Salome Zourabichvili

Salome Zourabichvili[a] (Georgian: სალომე ზურაბიშვილი, [sɑɫɔmɛ zuɾɑbiʃʷili]; born 18 March 1952) is a Franco-Georgian political figure and former diplomat who currently serves as the fifth President of Georgia, in office since December 2018. She is the first woman to be elected as Georgia's president,[2] a position she will occupy for a term of six years. As a result of constitutional changes coming into effect in 2024, Zourabichvili is expected to be Georgia's last popularly elected president; all future heads of state are to be elected indirectly by a parliamentary college of electors.

Salome Zourabichvili
სალომე ზურაბიშვილი
Salome Zourabichvili at the Enthronement of Naruhito (1).jpg
5th President of Georgia
Assumed office
16 December 2018
Prime MinisterMamuka Bakhtadze
Giorgi Gakharia
Irakli Garibashvili
Preceded byGiorgi Margvelashvili
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
20 March 2004 – 18 October 2005
PresidentMikheil Saakashvili
Preceded byTedo Japaridze
Succeeded byGela Bezhuashvili
Leader of The Way of Georgia
In office
11 March 2006 – 12 November 2010
Preceded byParty established
Succeeded byKakha Seturidze
Member of the Parliament of Georgia
In office
18 November 2016 – 22 December 2018
Preceded byZaza Papuashvili
Succeeded byLado Kakhadze
Parliamentary groupIndependent
ConstituencyMtatsminda
Personal details
Born (1952-03-18) 18 March 1952 (age 70)
Paris, France
NationalityGeorgian
Political partyWay of Georgia (2006–2011)[1]
Independent (2011–present)
Spouses
  • Nicolas Gorjestani
    (m. 1981; div. 1992)
  • Janri Kashia
    (m. 1993; died 2012)
Children2
Residence(s)Orbeliani Palace, Tbilisi, Georgia
EducationSciences Po
Columbia University
Signature

Zourabichvili was born in Paris, France into a family of Georgian political refugees. She joined the French diplomatic service in the 1970s and went on to occupy a variety of senior diplomatic positions in the French government for three decades. From 2003 to 2004, she served as the Ambassador of France to Georgia. In 2004, by mutual agreement between the presidents of France and Georgia,[3] she accepted Georgian nationality and became the Foreign Minister of Georgia. During her tenure at the Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), she negotiated a landmark treaty that led to the withdrawal of Russian forces from the undisputed parts of the Georgian mainland. She has also served at the UN Security Council’s Iran Sanctions Committee as the Coordinator of the Panel of Experts.

After a falling out with Georgia's then president Mikheil Saakashvili, in 2006 Zourabichvili founded The Way of Georgia political party, which she led until 2010. Ultimately, she was elected to the Georgian Parliament in 2016 as an independent; she vacated her parliamentary seat after being sworn in as president. During the 2018 Georgian presidential election, Zourabichvili ran as an independent candidate and was supported by the governing Georgian Dream party. She prevailed in a run-off vote against Grigol Vashadze.

Family and Personal LifeEdit

AncestryEdit

 
Niko Nikoladze and his family in 1893

Salome Zourabichvili was born into a family of Georgian emigrants that fled to France following the 1921 Red Army invasion of the Democratic Republic of Georgia[4]. Her father, Levan Zourabichvili, a career engineer, serves for many years as chairman of the Georgian Association of France (AGF)[5]. He is himself the maternal grandson of Niko Nikoladze (1843-1928), a businessman, philanthrope and Georgian politician of the late 19th century who served as a member of the Social-Democratic Party and was an influent leader of the Georgian liberal intelligentsia under the Russian Empire[6].

Her mother Zeïnab Kedia (1921-2016) was a daughter of Melkisedek Kedia, head of the Security Service of the Democratic Republic of Georgia[7].

Salome Zourabichvili has one brother, Othar Zourabichvili, a doctor, writer and chairman of the AGF since 2006[8]. They are cousins of historian Hélène Carrère d'Encausse, a member of the Académie Française, and philosopher François Zourabichvili[9].

