The Khartoum massacre occurred on Monday, 3 June 2019, when the military armed forces of the Sudanese Transitional Military Council, headed by the Rapid Support Forces, the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia, used heavy gunfire and teargas aiming at dispersing a sit-in by protestors in Khartoum, killing more than 100 people, with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers. At least forty of the bodies had been thrown in the River Nile. Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested, many families were terrorized in their home estates across Sudan, and the RSF raped 70 women and men. The Internet was almost completely blocked in Sudan in the days following the massacre, making it difficult to estimate the number of victims.
|Part of Sudanese Revolution|
An artistic work depicting the Khartoum massacre
|Date||3 June 2019|
|Location||Khartoum in front of the Military HQ|
|Motive||Dispersing sit in camp|
|Non-fatal injuries||More than 650 injured and 70 raped|
|Suspects||Rapid Support Forces (RSF), Janjaweed militias and TMC security forces|
In October 2019, during the 39-month planned transition to democracy, an official Khartoum massacre investigation commission was created as required under Article 7.(16) of the Sudanese August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration, under the authority of transition period Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok. The commission is led by human rights lawyer Nabil Adib and with no women members, which the No to Oppression against Women Initiative objected to.
Sudanese protests started in December 2018 after which the military removed Omar al-Bashir and established a Transitional Military Council which is headed by the Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan.
On 11 April 2019, the military removed al-Bashir from power in a coup d'état and created a Transitional Military Council (TMC). Following intense protests, Awad Ibn Auf announced his resignation and said that he had chosen Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan to lead the TMC. Protesters supported by the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) and democratic opposition groups engaged in street demonstrations, calling on the ruling Transitional Military Council to "immediately and unconditionally" step aside in favor of a civilian-led transitional government, and urging other reforms in Sudan. For about two months the TMC engaged the SPA in dialogue and discussion on how to shift to a transitional government, disagreeing over whether the transitional government should be civilian-led or military-led. There were many attempts to disperse protesters and clear the sit-in in front of the Military HQ in Khartoum.
On 30 May, the SPA expressed concern that a lethal attack by the TMC was intended, stating that on 29 May, "two citizens including a pregnant lady were shot dead by the TMC forces." The SPA warned that military trucks of NISS, the RSF and other state security forces were accumulating around the area of the sit-in. On 1 June, the SPA said that it had reason to believe that the TMC was "planning and working to end the peaceful sit-in at the headquarters with excessive force and violence" after three people were killed in incidents on the fringes of the demonstration during the previous week.
On 3 June 2019 the military armed forces of the TMC headed by the Rapid Support Forces, the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia and NISS, together with other TMC forces used heavy gunfire and teargas as well as sound bombs aiming at dispersing the sit-in killing more than 100 people with difficulties in estimating the actual numbers.
Estimating the numbers of victims was difficult in the days following the massacre because of Internet blockage and the presence of security forces. The Internet in Sudan was almost completely blocked during and following the massacre, Janjaweed militias had wide presence throughout Khartoum and prevented documenting the number of victims.
As of the evening of 4 June 2019, there were reports of a large number of victims in the field of the sit-in with difficulty evacuating them. There were several reports of bodies thrown into the Nile. Hundreds of unarmed civilians were injured, hundreds of unarmed citizens were arrested and many families were terrorized in their home estates across Sudan. Seventy women and men were raped by the RSF according to doctors in Khartoum hospitals.
On 9 June, witnesses reported the smell of rotten corpses coming from drainage channels and suspected that soldiers had thrown victims there.
In total, more than 200 military vehicles were used in the attack, with more than 10,000 soldiers and other unidentified personnel in police uniforms.
The following is a timeline of what took place in the Khartoum sit-in camp:
- 4:30 am: Janjaweed militias and NISS with other TMC forces started surveying the area of the sit-in camp in preparation for the attack.
- 4:55 am: Around 100 military vehicles belonging to Janjaweed militias, armed with heavy military firearms, including anti-aircraft weapons and carrying hundreds of armed soldiers. These soldiers were carrying weapons and sticks when they surrounded the Military HQ in Khartoum. The cars prevented the unarmed civilians from entering the Military HQ. Simultaneously, another 100 white pickup trucks without number plates, full of soldiers in police uniforms, arrived. Other Janjaweed soldiers were also seen in huge numbers along Nile Street.
- 6:00 am - onward: The joint forces started the attack on the sit-in camp using live bullets, sound bombs and teargas, storming the civilians from all directions, leaving a narrow path for protesters to exit. The militia started burning the tents and shooting indiscriminately, leaving hundreds dead and injured and throwing many bodies into the Nile.
According to local resident and PhD student Mohammed Elnaiem, the first phase of the attack included discussion between RSF members and the regular army, and in the second phase, the army vehicles departed while RSF vehicles "drove through the barricades. Following the massacre, some bodies were recovered that wore uniforms belonging to the Sudanese Army. Activists concluded that there had been army soldiers who refused to attack the protestors or had attempted to protect them, whereupon they too had been murdered. Nahid Jabrallah attributed the murders to the RSF. After the main attack, the RSF shot wounded protestors in three Khartoum hospitals.
