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This article lists the heads of state of Sudan since the country's independence in 1956.

President of Republic of the Sudan
رئيس جمهورية السودان
Presidential Standard of Sudan.svg
ResidenceRepublican Palace
Khartoum, Sudan
Term length39 months[1]
Inaugural holderFive-member Sovereignty Council (collective presidency)
Formation1 January 1956
21 August 2019 (under the current constitution and in current form)
Websitewww.presidency.gov.sd/eng/

Contents

History of the officeEdit

Since independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1956, six individuals (and three multi-member sovereignty councils) have served as head of state of Sudan, currently under the title President of the Republic of the Sudan. Prior to independence, Sudan was governed as a condominium by Egypt and the United Kingdom, under the name Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. As such, executive power was vested in a dyarchy consisting of both countries' heads of state – at the time of independence, the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II) and the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council (headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser). Immediately following independence, the role of head of state was filled by a five-member Sovereignty Council, with rival nationalist factions unable to agree on a single candidate. In November 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a military coup d'état, assuming the role of head of state as Chairman of the Supreme Council. Assuming the title of president in 1964, he resigned later that year due to general discontent around the rule of the military regime. Abboud was succeeded by a senior civil servant, Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, who served as acting president for 18 days before transferring executive authority to a Committee of Sovereignty.

Ismail al-Azhari, the leader of the National Unionist Party, was made president in July 1965, and ruled with limited power until he was deposed in 1969. The military officers responsible for the coup established the National Revolutionary Command Council, chaired by Gaafar Nimeiry. Nimeiry, the leader of the newly formed Sudanese Socialist Union, assumed the position of president in 1971, and subsequently established a one-party state, which existed until 1985, when a group of military officers overthrew his government and established the 1985 Transitional Military Council, led by Field Marshal Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab. Ahmed al-Mirghani succeeded to the relatively powerless position of Chairman of the Supreme Council in 1986, after multi-party election held that year. He was deposed in a 1989 military coup led by Lieutenant-General Omar al-Bashir. Al-Bashir served as head of state, under the title of Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation from 1989 to 1993 and as president from 1993 to 2019 (and from 1996 as the leader of the National Congress Party). Al-Bashir was removed from power by the Sudanese Armed Forces on 11 April 2019, amid ongoing protests after holding the office for nearly 30 years. Lieutenant-General Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf took control of Sudan without becoming head of state, established the 2019 Transitional Military Council, but resigned the following day in favor of Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan.[2]

Heads of State of Sudan (1956–present)Edit

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Republic of the Sudan (1956–1969)Edit

No. Name Lifespan Elected Took office Left office Political party
1 Sovereignty Council
Members:
Abdel Fattah Muhammad al-Maghrabi
Muhammad Ahmad Yasin
Ahmad Muhammad Salih
Muhammad Othman al-Dardiri
Siricio Iro Wani
1 January 1956 17 November 1958
Chairman of the Supreme Council
2 Ibrahim Abboud   1900–1983 18 November 1958 31 October 1964 Military
Presidents
Ibrahim Abboud   1900–1983 31 October 1964 16 November 1964[a] Military
Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa
Acting President
  1919–2006 16 November 1964 3 December 1964 National Umma Party
3 First Committee of Sovereignty
Members:
Abdel Halim Muhammad
Tijani al-Mahi
Mubarak Shaddad
Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman
Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho
3 December 1964 10 June 1965
4 Second Committee of Sovereignty
Members:
Ismail al-Azhari
Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi
Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho
Abdel Halim Muhammad
Khidr Hamad
10 June 1965 8 July 1965
Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
5 Ismail al-Azhari   1900–1969 8 July 1965 25 May 1969[b] Democratic Unionist Party

Democratic Republic of the Sudan (1969–1985)Edit

Chairman of the National Revolutionary Command Council
6 Gaafar Nimeiry   1930–2009 25 May 1969 12 October 1971[c] Military /
Sudanese Socialist Union
President
Gaafar Nimeiry   1930–2009 1971[d]
1977
1983
12 October 1971 6 April 1985[e] Military /
Sudanese Socialist Union
Commander-in-Chief
7 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab   1934–2018 6 April 1985 9 April 1985 Military
Chairman of the Transitional Military Council
Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab   1934–2018 9 April 1985 15 December 1985 Military