YouthEdit

Salomé Nino Zourabichvili was born in Paris on 18 March 1952 and was raised within the Georgian community in France, settled between Paris and Leuville-sur-Orge since the 1921 fall of the Democratic Republic of Georgia[4]. Raised in a prominent emigrant family with close ties to the government in-exile of Georgia, the diaspora was the only contact she had in her childhood with the country, once stating[4]:

In the years before the Iron Curtain fell, there was no contact with Georgia - no letters, no newspapers, no visits. For us, it was a mythical country, which only existed in books.

At 8 years old, she met her first visitor from Georgia during a visit to Paris by a Georgian ballet troupe, a meeting held in secret because of the repressive nature of the Soviet authorities organizing the visit[4]. In an interview with The Washington Post, she said she felt comfortable "straddling the two cultures", attending French schools while going to the Georgian church of Paris on the weekends[4].

Higher EducationEdit

 
Salome Zourabichvili studies at Sciences Po in 1969-1972

At the age of 17, Salome Zourabichvili received baccalauréat results that allowed her "the privilege of a direct admission in the terrible preparatory year" of the Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po) in September 1969, a program out of which only half of participants reach the Institute after a year[10]. In May1970, her final exam topic choice on "Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Europe between 1917 and 1923" guarantees her a spot at the Institute[10]. Later in 2019, the school would describe her results on the topics on the Rerum novarum, Kulturkampf and Alexander II's reforms as a "triumph", while a professor described her as a "very smart student who quickly learned the methodology and know-how of the program"[10].

In 1970, she joined the International Section of Sciences Po, a path toward the diplomatic service to which only a minority of the 4,000 students of the Institute accessed and only made of a third of women[10]. She studied under a number of well-known French professors, such as historians Jean-Baptiste Duroselle, Louis Chevalier, her cousin Hélène Carrère d'Encausse and the international lawyer Suzanne Bastid, the latter two being the only women teaching at Sciences Po[10]. Salome Zourabichvili concentrates focuses her studies on the Soviet world and graduates in July 1972[10].

In a letter of recommendation by Sciences Po Secretary-General René Henry-Gréard, the latter describes her as a student who, despite her "shyness", possesses "exceptional qualities" et predicts a great future for her[10]. She joins Columbia University in 1972-1973 where Zbigniew Brzezinski, at the time director of the Trilateral Commission, trains her on Soviet politics and Cold War diplomacy[11].

She has said that choosing a career in diplomacy was linked with hopes to one day being instrumental in helping Georgia[4].

Teaching CareerEdit

Salome Zourabichvili returned to Sciences Po in 2006, this time as a professor shortly after her departure as Georgian Minister of Foreign Affairs[10]. She works until 2014 at the Paris School of International Affairs, teaching the foreign policy of large powers, the post-Soviet world, the development of Eurasia since the fall of the USSR, and the causes for that fall[10]. In that post, she academically analyzes the progress of the European Union in times of crisis[10]. A student would later describe her classes as "encouraging important debates"[10].

She is the first student and professor of Sciences Po to become head of state[10].

Family and Private LifeEdit

 
Salome Zourabichvili with her daughter Kéthévane Gorjestani

From a first marriage to Iranian-American World Bank economist Nicolas Gorjestani (himself of Georgian origin[12]), she has two children: Kéthévane (France 24 journalist[13]) and Théïmouraz (a French diplomat[14]). She married in 1993 as a second husband Janri Kashia, an influential Georgian writer and journalist who was a political refugee in France. Kashia died in 2012[15].

Besides French and Georgian, Salome Zourabichvili speaks fluently English and Italian[16].

CareerEdit

Career in diplomacyEdit

Zourabichvili abandoned her studies and joined the French foreign service in 1974, becoming a career diplomat with postings to Rome, the United Nations, Brussels, Washington, etc. The first time Zourabichvili visited Georgia was in 1986 during a break from her job at the French Embassy in Washington.

Salomé Zourabichvili was Head of the Division of International and Strategic Issues of National Defence General Secretariat of France in 2001–2003.[17] She was appointed the Ambassador of France to Georgia in 2003.