France 24 documented evidence that the rapes of 70 women and men during the massacre were a deliberate campaign to "break the girls". Nahid Jabrallah, founder of the Sima Centre for Women and Children's Studies, and other activists and journalists, stated that there were extensive testimonies of gang rapes and other sexual violence by the RSF during the 3 June attacks. Huma, an activist, said that RSF soldiers humiliated women by asking them to remove their underwear. Online social network images showing women's underwear on a pole and a room full of women's clothing were considered "unverified" as of 20 June 2019[update]. Jabrallah stated that "everyone was threatened with being raped if they resisted the RSF's orders."
International criminal lawyer Celine Bardet of We are not Weapons of War said that evidence gathering for the systematic use of sexual violence as a tool of war needed separate consideration to other evidence gathering, because of social stigma against women testifying about the events. Bardet said that, as of June 2019[update], evidence was being collected about "a fair amount of sexual violence" that might be used as evidence of an international crime, if the sexual violence were "systematic, targeted and [had] a specific objective". Activist Dalia El Roubi stated that "the symbolism behind the rape of women is very substantial, it's aimed at breaking society" and that the sexual violence of the 3 June massacre was a deliberate action by the RSF to "break" communities in a similar way to which communities were "broken" in Darfur.
Pramila Patten from the United Nations (UN) called for a UN human rights monitoring team to be sent to Sudan and for "rapes and gang rapes of protesters, women's rights defenders and women medical personnel working in hospitals near the sit-in" to stop.
Hala al-Karib, writing in Al Jazeera English, said that local activists provided systematic support for the rape victims, "[extending] their hands to the hundreds of male and female sexual violence survivors and the families of those who were killed" with "discipline and the commitment to support the survivors of violence". Al-Karib said that the activists "understood the root causes and politics behind sexual violence" and "approached sexual violence as a crime connected [to] power relations", while "not [undermining] how personal it is as a crime". Al-Karib criticised the lack of support from international "multimillion-dollar agencies and NGOs" with "fancy conference rooms to strategise in", stating that the "actors that are traditionally tasked with addressing sexual violence [remained] unable or unwilling to end Sudan's sexual violence epidemic and help its survivors achieve justice."
On 12 June 2019, the Sudanese Doctors' Syndicate published a list of 104 people that were killed on or after 3 June, including 12 children. The majority of the victims were killed by gunfire, while others were stabbed to death, burned, had their skulls crushed after being run over by Janjaweed pickup trucks. The list below includes the name of the victim (some unidentified), the date of death, age, hospital and cause of death as indicated by the Sudanese Doctors' Syndicate:
|No.||Name||Date of death||Age||Hospital||Cause of death|
|1||Abdel Salam Keisha Adel Salam||3 June||25||El Mualim Hospital||Gunshot|
|2||Mujtaba Salah Ahmed al-Hadi||3 June||No data||Sit-in Field Clinic||Gunshot|
|3||Ali Mohammed al-Noor||3 June||25||El Mualim Hospital||Gunshot|
|4||Said Mohammed Said||3 June||39||Ibrahim Malik Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|5||Mohammed Hashem Salah Matar (also: Mohamed Mattar)||3 June||26||No data||Gunshot|
|6||Salah Uddin Said al-Dawleh Abdurrahman Ali Taha||3 June||26||El Mualim Hospital||Gunshot|
|7||Al-Numan Ragab Kafi||3 June||29||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|8||Ahmed Mohammed Al-Faki||3 June||29||El Mualim Hospital||Gunshot|
|9||Faiza Ahmed Othman||3 June||60||Al Jawda Hospital||Gunshot|
|10||Murad al-Tijani Mohammed Haj al-Khader||3 June||6||Alazhari||Gunshot|
|11||Huzaifa Mohammed Abdullah||3 June||15||El Mualim Hospital||Gunshot|
|12||Burai Mutasem Saifuddin||3 June||18||Royal Care International Hospital||Gunshot|
|13||Faisal Abdel Aziz Abdullah||3 June||38||Royal Care International Hospital||Gunshot|
|14||Abbas Farah Abbas||3 June||27||Royal Care International Hospital||Gunshot|
|15||Ismail Ali Abdel Hadi||3 June||42||Royal Care International Hospital||Gunshot|
|16||Adam al-Doma||3 June||40||EL Mualim Hospital||Gunshot|
|17||Mahmoud Abdullah al-Amir||3 June||22||Al-Arbaeen Specialized Hospital||Gunshot|
|18||Daw al-Beit Ibrahim Mokhtar||3 June||28||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Gunshot|
|19||Othman Abdeen Mahmoud||3 June||28||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Gunshot|
|20||Hanafi Abdel Shakour Hanafi||3 June||22||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Skull crushed after being run over by pickup truck|
|21||Khater Hussien Khater||3 June||21||Al-Arbaeen Specialized Hospital||Gunshot|
