James L. Powell
James Lawrence Powell (born July 17, 1936 in Berea, Kentucky) is a geologist, author, former college president and museum director. He chaired the geology department at Oberlin College later serving as its provost and president. Powell also served as president of Franklin & Marshall College as well as Reed College. Following his positions in higher education, Powell presided over the Franklin Institute and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles.
James Lawrence Powell
|Alma mater||Berea College, Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Institutions||Oberlin College, Reed College|
|Thesis||The strontium isotopic composition and origin of carbonatites (1962)|
Powell served 12 years on the National Science Board and is currently the executive director of Graduate Fellowships for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Diversity.
His book, Night Comes to the Cretaceous, explores the scientific debate regarding dinosaur extinction. In Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences, Powell addresses dinosaur extinction in addition to three other scientific debates: deep time, continental drift and global warming.
Powell earned a BA degree in 1958 from Berea College, a private liberal arts college located in Powell's home town of Berea, Kentucky. Powell then received a PhD in Geochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1962.
Powell began his career at Oberlin College in 1962 where he held the position of chair of the geology department from 1965 to 1973. He became the associate dean of arts and science in 1973, then vice president and provost in 1975. After serving two years as a visiting administrator at Stanford University, Powell returned to Oberlin to serve as its acting president from 1981 to 1983.
Following a 20-year career at Oberlin, Powell served as president of Franklin and Marshall College from 1983 to 1988, then president of Reed College from 1988 to 1991. Powell left academia to preside over the Franklin Institute (1991-1994) followed by the National History Museum of Los Angeles (1994-2001). Since 2001, Powell has been serving as the executive director of the National Physical Science Consortium.
Debate on climate change consensusEdit
Powell has researched the scientific consensus view of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) in a series of studies evaluating the peer-reviewed literature. In 2012, Powell reviewed 13,950 peer-reviewed publications between 1991 and 2012 with "global warming” or “global climate change" as keywords. Evaluating this dataset, Powell showed a 99.97% scientific consensus view supporting AGW. In 2016, Powell duplicated this method on articles published during 2013 and 2014. In this set, Powell found a 99.99% consensus "verging on unanimity" by the scientific community.
While agreeing that the consensus on AGW is high, other scientists have argued that the consensus is closer to 97%.  The debate centers around the selection of scientific papers identified as supporting AGW and therefore included in the study. For example, in their 2013 study, Cook et al. excluded 66.4% of the papers examined because the abstracts did not endorse AGW either explicitly or implicitly. Powell reviewed the abstracts of hundreds of articles on plate tectonics, evolution, and impact cratering to show that scientists almost never directly affirm the ruling paradigm of their discipline. On that basis, Powell included papers in the study as long as the abstracts did not explicitly reject AGW.
Powell has further argued that the extent of the scientific consensus is important. In The Consensus on Anthropogenic Warming Matters Powell argues that the "stronger the public believe the consensus to be, the more they support the action on global warming that human society so desperately needs." This metastudy included 54,195 publications from five earlier studies by Powell and others demonstrating that the scientific consensus on AGW is 99.94%.
In November 2019, Powell published "Scientists Reach 100% Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming." He reviewed over 11,600 peer-reviewed articles published in the first seven months of 2019 but found none that rejected anthropogenic global warming.
Views and scientific activismEdit
Powell has encouraged scientists to do more than publish in scientific journals. "I think it’s time for scientists to get up from the lab bench and speak out." Concerning the consequences of global warming, Powell said: "I want my grandchildren to be able to say... he did something. He tried to do something."
There is no scientific debate regarding the existence of AGW according to Powell. Through his research and other publications Powell has criticized politicians and others who defy the scientific consensus by denying AGW. 
In a 2014 editorial, Powell urged the university presidents of Brown University and Harvard University to change course by divesting their institutions from fossil fuels. A New York Times editorial co-authored by Powell and Michael E. Mann recommended that the American Museum of Natural History remove Rebekah Mercer from their board as her family foundation supported climate change denialism.
Powell is the recipient of several honorary degrees. Oberlin College awarded Powell an honorary doctorate of science in 1983. The Tohoku Gakuin University of Japan honored Powell with a Doctor of Humane Letters in 1986. Beaver College and Berea College (his alma mater) have also honored Powell with honorary degrees.