Minister of Foreign Affairs, 2004–2005Edit

 
Zourabichvili with U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell in 2004

President Mikhail Saakashvili of Georgia nominated her as Minister of Foreign Affairs in his new government. Zourabichvili became the first woman to be appointed to this post in Georgia on 18 March 2004.[18]

Zourabichvili was the Coordinator of the Panel of Experts assisting the UN Security Council’s Iran Sanctions Committee.[19]

As foreign minister of Georgia, Zourabichvili was the main negotiator of the agreement for the withdrawal of Russian military bases from the territory of Georgia, which was signed with Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov on 19 May 2005.[20] During her tenure as Foreign Minister, the "New Group of Friends of Georgia" was created, bringing together Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Poland to help Georgia's aspirations towards NATO and foster European integration.

Zourabichvili was sacked by Prime Minister Zurab Nogaideli late on 19 October 2005 after a series of disputes with members of Parliament.[21] She had also been heavily criticized by a number of Georgian ambassadors. Shortly before her dismissal was announced, Zourabichvili resigned from the French foreign service, which had continued to pay her a salary while she was minister, and announced that she would remain in Georgia to go into politics.

Political careerEdit

 
Zourabichvili with opposition leader Goga Khaindrava in 2009

In November 2005, Zourabichvili set up the organization 'Salomé Zourabichvili’s Movement'. In January 2006 she announced the establishment of a new political party Georgia's Way, criticizing the country's "de facto one-party system."[22] Although Zourabichvili enjoyed some degree of reputation in Georgia she was long unable to establish herself in the political field. At the city council elections in Tbilisi on 5 October 2006, only 2.77% of the constituency voted for her party. Six months before, an opinion poll conducted by the Georgian weekly Kviris Palitra suggested that she would garner 23.1% of the votes at presidential elections. Since October 2007, her party was part of the United Opposition alliance which nominated Zourabichvili as a Prospective Prime Minister in case of their candidate Levan Gachechiladze's victory in the January 2008 presidential election.

As part of a 2009 campaign of the Georgian opposition to force President Mikheil Saakashvili to resign, Zourabichvili led a protest march together with three other prominent opposition figures – Nino Burjanadze, David Gamkrelidze and Eka Beselia – in Tbilisi on 26 March 2009.[23]

On 12 November 2010, Zourabichvili announced her withdrawal from the leadership of Georgia's Way. She was succeeded by Kakha Seturidze.[24] After a two-year leave from politics, she publicly endorsed Georgian Dream ahead of the 2013 presidential elections.[25] Shortly after, Georgia's Central Election Commission refused to register her as a presidential candidate due to her dual Georgian-French citizenship.[26]

In the 8 October 2016 parliamentary elections Zourabichvili won a seat as an independent, representing the Mtatsminda district of Tbilisi. She became MP on 18 November. During her term as MP, She was Deputy chairwoman of parliamentary committee on Diaspora and Caucasus Issues. [27]

2018 presidential candidacyEdit

On 20 April 2017, on TV Pirveli, in Diana Trapaidze's Daily News, Zurabishvili said that "nothing is out of the question" about her participation in the 2018 presidential elections. [43] At a briefing in her backyard on 6 August 2018, she voiced her desire to run in the election.

"This big responsibility is not only my responsibility. I owe it to my ancestors and to all those who declared independence 100 years ago and then could not revive that independence."

It was during this period that speculation emerged that, despite her status as an independent candidate, she would likely be backed by the Georgian Dream team.

On 16 August 2018, Zurabishvili officially launched her presidential campaign from the house-museum of her famous ancestor, Niko Nikoladze, in the village of Didi Jikhaishi, Imereti region. She outlined the main vision which she planned to implement as President of Georgia.

On 23 August 2018, two months before the elections, Zurabishvili relinquished her French citizenship. This decree was signed by the Prime Minister of France and the Minister of Internal Affairs on the basis of Zurabishvili's application. She made a statement in this regard on August 30, noting that she had to renounce her French citizenship to participate in the presidential election. According to the Constitution of Georgia, dual citizens cannot hold the office of president, prime minister or Speaker of Parliament.

