat of arms of Bolivia
Evo Morales 2017.jpg
Incumbent
Evo Morales

since January 22, 2006
ResidencePalacio Quemado
AppointerDirect popular election
Term lengthFive years
Renewable indefinitely
Inaugural holderSimón Bolívar
FormationAugust 6, 1825
DeputyVice President of Bolivia
Websitewww.presidencia.gob.bo

The current President of Bolivia is Evo Morales, since 22 January 2006. He was elected in 2005, and reelected in 2009 and again in 2014. On 17 October 2015, Morales surpassed Andrés de Santa Cruz's nine years, eight months, and twenty-four days in office to become the president with the longest unbroken term in office.[3] Morales surpassed Víctor Paz Estenssoro, who previously served as the longest-serving president with just over 12 years in office, but these terms were nonconsecutive.

Contents

HistoryEdit

During its more than 192 years of independence, Bolivia has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, more than 190 coups and violence.

Different titles have been used, such as "Liberator of Bolivia" (used by Simón Bolívar and Antonio José de Sucre), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).

The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as President of Bolivia.

List of Presidents of BoliviaEdit

No. Picture Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Title(s)
1   Simón Bolívar
(1783–1830)
11 August 1825 29 December 1825 Independent Liberator of Bolivia
2   Antonio José de Sucre
(1795–1830)
29 December 1825 18 April 1828 Independent Liberator of Bolivia (29 December 1825 – 19 June 1826)
President (19 June 1826 – 18 April 1828)
3   José María Pérez de Urdininea
(1784–1865)
18 April 1828 2 August 1828 Independent President
4   José Miguel de Velasco Franco
(1795–1859)
2 August 1828 18 December 1828 Independent Acting President
5   Pedro Blanco Soto
(1795–1829)
18 December 1828 1 January 1829 Independent Provisional President
4   José Miguel de Velasco Franco
(1795–1859)
1 January 1829 24 May 1829 Independent Acting President
6   Andrés de Santa Cruz
(1792–1865)
24 May 1829 20 February 1839 Independent Provisional President (29 May 1829 – 15 August 1831)
President (15 August 1831 – 20 February 1839)
Supreme Protector of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation (28 October 1836 – 20 February 1839)
4   José Miguel de Velasco Franco
(1795–1859)
20 February 1839 10 June 1841 Independent Provisional Supreme Chief (20 February 1839 – 16 June 1839)
Provisional President (16 June 1839 – 15 August 1840)
President (15 August 1840 – 10 June 1841)
7   Sebastián Ágreda
(1795–1875)
10 June 1841 9 July 1841 Independent Provisional Chief
8   Mariano Calvo
(1782–1842)
9 July 1841 22 September 1841 Independent Acting President
9   José Ballivián
(1805–1852)
22 September 1841 23 December 1847 Independent Provisional President (22 September 1841 – 15 August 1844)
President (15 August 1844 – 23 December 1847)
10   Eusebio Guilarte Vera
(1805–1849)
23 December 1847 2 January 1848 Independent Interim President
4   José Miguel de Velasco Franco
(1795–1859)
18 January 1848 6 December 1848 Independent Provisional President
11   Manuel Isidoro Belzu
(1808–1865)
6 December 1848 15 August 1855 Independent Provisional President (6 December 1848 – 15 August 1850)
President (15 August 1850 – 15 August 1855)
12   Jorge Córdova
(1822–1861)
15 August 1855 21 October 1857 Independent President
13   José María Linares
(1808–1861)
21 October 1857 14 January 1861 Independent Provisional President (21 October 1857 – 1858)
Dictator for Life (1858 – 14 January 1861)
