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The Sovereignty Council of Sudan is the collective head of state of Sudan, for 39 months starting 20 August 2019, created by the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration.[1][2][3] Under Article 10.(b) of the Draft Constitutional Declaration, the Council is composed of five civilians chosen by the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance (FFC), five military chosen by the Transitional Military Council (TMC), and a civilian selected by agreement between the FFC and TMC. The chair for the first 21 months is a military member, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, and for the remaining 18 months the chair is to be a civilian member, under Article 10.(c).[2] The Sovereignty Council is mostly male, with only two female members: Aisha Musa el-Said and Raja Nicola.[4] Under Article 19 of the Draft Constitutional Declaration, the eleven Sovereignty Council members are ineligible to run in the election scheduled to follow the transition period.[1][2]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Sudan had multi-member Sovereignty Councils holding the role of head of state of Sudan several times during the twentieth century. Following more than half a year of sustained civil disobedience and a shift of the presidency from Omar al-Bashir to the Transitional Military Council (TMC) in April 2019 by a coup d'etat, the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance (FFC) made a July 2019 Political Agreement[5][6] and completed it by the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration.[1][2][3] Articles 9.(a) and 10.(a) of the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration both transfer the role of head of state to the Sovereignty Council.[2]

Structure and membershipEdit

Article 10.(b) of the Draft Constitutional Declaration defines the Sovereignty Council to consist of five civilians chosen by the FFC, five military chosen by the TMC, and a civilian "selected by agreement" between the FFC and TMC.[2]

Under Article 10.(c) of the Draft Constitutional Declaration, for the first 21 months of the 39-month transitional period defined by the document, the chair of the Sovereignty Council is to be chosen by the five military members of the council. For the following 18 months, the chair is to be chosen by the five civilian members selected by the FFC.[2]

The military membership of the Sovereignty Council includes Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Lieutenant-General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemetti"), Lieutenant-General Yasser al-Atta,[3] General Shams al-Din Khabbashi and Major-General Ibrahim Jabir Karim.[4][7] Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo is the deputy chairman of the Sovereignty Council.[7]

The five civilians chosen by the FFC are Aisha Musa el-Said of the National Gathering Initiative; Siddig Tawer (or Siddiq, Tower), a prominent member of the Sudanese Ba'ath Party[4] (and thereby a member of the National Consensus Forces)[8] from the Nuba Mountains; Mohamed al-Faki Suleiman of the Unionist Rally; Hassan Sheikh Idris (or Hassan Mohamed Idris)[9][4] of Sudan Call[8] and Mohammed Hassan Osman al-Ta'ishi[10][4] of the Sudanese Professionals Association.[8] Taha Othman Ishaq (or Osman), a lawyer and member of the FFC negotiating committee, declined his nomination by the FFC to the Sovereignty Council on the grounds that the FFC alliance had earlier agreed that members of the negotiating committee should not become members of the Sovereignty Council.[11]

Raja Nicola is the civilian member of the Sovereignty Council mutually chosen by the FFC and TMC.[12] The choice of Nicola, as a member of the Sudanese Copt community, is seen as a symbol of respect for diversity, in particular to Sudanese Christians.[12]

Women's participationEdit

The Sovereignty Council is mostly male, with only two female members: Aisha Musa el-Said and Raja Nicola.[13][10] The Sudanese Women's Union argued that women had played as significant a role as men in the political changes of 2019 and that Sudanese women "claim an equal share of 50-50 with men at all levels, measured by qualifications and capabilities".[13]

Ineligibility in 2022Edit

Under Article 19 of the August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, the eleven members of the Sovereignty Council of the transitional period are forbidden (along with ministers and other senior transition leaders) from running in the 2022 Sudanese general election scheduled to end the transitional period.[2][1]

PowersEdit

Article 11.(a) lists 17 political powers held by the Sovereignty Council, including the appointment of the Prime Minister, confirmation of leaders of certain state bodies, the right to declare war or a state of emergency, and signing and ratifying national and international agreements.[2]

Decision-makingEdit

Under Article 11.(c) of the Draft Constitutional Declaration, the Sovereignty Council makes decisions either by consensus, or when consensus is not possible, by a two-thirds majority (eight members).[2]

Actions of the Sovereignty CouncilEdit

The Sovereignty Council announced a state of emergency in Port Sudan during tribal clashes which resulted in the death of 16 people on 26 August 2019.[14]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d FFC; TMC (2019-08-04). "(الدستوري Declaration (العربية))" [(Constitutional Declaration)] (PDF). raisethevoices.org (in Arabic). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-05. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j FFC; TMC; IDEA; Reeves, Eric (2019-08-10). "Sudan: Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period". sudanreeves.org. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ a b c "Sudan protest leaders, military sign transitional government deal". Al Jazeera English. 2019-08-17. Archived from the original on 2019-08-17. Retrieved 2019-08-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ a b c d e "Al-Burham forms Sudan's Sovereign Council". Sudan Tribune. 2019-08-21. Archived from the original on 2019-08-21. Retrieved 2019-08-21. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  5. ^ "'Our revolution won': Sudan's opposition lauds deal with military". Al Jazeera English. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  6. ^ FFC; TMC; Idris, Insaf (2019-07-17). "Political Agreement on establishing the structures and institutions of the transitional period between the Transitional Military Council and the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces" (PDF). Radio Dabanga. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-07-18. Retrieved 2019-07-18. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ a b "Sudan: Constitutional Decree On Appointment of Sovereignty Council Issued". allAfrica.com. August 21, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "Sudan's Sovereign Council appointed". Radio Dabanga. 2019-08-21. Archived from the original on 2019-08-21. Retrieved 2019-08-21. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ "Sudan opposition coalition appoints five civilian members of sovereign council". Thomson Reuters. 2019-08-18. Archived from the original on 2019-08-18. Retrieved 2019-08-18. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ a b "FFC finally agree on nominees for Sudan's Sovereign Council". Sudan Tribune. 2019-08-20. Archived from the original on 2019-08-20. Retrieved 2019-08-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ "Sudan's Sovereign Council delayed for 48 hours: spokesperson". Sudan Tribune. 2019-08-19. Archived from the original on 2019-08-19. Retrieved 2019-08-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  12. ^ a b "Sudan moves towards forming Sovereign Council". Sudan Tribune. 2019-08-19. Archived from the original on 2019-08-19. Retrieved 2019-08-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ a b "Sudanese Women's Union protests FFC nominees". Radio Dabanga. 2019-08-18. Archived from the original on 2019-08-19. Retrieved 2019-08-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  14. ^ "Sudan's sovereign council declares state of emergency in Port Sudan". Reuters. 2019-08-26. Retrieved 2019-08-26.

External linksEdit