On 9 September 2018, the Georgian Dream party announced its support for Zurabishvili's independent candidacy for the presidential elections, at a briefing by the Speaker of the Parliament, Irakli Kobakhidze, at the party's central office.

On 23 October 2018, the presidential elections were held. Zurabishvili received 38.64% of the vote (615,572 votes) and secured a place in the second round of elections against the United Opposition candidate. [48] The Georgian media thought that as an independent presidential candidate she would withdraw her candidacy. On October 30, in her first public statement since the first round, Zurabishvili stated:

"I am ready for the second round, for the fight. I believe that you are well aware that today is not a choice between two candidates or two parties, but a choice between two Georgias. We are on the side of the truth, the future of Europe and Georgia."

The second round of the presidential election was held on November 28. Zurabishvili received 59.52% of the vote (1,147,625 votes), defeating her opponent Grigol Vasadze to become the first female president in the history of Georgia.

PresidencyEdit

 
Zourabichvili addressing the nation on the anniversary of the April 9 tragedy, when Soviet troops crushed demonstrators demanding independence

InaugurationEdit

On December 16, the inauguration of the 5th President of Georgia was held at the Erekle II Palace in Telavi. Zurabishvili wore a white and red ensemble, the colors of the Georgian flag, to the ceremony, designed by Jaba Diasamidze, a Georgian designer working in France. The president-elect was taken to the palace by car, and her children - Teimuraz and Ketevan Gorgestani - drove her to the red carpet.

The event was attended by a total of 1800 guests. According to the decision of the organizers, all guests, except those with health problems, stood on their feet. Among those present at the inauguration were the 4th President of Georgia Giorgi Margvelashvili and his wife, the Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, Ilia II, the President of Armenia, Armen Sargsyan, the former President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy and representatives of other delegations.

As president, Zourabichvili inherited a new Constitution that entered into force the day of her inauguration and which significantly removed several powers from the Presidency, concentrating them within Parliament and the Prime Minister's Office. However, this did not stop her from using her position to call for historically-important decisions, including a new investigation into the controversial death of Zviad Gamsakhurdia, the country's first president, in 1993.

Domestic policyEdit

Zurabishvili's first annual report as President was presented to the 9th convocation of Parliament on 6 March 2019. [120] The European Georgia faction did not attend the president's speech. In her speech, Zurabishvili focused on her visits abroad.

On 20 April 2021, Zurabishvili hosted an official dinner in honor of the President of the European Council, Charles Michel. Representatives of the ruling team as well as the opposition parties who signed the Charles Michel document Charles Michel document[clarify]were present at the dinner at the Presidential Palace. The dinner was attended by EU Ambassador to Georgia Carl Hartzel and US Ambassador Kelly Degnan. By signing the document of Charles Michel, the representatives of the opposition and the government made political concessions.

Coronavirus pandemicEdit

On 10 March 2020, President Zurabishvili canceled scheduled visits to Bulgaria, Belgium, and Ukraine due to the coronavirus threat. [142] On March 21 of the same year, she declared a state of emergency in the country. The state of emergency was to last for a month, although on 21 April 2020, the president signed an extension until May 21.

On 22 December 2020, Zurabishvili hosted Hans Kluge, Director of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, at the Orbeliani Palace. During the meeting, the health measures taken by Georgia during the pandemic and issues related to the COVID-19 vaccine were discussed. On 26 January 2021, Zurabishvili met with Toivo Klaar, Co-Chair of the Geneva International Talks, EU Special Representative for the South Caucasus and the Crisis in Georgia.

Foreign policyEdit

 
Salome Zourabichvili, Maia Sandu, Volodymyr Zelensky and Charles Michel during the 2021 International Conference in Batumi.

As President of Georgia, Zurabishvili has visited many countries where she has represented her homeland and advocated for its interests, and met with foreign leaders. On 25 September 2019, Zurabishvili addressed the 74th session of the UN General Assembly in New York. In her speech, she spoke about the occupation, the ongoing political processes in Georgia, healthcare and climate change.