14 Ruperto Fernández (1808–1877) 14 January 1861 4 May 1861 Independent
15 Manuel Antonio Sánchez (1808–1869) 4 May 1861 4 May 1861 Independent
16   José María de Achá
(1810–1868)
4 May 1861 28 December 1864 Independent Provisional President (4 May 1861 – 15 August 1862)
President (15 August 1862 – 28 December 1864)
17   Mariano Melgarejo
(1820–1871)
28 December 1864 15 January 1871 Independent Provisional President (28 December 1864 – 15 August 1870)
President (15 August 1870 – 15 January 1871)
18   Agustín Morales
(1808–1872)
15 January 1871 27 November 1872 Independent Supreme Chief of the Revolution (15 January 1871 – 21 January 1871)
Provisional President (21 January 1871 – 25 August 1872)
President (25 August 1872 – 27 November 1872)
19   Tomás Frías Ametller
(1804–1884)
28 November 1872 9 May 1873 Independent President
20   Adolfo Ballivián
(1831–1874)
9 May 1873 14 February 1874 Independent President
19   Tomás Frías Ametller
(1804–1884)
14 February 1874 4 May 1876 Independent President
21   Hilarión Daza
(1840–1894)
4 May 1876 17 April 1879 Independent President
22   Pedro José Domingo de Guerra
(1809–1879)
17 April 1879 10 September 1879 Independent President
23   Narciso Campero
(1813–1896)
19 January 1880 3 September 1884 Conservative Party President
24   Gregorio Pacheco
(1823–1899)
3 September 1884 15 August 1888 Democratic Party President
25   Aniceto Arce
(1824–1906)
15 August 1888 11 August 1892 Conservative Party President
26   Mariano Baptista
(1832–1907)
11 August 1892 19 August 1896 Conservative Party President
27   Severo Fernández
(1849–1925)
19 August 1896 12 April 1899 Conservative Party President
28   Government Junta 12 April 1899 25 October 1899 Members:
José Manuel Pando
Serapio Reyes Ortiz
Macario Pinilla Vargas
29 Serapio Reyes Ortiz (1849–1925)
30 Macario Pinilla Vargas (1849–1935)
31   José Manuel Pando
(1849–1917)
25 October 1899 14 August 1904 Liberal Party President
32   Ismael Montes
(1861–1933)
14 August 1904 12 October 1909 Liberal Party President
33   Eliodoro Villazón
(1848–1939)
12 October 1909 14 October 1913 Liberal Party President
32   Ismael Montes
(1861–1933)
14 October 1913 15 October 1917 Liberal Party President
34   José Gutiérrez Guerra
(1869–1929)
15 October 1917 12 July 1920 Liberal Party President
35 Government Junta 13 July 1920 28 January 1921 Socialist Republican Party President
36 José María Escalier 28 January 1921 28 January 1921 Socialist Republican Party President
37 José Manuel Ramírez 28 January 1921 28 January 1921 Socialist Republican Party President
38   Bautista Saavedra
(1870–1939)
28 January 1921 3 September 1925 Socialist Republican Party President
39   Felipe S. Guzmán
(1879–1932)
3 September 1925 10 January 1926 Socialist Republican Party Provisional President
40   Hernando Siles Reyes
(1882–1942)
10 January 1926 28 May 1930 Nationalist Party President
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49   Alberto Díez de Medina .

Germán Antelo Arauz . (to 17 June 1930)

Franklin Mercado .

David Toro .

José Aguirre Achá .

Fidel Vega

Carlos Banzer .

Ezequiel Romecín Calderón .(from 17 June 1930)

28 May 1930 25 June 1930 Members:
Alberto Díez de Medina
Germán Antelo Arauz (to 17 June 1930)
Franklin Mercado
David Toro
José Aguirre Achá
Fidel Vega
Carlos Banzer
Ezequiel Romecín Calderón (from 17 June 1930)
42 David Toro (1898–1977) 25 June 1930 25 June 1930 Military Chairman of the Government Junta
50 51

52 53 54 55

Carlos Blanco Galindo
(1882–1943) José L. Lanza .

Filiberto Osorio .

Bernardino Bilbao Rioja .