|22||Othman Mohammed Qasem al-Said||3 June||20||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Gunshot|
|23||Munzer Yousef al-Amin||3 June||28||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Gunshot and crushed skull|
|24||Abdelwahab al-Said||3 June||54||Mohamed bin Saleh Al Rajhi Charity Hospital||Gunshot|
|25||Saad Mansour Abdeen||3 June||20||Libya Omdurman||Gunshot|
|26||Amro Ibrahim||3 June||25||Asia Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|27||Oday Bashir Noori||3 June||14||Al-Arbaeen Specialized Hospital||Gun|
|28||Walid Bakheet al-Taib||3 June||35||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Gunshot|
|29||Ibrahim Musa||3 June||51||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Body crushed after being run over by pickup truck|
|30||Othman Ibrahim Hussein||3 June||No data||Bashair Teaching Hospital||No data|
|31||Mudther Idris Mohammed Zein||3 June||26||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|32||Eid Farouq Ahmed||3 June||32||Al Tamayoz Hospital||No data|
|33||Othman Hasab-Allah Sadiq||3 June||16||Al Injaz Sudanese German Specialized Hospital||No data|
|34||Mohammed Fathi Ali Ibrahim||3 June||13||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||No data|
|35||Unidentified Person||3 June||No data||Omdurman Hospital||No data|
|36||Unidentified Person||3 June||No data||El Mualim Hospital||No data|
|37||Unidentified Person||3 June||No data||El Mualim Hospital||No data|
|38||Unidentified Person||3 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile|
|39||Unidentified Person||3 June||No data||Royal Care International Hospital||No data|
|40||Unidentified Person||3 June||No data||Royal Care International Hospital||No data|
|41||Unidentified Person||3 June||No data||Sit-in Field Clinic||No data|
|42||Ahmed Jaafar Mustafa Khogaly||3 June||No data||Sit-in Field Clinic||No post mortem was done|
|43||Awad Said Atayia||3 June||No data||Al Droshab||Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile|
|44||Mahmoud Ahmed Abdelqayoum||3 June||No data||Sit-in Field Clinic||No post mortem was done|
|45||Yaser||3 June||No data||Sharg Alneel Hospital||Gunshot|
|46||Al-Wasileh Nader||3 June||No data||Sharg Alneel Hospital||Gunshot|
|47||Rana Joun (she was pregnant)||3 June||No data||Royal Care International Hospital||Gunshot|
|48||Mustafa al-Taj Mohammed Othman||4 June||19||Rabak - block 5||Gunshot|
|49||Burai Adam Yousef||4 June||19||Rabak - block 10||Gunshot|
|50||Al-Haj Suleiman||4 June||16||Rabak||Gunshot|
|51||Moaz Abdullah||4 June||20||Rabak - block 3||Gunshot|
|52||Ayoub Mohammed Abkar||4 June||20||Rabak - block 21||Gunshot|
|53||Naji Khandouqy Eissa||4 June||8||Rabak - block 5||Gunshot|
|54||Mohanad Mohammed Fuad||4 June||14||Hilt Koko||Gunshot|
|55||Haitham Anwar||4 June||15||Royal Care International Hospital||Gunshot|
|56||Musaab Said Shagheel||4 June||23||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|57||Mohammed Abdel Mahmoud Fadel Al-Mawla Said||4 June||32||Best Care Hospital||Gunshot|
|58||Ezuddin Mohammed Bushra||4 June||41||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|59||Sadiq al-Haj Ahmed Abkar||4 June||17||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|60||Omar Mohammed Hussein Bahar||4 June||23||Al-Bagair||Stabbed to death|
|61||Al-Amin Ismail Al-Amin||4 June||27||Um bada Hospital||Gunshot|
|62||Hussam Said Al-Yazal||4 June||40||Best Care Hospital||Gunshot|
|63||Lawal William Pak||4 June||No data||No data||Gunshot|
|64||Jaddu Mohammed Barka Hamdan||5 June||22||Best Care Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|65||Mujahed Jumaa Ramadan||5 June||24||Sharg Alneel Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|66||Mohammed Al-Sir Khamees Ibrahim||5 June||22||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|67||Amer Adam Yousef Abdelkarim||5 June||17||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|68||Jumaa Ismail Ahmed Sharafuddin||5 June||35||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|69||Mohammed Idris al-Fakki Jaddu||5 June||24||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Gunshot|
|70||Baderuddin Rabei Mohammed Ali||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital||Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile|
|71||Unidentified Person||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|72||Unidentified Person||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|73||Saber al-Tijani Abdurrahman||5 June||No data||No data||Gunshot|
|74||Al-Nazeer Abdurrahman||5 June||No data||No data||Gunshot|
|75||Unidentified Person||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital||Gunshot and body ( stone was tied to his leg) was pulled from the Nile|
|76||Yaser Ali Mohammed Abdullah||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital||Gunshot and body ( stone was tied to his leg) was pulled from the Nile|
|77||Unidentified Person||5 June||No data||No data||Gunshot|
|78||Mujahed Ezuddin Mohammed Naser||5 June||No data||Al-Shifa Hospital||Gunshot|
|79||Othman Said Ahmed||5 June||No data||No data||Gunshot|
