Administrator of the Government
An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General.
Usually the office of administrator is a temporary appointment, for periods during which the governor is incapacitated, outside the territory, or otherwise unable to perform his/her duties. The process for selecting Administrators varies from country to country.
The Administrator is usually the Chief Justice of Canada. In the absence of the Chief Justice the senior puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Canada is appointed. Administrators can also be appointed to the Canadian provinces to perform the duties of the Lieutenant Governor, in which case a justice of a provincial superior court is appointed.
In Yukon the position of Administrator is a political appointment corresponding roughly to that of "deputy commissioner".
In the Commonwealth of Australia, the Administrator is usually called the Administrator of the Commonwealth. State Governors hold a dormant commission and by convention the longest-serving state Governor becomes Administrator.
In the states of Australia, the Administrator is usually the Chief Justice of the state's Supreme Court or the next most senior justice. In 2001, the Constitution of Queensland was amended to restore the office of Lieutenant-Governor in that state. Links:
- Governor-General of New Zealand
- Administrators of the Government at the Governor-General of New Zealand site
- Patent Constituting the Office of Governor -General of New Zealand
As a former External Territory of Australia, the head of the Territory's administration was called the Administrator of Papua-New Guinea before independence in 1975. The appointment was by the Governor-General of Australia on the advice of the Australian Minister of External Territories. The Minister for External Territories consulted with the territory's Chief Minister as part of the appointment process.
When Hong Kong was a British Crown colony the Chief Secretary (Colonial Secretary before 1976) would be the Acting Governor, followed by the Financial Secretary and the Attorney General. The practice has remained after the transfer of sovereignty to China. Rotation takes place between the Chief Secretary for Administration (formerly Chief Secretary), the Financial Secretary and the Secretary for Justice (formerly Attorney General) as the Acting chief executive.
On 11 November 1965, the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia made a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) although it continued to recognise the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, as head of state, with oaths of allegiance to "Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth, Queen of Rhodesia, her heirs and successors". However, the Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith ceased to recognise the authority of her de jure representative, the Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs.
Instead, on 17 November, it appointed former Deputy Prime Minister Clifford Dupont to the post of "Acting Officer Administering the Government". On 2 December, Smith wrote a personal letter to the Queen, asking her to accept Dupont as the new Governor-General. In response, he was told that "Her Majesty is not able to entertain purported advice of this kind, and has therefore been pleased to direct that no action shall be taken upon it".
Under the 1965 draft Constitution, if the Queen did not appoint a Governor-General within fourteen days of advice being tendered by the Prime Minister, a Regent was to be appointed. In deference to the Royal Family, however, on 16 December, Smith amended his original plan to appoint a Regent and Dupont was appointed as "Officer Administering the Government".
Consequently, legislation passed after UDI was "enacted by His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, as the representative of the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Rhodesia". Dupont would continue to use the title until 1970. When Rhodesia adopted a republican constitution that year, he became the first President.
The country was renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979, before it returned to colonial status following the Lancaster House Agreement later that year. In 1980, it achieved internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe.
The term Administrator is also used for a permanent officer representing the head of state where the appointment of a Governor would be inappropriate; it is also used for the representative of a Governor.
United Kingdom overseas possessionsEdit
- The civil Administrator Akrotiri and Dhekelia Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus is traditionally the military Commander of British Forces in the areas.
- The Administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory is the junior to a Commissioner (Chagos Archipelago, notably Diego Garcia. He mandates the Commander of British Naval forces on Diego Garcia as his representative and Justice of the Peace, alongside the American Commander US Navy Facility Diego Garcia
- The two dependencies of Saint Helena, both sparsely populated Atlantic islands, are responsible in the first instance to the Governor of St Helena :
- Northern Territory: In the Northern Territory, the office of Administrator is a permanent appointment, and since the territory was granted self-government in 1978, the office of Administrator has become a largely ceremonial appointment, like that of the Governor in each State. Unlike the Governors, who are appointed by The Sovereign on advice of the Premier, the Administrator is appointed by the Governor-General on advice of the Prime Minister after consultation with the Chief Minister.
- external territories such as Norfolk Island and Christmas Island
- historically also on Lord Howe Island
In the Union territories of India, which are ruled directly by the Union Government, the President of India appoints an Administrator. Administrators differ from the Governors of the states of India in that they are an agent of the President and not a head of state.
The President may also appoint the Governor of a neighbouring state to be the Administrator of a union territory. Since 1985 the Governor of Punjab has acted as the Administrator of Chandigarh. In three union territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands; Delhi; and Puducherry; the Administrator uses the title Lieutenant Governor.
In the United States, the rank of Administrator denotes a high-level civilian official within the United States federal government. An official of sub-Cabinet rank, Administrators are appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate and are assigned to run a specific US government agency. Administrators often manage major agencies housed within specific Cabinet Departments (e.g., Research and Innovative Technology Administration within the United States Department of Transportation) while others are stand-alone agencies (e.g., the United States Environmental Protection Agency).
Sources and referencesEdit
- WorldStatesmen click on the present state
- "Choice of Next Commissioner Praised." Chuck Tobin, the Whitehorse Star, 1 December 2010. Accessed 1 March 2011.
- International Law Reports, Volume 52, E. Lauterpacht, Cambridge University Press, 1979, page 53
- Ian Smith Strips Gibbs Of All Official Privilege, Associated Press, The Morning Record, November 18, 1965
- East Africa and Rhodesia, Volume 42, Africana, 1965, page 339
- The New Law Journal, Volume 127, Butterworth, 1978, page 529
- The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Volume 20, page 659, 1971
- The Constitution of Rhodesia, 1965, Government Printer, 1965, page 7
- Rhodesia and the United Nations: UN Imposition of Mandatory Sanctions 1966, Avrahm G. Mezerik, International Review Service, 1966, pages 39-40
- Annual Survey of African Law Cb: Volume Three : 1969, editors E. Cotran, N.N. Rubin, Routledge, 1973, page 171
- Rhodesian Commentary, Volumes 3-5, 1970, page 72
- Union Territories. Know India: National Portal of India Archived 26 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- M Laxmikanth (2004). Indian Polity (3rd ed.).