Emilio González Quint .

José Ayoroa .

28 June 1930 5 March 1931 Military Chairman of the Military Government Junta

Members:

56   Daniel Salamanca Urey
(1869–1935)
5 March 1931 27 November 1934 Genuine Republican Party President
57   José Luis Tejada Sorzano
(1882–1938)
28 November 1934 17 May 1936 Liberal Party President
58   Germán Busch
(1904–1939)
17 May 1936 20 May 1936 Military Chairman of the Government Junta
42   David Toro
(1898–1977)
20 May 1936 13 July 1937 Military Chairman of the Government Junta
59   Germán Busch
(1904–1939)
13 July 1937 23 August 1939 Military Chairman of the Government Junta (13 July 1937 – 28 May 1938)
President (28 May 1938 – 23 August 1939)
60   Carlos Quintanilla
(1888–1964)
23 August 1939 15 April 1940 Military Provisional President
61   Enrique Peñaranda
(1892–1969)
15 April 1940 20 December 1943 Concordance President
62   Gualberto Villarroel
(1908–1946)
20 December 1943 21 July 1946 Military Chairman of the Government Junta (20 December 1943 – 5 April 1944)
Provisional President (5 April 1944 – 6 August 1944)
President (6 August 1944 – 21 July 1946)
63   Néstor Guillén
(1890–1966)
21 July 1946 15 August 1946 Independent Chairman of the Provisional Government Junta
64   Tomás Monje
(1884–1954)
15 August 1946 10 March 1947 Independent Chairman of the Provisional Government Junta
65   Enrique Hertzog
(1896–1980)
10 March 1947 22 October 1949 Republican Socialist Unity Party President
66   Mamerto Urriolagoitía
(1895–1974)
22 October 1949 16 May 1951 Republican Socialist Unity Party Acting President (22 October 1949 – 24 October 1949)
President (24 October 1949 – 16 May 1951)
67 68 69 Hugo Ballivián
(1901–1993) Antonió Seleme Vargas

Humberto Torres Ortiz

16 May 1951 11 April 1952 Military Chairman of the Military Junta

Members:
Antonió Seleme Vargas
Humberto Torres Ortiz

70   Hernán Siles Zuazo
(1914–1996)
11 April 1952 16 April 1952 Revolutionary Nationalist Movement Provisional President
71   Víctor Paz Estenssoro
(1907–2001)
16 April 1952 6 August 1956 Revolutionary Nationalist Movement President
70   Hernán Siles Zuazo
(1914–1996)
6 August 1956 6 August 1960 Revolutionary Nationalist Movement President
71   Víctor Paz Estenssoro
(1907–2001)
6 August 1960 4 November 1964 Revolutionary Nationalist Movement President
72   René Barrientos
(1919–1969)
5 November 1964 26 May 1965 Military Chairman of the Military Junta
26 May 1965 2 January 1966 Military Co-Chairmen of the Military Junta
  Alfredo Ovando Candía
(1918–1982)
73 2 January 1966 6 August 1966 Military Chairman of the Military Junta
72   René Barrientos
(1919–1969)
6 August 1966 27 April 1969 Popular Christian Movement President
74   Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas
(1925–2005)
27 April 1969 26 September 1969 Social Democratic Party President
73   Alfredo Ovando Candía
(1918–1982)
26 September 1969 6 October 1970 Military President
75 76 77   Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 1970

Efraín Guachalla Ibáñez

Fernando Sattori Ribera

Alberto Albarracín Crespo

6 October 1970 7 October 1971 Military Members:
Efraín Guachalla Ibáñez
Fernando Sattori Ribera
Alberto Albarracín Crespo
79   Juan José Torres
(1920–1976)
7 October 1970 21 August 1971 Military President
80 81   Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 1971

Andrés Selich Chop

(1916–2001)

Jaime Florentino Mendieta Vargas (1926–2000)