|80||Mohammed Al-Mujtaba Abdurrahman Daweina||5 June||No data||No data||Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile|
|81||Mustafa Suleiman Abdullah Raoumeh||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Gunshot|
|82||Ali Fadel Al-Ati Ali||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Gunshot|
|83||Ali Saboun Hassan||5 June||No data||Um bada Hospital||Gunshot|
|84||Sadiq Ibrahim Othman||5 June||No data||Armed Forces Hospital (Al-Silah Al-Tibi Hospital - Khartoum)||Gunshot|
|85||Unidentified Person||5 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Gunshot and body was pulled from the Nile|
|86||Mohammed Taj al-Sir Mohammed||6 June||No data||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|87||Abdel Aziz Said Amin||6 June||No data||Sharg Alneel Hospital||Stabbed to death|
|88||Ghaboush Mubarak Adam||6 June||No data||Um bada||Gunshot|
|89||Essam Mohammed Noor (Police officer)||7 June||No data||Kiled inside his house in Um bada||Stabbed to death|
|90||Amro Anas Mohammed Al-Safi (Child)||8 June||No data||Omdurman||Gunshot|
|91||Walid Abdurrahman Salem||8 June||37||Bahri||Gunshot|
|92||Ayman Ousama||9 June||17||Omdurman Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|93||Jaber-Allah Mohammed Muala||7 June||20||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Stabbed to death|
|94||Al-Maleeh Mohammed Muala||7 June||18||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Stabbed to death|
|95||Tajuddin al-Awal Darman||7 June||30||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Stabbed to death|
|96||Mohammed Suleiman Galfour||7 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Gunshot|
|97||Mohammed Abdullah Mohammed||8 June||21||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Gunshot|
|98||Ibrahim Saleh Omar||8 June||No data||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Stabbed to death|
|99||Othman Ibrahim Ishaq al-Qouni||10 June||12||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Hit by a machete|
|100||Al-Hasan||10 June||No data||Royal Care International Hospital||90% burns from the 3rd of June|
|101||Samuel Emanuel||10 June||No data||No data||No post mortem was done|
|102||Zamran Hasan Yousef||10 June||21||Omdurman Teaching Hospital Mortuary||Skull crushed|
|103||Magdy Adam Babaker||10 June||22||Bashair Teaching Hospital||Gunshot|
|104||Al-Moez Suleiman||10 June||No data||Royal Care International Hospital||Hit by the gun on the head - 3 June|
Transitional Military Council and Rapid Support ForcesEdit
The military armed forces of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), headed by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF, derived from Janjaweed militias) led by Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemedti"), the immediate successor organisation to the Janjaweed militia, are widely attributed as being responsible for the attack. The Daily Beast attributed responsibility directly to RSF under Hemedti's command, based on videos, testimonies by witnesses and interviews with civilian activists. Three separate enquiries released statements to the media in late July 2019. On 27 July, an Attorney-General enquiry requested by the TMC attributed responsibility to "at least eight high-ranking officers" and stated a death toll of 87 and no rapes. On 30 July, enquiries by the Darfur Bar Association and the National Umma Party attributed responsibility directly to the TMC, confirmed the occurrences of rapes as part of the event, and stated a total death toll of 124 (from 3 to 20 June).
- Attorney-General enquiry
On 27 July, Fathelrahman Saeed, the head of a committee appointed by the Attorney-General at the request of the TMC to investigate the massacre, stated that 87 people had been killed, 168 injured, no rapes had occurred and no tents had been burnt. Saeed stated that legal cases for crimes against humanity had been launched against eight unnamed high-ranking security officers. The Sudan Forensic Doctors Union described the result of the enquiry as "poor and defective", and the FFC, the Sudanese Women's Union, the Sudanese Professionals Association and the Democratic Lawyers' Alliance rejected the report. Street protests took place in Khartoum in response to the report.
- Darfur Bar Association enquiry
The Darfur Bar Association (DBA) created a Truth and Fact-finding Committee to investigate the massacre, primarily the incidents of rape. On 30 July, the DBA committee stated that eight rape victims were receiving psychological therapy; one in Omdurman had committed suicide as a result of the rape; one rape victim had been forced by social stigma to search for another home for her and her family. The DBA claimed that it had "ample evidence" of responsibility of TMC for the massacre and that the "decision to disband the sit-in" took place at a meeting including all TMC members, the Attorney-General, police chiefs and security directors. The DBA committee argued that the Attorney-General enquiry was neither professional, independent nor impartial.