In January 2020 she visited Belgium, and in February she visited France and Afghanistan. She has also visited the leaders of Ukraine, Armenia, Germany, Poland, Latvia, Azerbaijan and many other countries.

 
Zourabichvili with Nancy Pelosi

Popular opinion in Georgia hardened against Russia in the wake of the February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, and on 3 March together with Moldova the country made a formal application to the EU for membership. The chairman of the Georgian Dream party, Irakli Kobakhidze called for EU bodies to review application "in an emergency manner and to make the decision to grant Georgia the status of an EU membership candidate", while Zurabishvili said "You can try to frighten countries but that doesn’t mean you change their orientation, that you change their determination to keep their independence."[28]

During an interview with DW News in May 2022, Zourabichvili stated that Georgia was in full compliance with the international financial sanctions on Russia and wanted a "quicker and shorter path towards integration" into NATO and the EU. She remarked that both France under Macron and Germany under Scholz had shifted their stance which ante-dated the August 2008 Russo-Georgian War and now embraced expansionary policies.[29]

Residence and fundingEdit

 
Official presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi

Zourabichvili announced during the presidential campaign that, if elected, she would not work from the Avlabari Presidential Palace, opened in 2009 during the Presidency of Mikheil Saakashvili. After her election, she met with the outgoing fourth President in the Avlabari Palace, but her administration moved into the Orbeliani Palace on Atoneli street in Central Tbilisi.[30] On 18 December 2018 she visited the Atoneli residence for the first time. The media met her at the entrance, emphasising the fact that she walked to the office.[31]

Besides moving to the smaller residence, Zourabichvili's office faced significant budget cutbacks. According to the 2019 budget, funding for the presidential administration is being reduced by just over ₾ 3.5 million. As a result, the vast majority of former employees were fired with only 60 of them remaining in administration.[32]

Changes have also led to abolishing the presidential fund which amounted to ₾5 million and funded scholarships, educational programs and various other projects. This decision has been widely criticized with former President Giorgi Margvelashvili and former First Lady Maka Chichua campaigning for it to remain.[33]

Political positionsEdit

Women's rights and equalityEdit

As the first popularly elected woman president of Georgia, Zourabichvili has advocated for women's rights and equality through social media and from political tribunes. She has organised a number of meetings and attended conferences aiming for the empowerment of women and young girls. On October 5th 2019, she hosted a meeting of women leaders from Georgia, Belgium and France, later saying on Twitter: "The role of women in our society is crucial and their contribution to our political, cultural, entrepreneurial and educational circles is key to our development."[34]

LGBTQ rightsEdit

Amid the controversy around the 2019 Tbilisi Pride Parade, Zourabichvili said: “I am everyone’s president, regardless of sexual orientation or religious affiliation. No human should be discriminated against. I must also emphasize that our country is dealing with enough controversies and doesn’t need any further provocation from any side of the LGBTQ debate." This comment was met with criticism by LGBTQ organizations across the country, as well as some members of the civil society. Tbilisi Pride co-founder Tamaz Sozashvili wrote: "How can she consider peaceful citizens and aggressive fundamentalists as equal sides?" She made no response to the criticism.[35]

Following attacks on the offices of Tbilisi Pride by anti-LGBT protesters on July 5, 2021, in which a number of journalists, activists and passersby were injured, Zourabichvili condemned the violence and visited injured journalists in hospital.[36] She subsequently tweeted:

"Violence is unacceptable. I condemn today’s events and any form of violence over difference of ideas or gender identity. Everyone has the constitutional right to express their opinion. I call on all to act within the Constitution and not provoke violence through radical actions.[37]

In June 2022, Zourabichvili condemned the homophobic protest by far-right groups in front of the EU delegation offices in Tbilisi.[38]

MonarchyEdit

In the course of the 2008 Georgian presidential election, Zourabichvili and many other opposition politicians voiced support for the establishment of a constitutional monarchy under the Bagrationi dynasty, which the Patriarch of Georgia, Ilia II, had advocated.[39]

