List of heads of state of Sudan
|President of Republic of the Sudan
رئيس جمهورية السودان
|Term length||39 months|
|Inaugural holder||Five-member Sovereignty Council (collective presidency)|
|Formation||1 January 1956|
21 August 2019 (under the current constitution and in current form)
History of the officeEdit
Since independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1956, six individuals (and three multi-member sovereignty councils) have served as head of state of Sudan, currently under the title President of the Republic of the Sudan. Prior to independence, Sudan was governed as a condominium by Egypt and the United Kingdom, under the name Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. As such, executive power was vested in a dyarchy consisting of both countries' heads of state – at the time of independence, the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II) and the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council (headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser). Immediately following independence, the role of head of state was filled by a five-member Sovereignty Council, with rival nationalist factions unable to agree on a single candidate. In November 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a military coup d'état, assuming the role of head of state as Chairman of the Supreme Council. Assuming the title of president in 1964, he resigned later that year due to general discontent around the rule of the military regime. Abboud was succeeded by a senior civil servant, Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, who served as acting president for 18 days before transferring executive authority to a Committee of Sovereignty.
Ismail al-Azhari, the leader of the National Unionist Party, was made president in July 1965, and ruled with limited power until he was deposed in 1969. The military officers responsible for the coup established the National Revolutionary Command Council, chaired by Gaafar Nimeiry. Nimeiry, the leader of the newly formed Sudanese Socialist Union, assumed the position of president in 1971, and subsequently established a one-party state, which existed until 1985, when a group of military officers overthrew his government and established the 1985 Transitional Military Council, led by Field Marshal Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab. Ahmed al-Mirghani succeeded to the relatively powerless position of Chairman of the Supreme Council in 1986, after multi-party election held that year. He was deposed in a 1989 military coup led by Lieutenant-General Omar al-Bashir. Al-Bashir served as head of state, under the title of Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation from 1989 to 1993 and as president from 1993 to 2019 (and from 1996 as the leader of the National Congress Party). Al-Bashir was removed from power by the Sudanese Armed Forces on 11 April 2019, amid ongoing protests after holding the office for nearly 30 years. Lieutenant-General Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf took control of Sudan without becoming head of state, established the 2019 Transitional Military Council, but resigned the following day in favor of Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan.
Heads of State of Sudan (1956–present)Edit
(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)
|Omar al-Bashir||National Congress||5,252,478||94.05|
|Fadl el-Sayed Shuiab||Federal Truth Party||79,779||1.43|
|Fatima Abdel Mahmoud||Sudanese Socialist Democratic Union||47,653||0.85|
|Mohamed Elhassan Mohamed||National Reform Party||42,399||0.76|
|Abdul Mahmoud Abdul Jabar Rahamtalla||Union of the Nation's Forces||41,134||0.74|
|Hamdi Hassan Ahmed||Independent||18,043||0.32|
|Mohamed Ahmed Abdul Gadir Al Arbab||Independent||16,966||0.30|
|Yasser Yahiya Salih Abdul Gadir||Independent||16,609||0.30|
|Adel Dafalla Jabir||Independent||9,435||0.17|
|Mohamed Awad Al Barow||Independent||9,388||0.17|
|Asad Al Nil Adel Yassin Al Saafi||Independent||9,359||0.17|
|Alam Al Huda Ahmed Osman Mohamed Ali||Independent||8,133||0.15|
|Ahmed Al Radhi Jadalla Salem||Independent||7,751||0.14|
|Isaam Al Ghali Tajj Eddin Ali||Independent||7,587||0.14|
|Omar Awad Al Karim Hussein Ali||Independent||6,297||0.11|
- "Sudan: Civilian-majority ruling council sworn in". Deutsche Welle. 21 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- El Sirgany, Sarah; Elbagir, Nima; Abdullah, Yasir (11 April 2019). "Sudan's President Bashir forced out in military coup". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Sudan opposition coalition appoints five civilian members of sovereign council". Thomson Reuters. 2019-08-18. Archived from the original on 2019-08-18. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
- "FFC finally agree on nominees for Sudan's Sovereign Council". Sudan Tribune. 2019-08-20. Archived from the original on 2019-08-20. Retrieved 2019-08-20.