- National Umma Party enquiry
The National Umma Party formed an enquiry committee led by Yousef El Amin. On 30 July, El Amin stated that the sit-in was disbanded by "a large military force wearing RSF uniforms and riot police" and that the massacre had been "premeditated and planned". He stated that 47 victims of the massacre died on 3 June, with a total of 124 dying from 3 to 20 June. He confirmed rapes, throwing of bodies into the Nile, and burning of tents.
İyad el-Baghdadi, a human rights activist who became famous during the Arab Spring, argued that the governments of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt supported the carrying out of the massacre. Some of the military vehicles and equipment used in the massacre were manufactured in the UAE. The late May visits by TMC leader al-Burhan to the Egyptian president el-Sisi and to the de facto ruler of the UAE, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and of the TMC deputy leader Dagalo to Mohammad bin Salman, the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia, were interpreted by el-Baghdadi as encouragements for the TMC to cancel negotiations with the opposition and to carry out a massacre. El-Baghdadi situates this in the general context of Saudi, UAE and Egyptian leaders being afraid of democratic movements. Mahmoud Elmutasim, a political activist and doctor who graduated from the University of Khartoum, stated that Saudi Arabia and the UAE are opposed to the existence of democracies in the Middle East, since if "the idea of democracy itself [should] ever take root, or become widespread in the Middle East," then it would constitute a threat to the governmental systems of Saudi Arabia and the UAE.
The New Arab and Middle East Eye similarly argued that "The blooded assault was launched shortly after top Sudanese generals visited Riyadh, Abu Dhabi and Egypt to secure support for their takeover, with observers arguing the transitional military council received a green light from the three powerful Arab states for their move".
After news of the massacre, Egypt called for restraint and the UAE called for dialogue and an investigation into the massacre. Emirati Minister of Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash stated "We are concerned about the massacre we've seen. We support calls for proper investigation". Gargash also called for dialogue which he hoped would prevail in Sudan, stating "The regional experience has taught us that the orderly and conservative transition of the state and its institutions is the only way to avoid years of chaos and loss".
Transition period official investigationEdit
The Political Agreement between the TMC and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) alliance for a Sudanese transition to democracy, which was initially agreed on verbally on 5 July 2019 and signed on 17 July, includes a plan for an independent Sudanese investigation into the 3 June Khartoum massacre "and related incidents of human rights violations committed against civilians or militaries".
According to an anonymous military official present at negotiations for the initial verbal deal, quoted by The Christian Science Monitor, US negotiators led by Donald E. Booth proposed that TMC members be guaranteed immunity from prosecution in the investigation. The military official stated, "The Americans demanded a deal as soon as possible. Their message was clear: power-sharing in return for guarantees that nobody from the council will be tried." In late July, the FFC requested that the constitutional declaration, a document intended to add details complementary to the political agreement, should give no immunity against prosecution to any civilian or military leaders of the transition institutions.
The Draft Constitutional Declaration signed in August 2019 confirmed the creation of an independent investigation, and gave "procedural" immunity to all senior members of the transition institutions, which can be removed by a simple majority vote of the Transitional Legislative Council. On 21 September 2019, the transition period prime minister, Abdalla Hamdok, issued a decision to initiate the official Khartoum massacre investigation with a 7-member committee of lawyers, independent from all other state bodies, to be assigned to carry out the investigation. The members of the men-only commission, headed by human rights lawyer Nabil Adib, were nominated on 20 October. The No to Oppression against Women Initiative objected to the absence of women members on the commission.
On Monday 4 June, TMC canceled all agreements reached during talks with the main opposition alliance on setting up a transitional administration. The sides had agreed on forming a parliament and a government that would prepare for elections after three years. The leaders of the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces (DFCF) opposition alliance, said an open-ended civil disobedience campaign would continue to try to force the council from power. The leaders also added that there is no room for negotiations," as military leaders attempted to do damage control in the face of international criticism of Monday's indiscriminate killings.
On Tuesday, Khartoum was tense with many roads barricaded by protesters, shops shut and streets mostly empty. Rapid Support Forces (RSF) vehicles were patrolling the streets in Omdurman, on the other side of the River Nile from Khartoum and firing into the air.
On Tuesday the United Nation Security Council met on at the request of Britain and Germany to hear a briefing from UN envoy Nicholas Haysom, who has been working with the African Union (AU) on a solution to the crisis in Sudan. But China, backed by Russia, blocked a bid to condemn the killing of civilians and issue an urgent call from world powers for an immediate halt to the violence.
On Wednesday 5 June, the DFCF called on all countries and international organizations to stop dealing with Sudan's Transitional Military Council. They also called on the international community to start looking into "the ongoing violations and crimes committed by (TMC) in all cities and towns and to stop it immediately." As reported by the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors (CCSD), an organization of medical volunteers, dozens of bodies were pulled from the Nile Wednesday and doctors said they had been weighed down with rocks in an attempt to hide the true death toll.