Personal lifeEdit

Salomé Zourabichvili was married to the Georgian journalist Janri Kashia (1939–2012). She has two children, Kethevane and Teimuraz,[40] from her first marriage to Iranian-American economist Nicolas Gorjestani. Zourabichvili is the cousin of French historian Hélène Carrère d'Encausse. Besides Georgian and French, she is fluent also in English, and is conversational in Italian.[41]

FamilyEdit

The Zourabichvili family (fr) are a prominent Franco-Georgian family, originally from Georgia and then established in France following the invasion of the Democratic Republic of Georgia by the Red Army in February and March 1921.[42]

Family of Salome Zourabichvili
Niko Nikoladze
(1843-1928)
Olga Guramishvili-Nikoladze
(1855–1940)
Camille Huysmans
(1871–1968)
Lola NikoladzeIvan Zourabichvili (ka)
(1871-1942)
Nino NikoladzeNikoloz Muskhelishvili
(1891–1976)
Tamara Nikoladze
Georges Zourabichvili (fr)
(1898–1944)
Nathalie von Pelken
(1904–1952)
Levan Zourabichvili (fr)
(1906–1975)
Zeinab Kedia
(1921–2016)
Louis Carrère
(1952– )
Hélène Carrère d'Encausse
(1929– )
Nicolas Zourabichvili
(1936– )
Nicolas Gorjestani (fr)
(1946– )
Salome Zourabichvili
(1952– )
Janri Kachia (fr)
(1939–2012)
Emmanuel Carrère
(1957– )
Marina Carrère d'Encausse
(1962– )
François Zourabichvili
(1965–2006)
Teymouraz Gorjestani
(1981– )
Kethevan Gorjestani
(1984– )

WorksEdit

  • Salomé Zourabichvili (2006). Une femme pour deux pays. Grasset, ISBN 2-246-69561-9
  • Salomé Zourabichvili (2007). Fermer Yalta, Cahiers de Chaillot, Institut de sécurité de l'Union européenne
  • Salomé Zourabichvili (2008). Les cicatrices des Nations : L'Europe malade de ses frontières. Bourin, ISBN 978-2-84941-075-2
  • Salomé Zourabichvili (2009). La tragédie géorgienne. Grasset
  • Salomé Zourabichvili (2011). L'exigence démocratique. Bourin éditeur

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Zourabichvili uses the French transliteration of her surname; English transliteration is Zurabishvili