- Night Comes to the Cretaceous: Dinosaur Extinction and the Transformation of Modern Geology, W.H. Freeman, 1998, ISBN 0716731177
- Grand Canyon: Solving Earth's Grandest Puzzle, Penguin Group (USA) Incorporated, 2006, ISBN 0452287871
- Dead Pool: Lake Powell, Global Warming, and the Future of Water in the West, Berkeley University of California Press, 2010,
- 2084: An Oral History of the Great Warming, J.L. Powell, 2011
- The Inquisition of Climate Science, Columbia University Press, 2011, ISBN 0231527845
- Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth, Columbia University Press, 2014, ISBN 0231538456
- The Universe as it Really Is: Earth, Space, Matter, and Time, Thomas R. Scott with James L. Powell, Columbia University Press, 2018. ISBN 9780231184946
- Deadly Voyager: The Ancient Comet Strike that Changed Earth and Human History. Amazon Kindle Book, 2020. ISBN 9780578666778
- Nemeh, Katherine (2014). American Men & Women of Science: A Biographical Directory of Today's Leaders in Physical, Biological and Related Sciences (32nd ed., vol. 5 ed.). Gale Virtual Reference Library. p. 1498. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "History of Oberlin Presidents". Oberlin College. 2018-04-30. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- "Presidents of Franklin and Marshall College and its Predecessor Institutions, 1787-present". Franklin & Marshall College Library. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Presidents of Reed". Reed College. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Anderson, Susan Heller (30 March 1991). "Chronicle". New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Hernandez, Sandra (April 24, 1994). "Natural History Museum Names New Head". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "James Powell Bio". James Powell. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Former Board Members". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Ten Distinguished Scientists and Scholars Named Fellows of Committee for Skeptical Inquiry". Skeptical Inquirer. 39 (6). November 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Plait, Phil (11 December 2012). "Why Climate Change Denial Is Just Hot Air". Slate. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Sheppard, Kate (1 December 2012). "CHART: Only 0.17 Percent of Peer-Reviewed Papers Question Global Warming". Mother Jones. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Powell, James Lawrence (2015). "Climate Scientists Virtually Unanimous: Anthropogenic Global Warming Is True". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 35 (5–6): 121–124. doi:10.1177/0270467616634958.
- Cook, John; Nuccitelli, Dana; Green, Sarah; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Way, Robert; Jacobs, Peter; Skuce, Andrew (15 May 2013). "Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature" (PDF). Environmental Research Letters. 8 (2): 024024. Bibcode:2013ERL.....8b4024C. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024024.
- Anderegg, William; Prall, James; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen (6 July 2010). "Expert credibility in climate change". PNAS. 107 (27): 12107–12109. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10712107A. doi:10.1073/pnas.1003187107. PMC 2901439. PMID 20566872.
- Skuce, Andrew; Cook, John; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Rice, Ken; Green, Sarah; Jacobs, Peter; Nuccitelli, Dana (2 May 2017). "Does It Matter if the Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming Is 97% or 99.99%?". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 36 (3): 150–156. doi:10.1177/0270467617702781. S2CID 151358865.
- Powell, James Lawrence (2017-05-24). "The Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming Matters". Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. 36 (3): 157–163. doi:10.1177/0270467617707079. S2CID 148618842.
- Powell, J. (2019). Scientists Reach 100% Consensus on Anthropogenic Global Warming. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/0270467619886266
- Powell, James Lawrence (2012-04-20). "James Lawrence Powell: What did Grandpa Do on Earth Day, 2012?". Big Think. Big Think. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Abrams, Lindsay (24 March 2014). "10,883 out of 10,885 scientific articles agree: Global warming is happening, and humans are to blame". Salon. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- Powell, James Lawrence (29 January 2014). "Harvard and Brown Fail on Climate". The Nation. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Powell, James; Mann, Michael E. (February 5, 2018). "Rebekah Mercer Puts a Museum's Credibility at Risk". New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Bradley, James. "Honorary Degrees". Berea College Hutchins Library. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "(9739) Powell = 1987 SH7 = 1994 AS1". Minor Planet Center. IAU. Retrieved 5 February 2019.