On Thursday 6 June, the African Union Peace and Security Department issued a statement suspending the participation of Sudan in all AU activities with immediate effect - "until the effective establishment of a civilian-led transitional authority," which it described as the only way to "exit from the current crisis".
On Sunday 9 June 2019, normally a regular working day in Sudan, protesters launched a civil disobedience campaign aiming at removing the TMC. Four people were shot dead by the TMC forces in Khartoum. As roads were blocked, almost all formal and informal businesses were closed, including, banks, public transport and Khartoum International Airport, where several airlines cancelled their Sudan flights following the massacre and passengers were left waiting outside airport's departures terminal. The general strike was followed by about 60–100% of workers, varying between sectors, for a total of 3 days and was followed on 12 June by an agreement between the TMC and the opposition to free political prisoners, stop the strike, and resume negotiations.
An online social media trend with the hashtag #BlueForSudan started several days after the massacre, representing solidarity for the protest movement, with blue signifying the favourite colour of Mohamed Mattar, one of the victims of the massacre.
The United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres, condemned the use of excessive force by Sudan's security agents and said he was "alarmed" by reports that forces had opened fire inside a hospital.
Norway, United Kingdom, United States – On 4 June, the Troika issued a statement on developments in Sudan. "The Troika condemns the violent attacks in Sudan on 3rd June, which resulted in the killing and injuring of many peaceful civilian protesters. By ordering these attacks, the Transitional Military Council has put the transition process and peace in Sudan in jeopardy. We call for an agreed transfer of power to a civilian-led government as demanded by the people of Sudan. We welcome the statement of the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) and support the important role of the AU in solving the crisis in Sudan, including its demand for an immediate handover to a civilian-led government". "The Troika also expresses its serious concern over the TMC’s announcement that it will cease negotiations with the Forces for Freedom and Change, retract all previous agreements with them on formation of an interim government, and will hold elections within nine months. The people of Sudan deserve an orderly transition, led by civilians, that can establish the conditions for free and fair elections, rather than have rushed elections imposed by the TMC’s security forces".
African Union – On 3 June, issued the following statement "The Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki strongly condemns the violence that erupted today which led to reported deaths and several civilian injuries. In this regard, he calls for an immediate and transparent investigation in order to hold those all responsible accountable. The Chairperson calls on the Transitional Military Council to protect the civilians from further harm". "the Chairperson calls on all international partners to reinforce common efforts towards the immediate cessation of the violence and rapid resumption of negotiations for a political settlement.
France – On 3 June, the French Government through the Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs Spokesperson has expressed and reiterates its utter condemnation of the violence committed in the brutal crackdown on peaceful demonstrations, which has resulted in very numerous casualties over the past few days. It demands that the perpetrators of this violence be brought to justice and that an independent investigation be undertaken by the Sudanese authorities.
The Mo Ibrahim Foundation stated on 7 June,
The Mo Ibrahim Foundation is deeply concerned by the situation in Sudan, which has recently taken a turn for the worse, with a brutal armed crackdown on peaceful protestors, claiming the lives of an alarming number of civilians in recent days, and crushing hopes for a democratic transition. The TMC, which toppled Omar al-Bashir in April, claimed they were taking over to protect the protesters. Now they have unleashed the unruly Rapid Support Forces (Janjaweed 2.0) on the Sudanese people. The African Union is right to suspend Sudan’s membership, pending the transfer to civilian rule. The international community has been largely slow and hesitant on support to the democratic aspirations of the Sudanese people. Unfortunately, some regional powers, led by Saudi Arabia, appear to side with the military, with disastrous results. China is damaging its standing and its reputation in Africa by blocking the UN Security Council resolution condemning TMC’s violence. We have not seen a single tweet from the White House in support of the people of Sudan and of democracy. The Foundation hopes that the global community will unite to use all possible means to encourage all parties to re-establish political negotiations, leading as soon as possible to a civilian-led government, in order to organise free and fair elections in an open political space. Democratic civilian rule is the only way to ensure sustainable good governance for all the people of Sudan, and stability in this volatile region.
Many Sudanese artists designed and created pieces of art that show the scale of the massacre. Khalid Kodi from Boston College, United States, made a painting that depicts a Sudanese woman in front of the military headquarters, with the woman symbolising the women who were raped by the RSF during the massacre.