Republic of the Sudan (1985–present)Edit

Chairman of the Transitional Military Council
(7) Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab   1934–2018 15 December 1985 6 May 1986 Military
Chairman of the Supreme Council
8 Ahmed al-Mirghani   1941–2008 6 May 1986 30 June 1989[f] Democratic Unionist Party
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation
9 Omar al-Bashir   1944– 30 June 1989 16 October 1993 Military /
National Congress Party
President
Omar al-Bashir   1944– 1996
2000
2010
2015
16 October 1993 11 April 2019[g] Military /
National Congress Party
Chairmen of the Transitional Military Council
10 Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf   c. 1957– 11 April 2019 12 April 2019 Military /
National Congress Party
11 Abdel Fattah al-Burhan   1960– 12 April 2019 20 August 2019 Military
Sovereignty Council
12 Sovereignty Council
Members:[3]
Abdel Fattah al-Burhan (chairman)
Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo
Yasser al-Atta
Shams al-Din Khabbashi
Salah Abdel Khaliq
Aisha Musa el-Said
Siddig Tawer
Mohamed Elfaki Suleiman
Hassan Sheikh Idris
Mohammed Hassan al-Ta'ishi[4]
Raja Nicola
21 August 2019 Incumbent FFC and TMC

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Resigned after mass protests.
  2. ^ Deposed in the 1969 coup d'état.
  3. ^ Briefly interrupted during the 19–22 July 1971 coup d'état.
  4. ^ Presidency referendum.
  5. ^ Deposed in the 1985 coup d'état.
  6. ^ Deposed in the 1989 coup d'état.
  7. ^ Deposed in the 2019 coup d'état.

See alsoEdit

Latest electionEdit

Candidate Party Votes %
Omar al-Bashir National Congress 5,252,478 94.05
Fadl el-Sayed Shuiab Federal Truth Party 79,779 1.43
Fatima Abdel Mahmoud Sudanese Socialist Democratic Union 47,653 0.85
Mohamed Elhassan Mohamed National Reform Party 42,399 0.76
Abdul Mahmoud Abdul Jabar Rahamtalla Union of the Nation's Forces 41,134 0.74
Hamdi Hassan Ahmed Independent 18,043 0.32
Mohamed Ahmed Abdul Gadir Al Arbab Independent 16,966 0.30
Yasser Yahiya Salih Abdul Gadir Independent 16,609 0.30
Khairi Bakhit Independent 11,852 0.21
Adel Dafalla Jabir Independent 9,435 0.17
Mohamed Awad Al Barow Independent 9,388 0.17
Asad Al Nil Adel Yassin Al Saafi Independent 9,359 0.17
Alam Al Huda Ahmed Osman Mohamed Ali Independent 8,133 0.15
Ahmed Al Radhi Jadalla Salem Independent 7,751 0.14
Isaam Al Ghali Tajj Eddin Ali Independent 7,587 0.14
Omar Awad Al Karim Hussein Ali Independent 6,297 0.11
Invalid/blank votes 506,549
Total 6,091,412 100
Registered voters/turnout 13,126,989 46.40
Source: NEC

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sudan: Civilian-majority ruling council sworn in". Deutsche Welle. 21 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  2. ^ El Sirgany, Sarah; Elbagir, Nima; Abdullah, Yasir (11 April 2019). "Sudan's President Bashir forced out in military coup". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Sudan opposition coalition appoints five civilian members of sovereign council". Thomson Reuters. 2019-08-18. Archived from the original on 2019-08-18. Retrieved 2019-08-18.
  4. ^ "FFC finally agree on nominees for Sudan's Sovereign Council". Sudan Tribune. 2019-08-20. Archived from the original on 2019-08-20. Retrieved 2019-08-20.

External linksEdit