21 August 1971 22 August 1971 Military Members:
82   Hugo Banzer
(1926–2002)
22 August 1971 21 July 1978 Military President
83   Víctor González Fuentes 21 July 1978 21 July 1978 Military Chairman of the Military Junta
84   Juan Pereda
(1931–2012)
21 July 1978 24 November 1978 Military President
85   David Padilla
(1927–2016)
24 November 1978 8 August 1979 Military Chairman of the Military Junta
86   Wálter Guevara
(1912–1996)
8 August 1979 1 November 1979 Authentic Revolutionary Party Acting President
87   Alberto Natusch
(1933–1994)
1 November 1979 16 November 1979 Military President
88   Lidia Gueiler Tejada
(1921–2011)
16 November 1979 17 July 1980 Revolutionary Left Front Acting President
89 90 91   Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 1980

Luis García Meza Tejada .

Waldo Bernal Pereira .

Ramiro Terrazas Rodríguez

17 July 1980 18 July 1980 Military Members:
89   Luis García Meza
(1929–2018)
18 July 1980 4 August 1981 Military President
92 93   Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 1981 Waldo Bernal Pereira Óscar Jaime Pammo 4 August 1981 4 September 1981 Military Members:
94   Celso Torrelio
(1933–1999)
4 September 1981 19 July 1982 Military President
95 96 97   Junta of Commanders of the Armed Forces 1982

Natalio Morales Mosquera .

Óscar Jaime Pammo .

Ángel Mariscal Gómez

19 July 1982 21 July 1982 Military Members:
98   Guido Vildoso
(1937–)
21 July 1982 10 October 1982 Military President
99   Hernán Siles Zuazo
(1914–1996)
10 October 1982 6 August 1985 Democratic and Popular Union President
100   Víctor Paz Estenssoro
(1907–2001)
6 August 1985 6 August 1989 Revolutionary Nationalist Movement President
101   Jaime Paz Zamora
(1939–)
6 August 1989 6 August 1993 Revolutionary Left Movement President
102   Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
(1930–)
6 August 1993 6 August 1997 Revolutionary Nationalist Movement President
103   Hugo Banzer
(1926–2002)
6 August 1997 7 August 2001 Nationalist Democratic Action President
104   Jorge Quiroga
(1960–)
7 August 2001 6 August 2002 Nationalist Democratic Action President
105   Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
(1930–)
6 August 2002 17 October 2003 Revolutionary Nationalist Movement President
106   Carlos Mesa
(1953–)
17 October 2003 9 June 2005 Independent President
107   Eduardo Rodríguez
(1956–)
9 June 2005 22 January 2006 Independent President
108   Evo Morales
(1959–)
22 January 2006 Incumbent Movement for Socialism President

TimelineEdit

Evo MoralesEduardo RodríguezCarlos MesaJorge QuirogaGonzalo Sánchez de LozadaJaime Paz ZamoraGuido VildosoÁngel Mariscal GómezNatalio Morales MosqueraÓscar Jaime PammoCelso TorrelioRamiro Terrazas RodríguezWaldo Bernal PereiraLuis García Meza TejadaLidiaGueiler TejadaAlberto NatuschWálter GuevaraDavid PadillaJuan PeredaVictor González FuentesJaime Florentino Mendieta VargasHugo BanzerAndrés Selich ChopJuan José TorresAlberto Albarracín CrespoFernando Sattori RiberaEfraín Guachalla IbáñezLuis Adolfo Siles SalinasAlfredo Ovando CandíaRené BarrientosVíctor Paz EstenssoroHernán Siles ZuazoHugo BalliviánMamerto UrriolagoitíaEnrique HertzogTomás MonjeNéstor GuillénGualberto VillarroelEnrique PeñarandaCarlos QuintanillaGermán BuschJosé Luis Tejada SorzanoDaniel Salamanca UreyCarlos Blanco GalindoEzequiel Romecín CalderónCarlos BanzerFidel VegaJosé Aguirre AcháDavid ToroFranklin MercadoGermán Antelo ArauzAlberto Díez de MedinaHernando Siles ReyesFelipe S. GuzmánJosé Manuel RamirezJosé Maria EscalierBautista SaavedraJosé Gutiérrez GuerraEliodoro VillazónIsmael MontesMacario Pinilla VargasSerapio Reyes OrtizJosé Manuel PandoSevero FérnandezMariano BaptistaAniceto ArceGregorioP achecoNarciso CamperoPedro José Domingo de GuerraHilarión DazaAdolfo BalliviánTomás Frias AmetllerAgustín MoralesMariano MelgarejoManuel António SanchezJosé Maria AcháRuperto FernándezJosé Maria LinaresJorge CórdovaManuel Isidoro BelzuEusebio Guilarte VeraJosé BalliviánMariano CalvoSebastián ÁgredaAndrés de Santa CruzPedro Blanco SotoJosé Miguel de Velasco FrancoJosé María Pérez de UrdinineaAntonio José de SucreSimón Bolivar 