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Presidential Candidate Apologizes for Unethical Address to Reporters". Georgia Today on the Web.
  2. ^ In her capacity as Speaker of Parliament, Nino Burjanadze briefly served as acting president on two occasions
  3. ^ "A Georgian Reborn, Still Straddling Two Cultures", The Washington Post, June 4, 2004 : "I was surprised. But without thinking I said yes, on condition that President Chirac agreed. He not only liked the idea, but was enthusiastic about trying it out...This was not a defection, it was the marriage of both my parts...
  4. ^ a b c d e f Boustany, Nora (4 June 2004). "A Georgian Reborn, Still Straddling Two Cultures". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  5. ^ "Mort de Levan Zourabichvili" (PDF). Tavisuplebis Tribuna. 1 April 1975. p. 16. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  6. ^ "Georgian president: in my childhood I never thought I'd return to France as a president". Agenda.ge. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  7. ^ "სალომე ზურაბიშვილის დედა, ზეინაბ კედია გარდაიცვალა" [Zeinab Kedia, mother of Salome Zourabichvili, has died]. Fortuna.ge (in Georgian). 22 February 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  8. ^ Piffaretti, Alain (22 July 2022). "Leuville-sur-Orge, berceau de la communauté géorgienne francilienne" [Leuville-sur-Orge, cradle of the Georgian community in France]. Les Echos (in French). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  9. ^ Zourabichvili, François (2012). Deleuze: A Philosophy of the Event. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978 0 7486 4562 6.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "SALOMÉ ZOURABICHVILI, ALUMNA AND PRESIDENT". Sciences Po. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  11. ^ Gibbons, Jim. "SALOMÉ ZOURABICHVILI A PORTRAIT AND EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW". Europe Diplomatic. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  12. ^ "ვინ იყო სალომე ზურაბიშვილის პირველი ქმარი და რა გახდა მათი დაშორების მიზეზი" [Who was Salome Zourabichvili's first husband and why did they separate?]. Akhali Taoba (in Georgian). 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  13. ^ "PRESIDENT ZOURABICHVILI'S DAUGHTER APPOINTED TO WHITE HOUSE". Business Media Georgia. 19 August 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  14. ^ Momtaz, Rym (28 October 2020). "Inside Macron's diplomacy: Tension, turf wars and burnouts". Politico Europe. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  15. ^ "ჯანრი კაშია". National Parliamentary Library of Georgia. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  16. ^ "Biography". President.ge. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  17. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze (6 February 2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 695–. ISBN 978-1-4422-4146-6.
  18. ^ Henry Foy (25 October 2018), Frenchwoman frontrunner to become Georgia’s next president Financial Times.
  19. ^ Biographical dictionary
  20. ^ A Georgian victory as Russia will quit 2 bases New York Times, 31 May 2005.
  21. ^ Georgia, Civil. "Civil.Ge - Foreign Minister Zourabichvili Sacked". www.civil.ge.
  22. ^ Quentin Peel and Isabel Gorst (31 October 2007), Liberal laboratory at Russia’s door Financial Times.
  23. ^ Georgian Opposition Mulls More Radical Forms Of Protest Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 27 May 2009.
  24. ^ "The Messenger - Opposition Leader takes UN Security Council job". www.messenger.com.ge.
  25. ^ Former Georgian Foreign Minister Zurabishvili Endorses Saakashvili Rival Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 12 July 2012.
  26. ^ Georgia Election Board Rejects Former Foreign Minister Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 3 September 2013.
  27. ^ Liz Fuller (1 November 2016), Will Georgia's Ruling Party Use Super-Majority For Common Good Or To Further Own Interests? Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 3 September 2013.
  28. ^ Beard, Nadia (7 March 2022). "Georgia speeds up EU application in policy U-turn". Guardian News & Media Limited.
  29. ^ "Putin's next target? Interview with Georgian President Salome Zourabichvili". DW News. YouTube. 3 May 2022.
  30. ^ "Where Will Georgia's New President Live?". Georgiatoday.ge. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Salome Zurabishvili arrives at Atoneli Presidential Palace". 1tv.ge. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  32. ^ "New Georgian president will have less funding: details on the inauguration and new residence". jam-news.net. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  33. ^ "Margvelashvili Calls on Gov't Not to Abolish Presidential Fund". Georgiatoday.ge. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  34. ^ @Zourabichvili_S (5 October 2019). "Today, I had the pleasure to host women leaders from Georgia, Belgium, and France at the @GeorgiaPres Palace" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  35. ^ Alex Cooper (19 June 2019). "Organizers of Georgia's first Pride defiant amid threats of violence". washingtonblade.com.
  36. ^ "Media Attacked, Hospitalized While Covering Violent Protests in Tbilisi | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  37. ^ "Violence is unacceptable. I condemn today's events and any form of violence over difference of ideas or gender identity. Everyone has the constitutional right to express their opinion. I call on all to act within the Constitution and not provoke violence through radical actions". Twitter.
  38. ^ "ქვეყანა, რომლის მოსახლეობის 80%-ზე მეტი ევროკავშირში გაწევრიანებისა და ევროპული გზის მომხრეა..." www.facebook.com (in Georgian).
  39. ^ Civil Georgia (8 October 2007). "Civil.Ge - Politicians Comment on Constitutional Monarchy Proposal". www.civil.ge.
  40. ^ "Son of Georgian presidential candidate Salome Zourabichvili calls rival to debate". English Jamnews. 22 November 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  41. ^ "Official web site of the President of Georgia". president.gov.ge. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  42. ^ "Arbre généalogique de Nicolas Courrèges (ncourreges) - Geneanet". gw.geneanet.org. Retrieved 28 April 2022.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Foreign Affairs
2004–2005
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Georgia
2018–present
Incumbent