- Salih in Khartoum, Zeinab Mohammed; Burke, Jason (2019-06-11). "Sudanese doctors say dozens of people raped during sit-in attack". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2019-06-11. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
- "Complete civil disobedience, and open political strike, to avoid chaos". Sudanese Professionals Association. 2019-06-04. Archived from the original on 2019-06-08. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Albaih, Khalid (2019-06-07). "No, it's not over for the Sudanese revolution". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 2019-06-07. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
- "Sudan leader vows to 'uproot regime'". 13 April 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- CNN, Kareem Khadder and Julia Hollingsworth. "Sudan death roll rises to 100 as bodies found in Nile, say doctors". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- Oliphant, Roland (3 June 2019). "Sudan protests: Thirty dead and more than 100 injured as troops disperse demonstrators". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Security forces in Sudan carry out raids across capital, killing at least 30". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Sudan security forces shoot protesters at sit-in outside army headquarters". The Defense Post. 3 June 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Death toll in Sudan crackdown rises to 100 after 40 bodies recovered from Nile | IOL News". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Protesters shot as Sudan military tries to clear Khartoum sit-in". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Turn the Internet Back On in Sudan, and Keep It On". Internet Society. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- CNN, Julia Hollingsworth, Gianluca Mezzofiore and Sarah El Sirgany. "At least 35 killed as Sudan military storms sit-in". CNN. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- FFC; TMC; IDEA; Reeves, Eric (2019-08-10). "Sudan: Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period". sudanreeves.org. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
- FFC; TMC (2019-08-04). "(الدستوري Declaration (العربية))" [(Constitutional Declaration)] (PDF). raisethevoices.org (in Arabic). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
- Abdelaziz, Khalid (2019-10-21). "Tens of thousands rally against former ruling party in Sudan". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 2019-10-21. Retrieved 2019-10-21.
- "Sudan Activist: 'Committee of Inquiry should include women'". Radio Dabanga. 2019-10-23. Archived from the original on 2019-10-23. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
- "What prompted the protests in Sudan?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko de (24 December 2018). "Sudanese Protests, After Days of Violence, Turn Anger Over Bread Toward Bashir". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Sudan admits to 46 protest deaths". 6 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- Burke, Jason; correspondent, Africa; Salih, and Zeinab Mohammed (3 June 2019). "At least 30 Sudanese protesters feared killed as security forces attack Khartoum sit-in". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- Reuters (19 April 2019). "Sudan: huge crowds call for civilian rule in biggest protest since Bashir ousting". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "'The politicking is starting': Sudanese protesters struggle to loosen military's grip". Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- Sanchez, Raf (15 April 2019). "Sudanese military forced to abandon attempt to clear protesters". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- correspondent, Jason Burke Africa (11 April 2019). "Sudan protesters reject army takeover after removal of president". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- correspondent, Jason Burke Africa (8 April 2019). "Sudan protests continue as security forces appear split". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Open Call for Urgent Action: Risk of Escalating Violence in the Sit-in area in Khartoum". www.sudaneseprofessionals.org. تجمع المهنيين السودانيين. 2019-05-30. Archived from the original on 2019-06-08. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- "Five dead as Sudan military rulers try to disperse sit-in". The East African. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Sudan leader vows to 'uproot regime'". 13 April 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- "Sudan military calls snap election after crackdown". 4 June 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- "Khartoum residents in 'state of terror' after bloody crackdown". Capital News. 2019-06-07. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- correspondent, Jason Burke Africa; Salih, and Zeinab Mohammed (5 June 2019). "Sudan paramilitaries threw dead protesters into Nile, doctors say". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- Press, The Associated. "The Latest: Sudan official disputes protesters' death toll". kansas. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "تجمع المهنيين السودانيين – Sudanese Professionals Association". www.sudaneseprofessionals.org. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- Akram-Boshar, Shireen; Bean, Brian (2019-06-13). "Massacre and Uprising in Sudan". Jacobin. Archived from the original on 2019-06-16. Retrieved 2019-06-15.
- Ismail, Nermin (9 June 2019). "Militiamen in Sudan raped men and women, says eyewitness". DW. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
They say that some of the bodies were of men wearing Sudanese army uniforms," the human rights activist reports. Her analysis: "This means the militiamen also attacked some members of the army who showed solidarity with the demonstrators — either because they'd refused to participate in this crime, or because they were trying to protect women and girls from being raped. And so these men were murdered, too.
- "Sudanese activists seek justice for mass rapes after militia 'breaks the girls'". France 24. 2019-06-20. Archived from the original on 2019-06-22. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
- "UN seeks to verify reports of gang-rape by Sudan militias". France 24/AFP. 2019-06-13. Archived from the original on 2019-06-22. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
- al-Karib, Hala (2019-09-05). "Sudan's youth showed us how to counter sexual violence". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 2019-09-05. Retrieved 2019-09-05.
- "Sudan: The names of 100 people killed in a week of deadly violence". Middle East Eye. 2019-07-30. Archived from the original on 2019-07-30. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
- "US names new envoy to Sudan as political crisis continues". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 2019-06-13.
- Bendimerad, Rym; Faisal, Natalia (2019-06-13). "#BlueforSudan: Why is social media turning blue for Sudan?". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 2019-06-16. Retrieved 2019-06-16.