Historical reputationEdit

In 1983, a poll was taken by the newspaper Última Hora to determine which seven historical presidents were regarded as most significant. The "winners" were Antonio José de Sucre, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Manuel Isidoro Belzu, Mariano Melgarejo, Aniceto Arce, Ismael Montes, and Víctor Paz Estenssoro.

Latest electionEdit

Party Presidential candidate Votes % Seats
Chamber Senate
Seats +/– Seats +/–
Movement for Socialism Evo Morales 3,173,304 61.36 88 0 25 –1
Democrat Unity Samuel Doria Medina 1,253,288 24.23 32 9
Christian Democratic Party Jorge Quiroga 467,311 9.04 10 2
Movement without Fear Juan del Granado 140,285 2.71 0 –4 0
Green Party of Bolivia Fernando Vargas 137,240 2.65 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 316,248
Total 5,487,676 100 130 0 36 0
Registered voters/turnout 5,971,152 91.90
Source: TSE

Presidential successionEdit

In the event of the death or permanent incapacity of the President, the Vice President of Bolivia would assume the office. The President of the Senate and the President of the Chamber of Deputies are third and fourth in the line of succession. In the 2005 political crisis, with all of these positions exhausted, Eduardo Rodríguez Veltzé, the Chief Justice of the Bolivian Supreme Court, assumed the presidency. Under the 2009 Constitution, however, the assumption of power by the President of the Chamber of Deputies automatically precipitates an election within 90 days.[4]

Acting PresidentEdit

In the case of temporary incapacity or absence from the country, the title of Acting President (Spanish: Presidente en ejercicio) is transferred to lower officials according to the order of presidential succession. In September 2012, Senate President Gabriela Montaño became the first woman to assume this office since the presidency of Lidia Gueiler Tejada.[5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  2. ^ Casey, Nicholas (24 February 2016). "Bolivian President Concedes Defeat in Term-Limit Referendum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  3. ^ Quiroga T., José Antonio (11 October 2015). "Andrés de Santa Cruz y Evo Morales". Página Siete. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Artículo 169: En caso de impedimento o ausencia definitiva de la Presidenta o del Presidente del Estado, será reemplazada o reemplazado en el cargo por la Vicepresidenta o el Vicepresidente y, a falta de ésta o éste, por la Presidenta o el Presidente del Senado, y a falta de ésta o éste por la Presidente o el Presidente de la Cámara de Diputados. En este último caso, se convocarán nuevas elecciones en el plazo máximo de noventa días." "Segunda Parte, Título II, Capítulo Primero". Nueva Constitución Política del Estado (PDF). pp. 36–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
  5. ^ Corz, Carlos (23 September 2012). "Montaño asume la Presidencia interina de Bolivia, Evo va a la ONU y hablará del mar". La Razón. Retrieved 24 September 2012.

External linksEdit