- Hendawi, Hamza (2019-04-29). "Out of the Darfur desert: the rise of Sudanese general Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo". The National (Abu Dhabi). Archived from the original on 2019-06-07. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
- Lynch, Justin (2019-06-05). "Remember The Darfur Genocide? With Saudi Help, One of the Killer Commanders There Is Taking Over Sudan". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 2019-06-08. Retrieved 2019-06-08.
- "Angry response to June 3 massacre report in Sudan capital". Radio Dabanga. 2019-07-29. Archived from the original on 2019-07-29. Retrieved 2019-07-29.
- "Darfur Bar Ass report on June 3 Khartoum rape cases damns Sudan junta". Radio Dabanga. 2019-07-31. Archived from the original on 2019-07-31. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
- "NUP: June 3 Khartoum massacre premeditated and planned". Radio Dabanga. 2019-07-31. Archived from the original on 2019-07-31. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
- el-Baghdadi, Iyad (2019-06-11). "The Princes Who Want to Destroy Any Hope for Arab Democracy". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
- "Chaos reigns in Sudan as military clings to power amid information blackout". TRT World. 2019-06-11. Archived from the original on 2019-06-11. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
- Arab, The New. "Sudan military backers UAE, Saudi Arabia call for 'dialogue' after Eid massacre". alaraby. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
- "Sudan crackdown: Saudis 'gave green light' for assault on protesters". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
- "WARIGI: Hidden hand in Sudan junta's about-turn on power sharing". Daily Nation. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
- "Sudanese forces storm protest camp, more than 35 people killed: medics". Reuters. 3 June 2019.
- "UAE senior official supports investigation of 'massacre' in Sudan". Middle East Monitor. 7 June 2019.
- "'Our revolution won': Sudan's opposition lauds deal with military". Al Jazeera English. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
- "Sudan's military council to be dissolved in transition deal". WTOP-FM. AP. 2019-07-08. Archived from the original on 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
- "Int'l community applauds Sudan political agreement". Radio Dabanga. 2019-07-18. Archived from the original on 2019-07-18. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
- Idris, Insaf (2019-07-17). "Political Agreement on establishing the structures and institutions of the transitional period between the Transitional Military Council and the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces" (PDF). Radio Dabanga. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-07-18. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
- Magdy, Samy (2019-07-08). "Sudan: International pressure enabled power-sharing pact". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2019-07-08.
- "Sudan's pro-democracy movement concludes Constitutional Declaration draft". Radio Dabanga. 2019-07-28. Archived from the original on 2019-07-29. Retrieved 2019-07-29.
- "Hamdok forms investigation committee into attacks on pro-democracy protests". Radio Dabanga. 2019-09-22. Archived from the original on 2019-09-22. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
- "Sudan opposition rejects military's transition plan after day of violence". Citizentv.co.ke. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- CNN, Mohammed Tawfeeq, Kareem Khadder and Jonny Hallam. "Sudan opposition rejects calls for talks as crisis worsens following deadly crackdown". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Urgent Call: Killing and burning at the sit-in". Sudanese Professionals Association. 2019-06-03. Archived from the original on 2019-06-08. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
- CNN, Julia Hollingsworth. "Death toll rises to 60 following Sudan crackdown". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Toll in Sudan army attack jumps as China, Russia block UN action". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Sudan violence: 40 bodies pulled from Nile". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Over 35 people killed in Sudan's protest site: CCSD - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". sudantribune.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "African Union suspends Sudan over military crackdown". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "African Union suspends Sudan, demands civilian administration". Reuters. 6 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- "Deadly start to first day of 'civil disobedience' campaign in Sudan". France 24. 2019-06-09. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- "Sudan protesters begin civil disobedience campaign against military rulers". The Telegraph/AFP. 2019-06-09. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- "Security forces tear-gas Sudan protesters". 2019-06-09. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- France-Presse, Agence (2019-06-09). "Sudan protesters begin civil disobedience campaign against military rulers". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- Reuters. "Civil disobedience campaign empties streets of Sudan's capital". The Standard. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Sudan protest leaders call for civil disobedience against military rulers | DW | 09.06.2019". DW.COM. Retrieved 2019-06-09.
- "Field Report – Evaluation on the General Strike and Civil Disobedience in the Professional, Vocational, Service and Local Sectors". Sudanese Professionals Association. 2019-06-12. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
- "Sudan army, protesters to resume talks on transitional council". Al Jazeera English. 2019-06-12. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
- "Sudan: Troika statement, June 2019". GOV.UK. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
- "Joint Statement on Developments in Sudan". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
- "US, Britain denounce Sudan military rulers' election plan". The East African. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
- "Statement of the Chairperson on the situation in Sudan | African Union". au.int. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
- "Germany: Sudan must end violent crackdown on protesters". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
- "Sudan: France condemns violence and urges talks to continue". France in the United Kingdom - La France au Royaume-Uni. Retrieved 2019-06-07.
- "Statement on the massacre in Khartoum". Mo Ibrahim Foundation. 2019-06-07. Retrieved 2019-06-10.