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Bensonhurst, Brooklyn

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Bensonhurst is a large, multiethnic neighborhood in the southwestern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, in the United States. It is bounded by 14th Avenue to the northwest, 60th Street and McDonald Avenue to the northeast, 86th Street to the southwest, and 25th Avenue and Avenue P to the southeast. Bensonhurst's adjacent neighborhoods include Dyker Heights to the northwest, Borough Park and Mapleton to the northeast, Bath Beach to the southwest, and Gravesend to the southeast.

Bensonhurst
Bay Parkway in Bensonhurst
Bay Parkway in Bensonhurst
Etymology: Egbert Benson
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°36′11″N 74°00′07″W / 40.603°N 74.002°W / 40.603; -74.002Coordinates: 40°36′11″N 74°00′07″W / 40.603°N 74.002°W / 40.603; -74.002
Country United States
State New York
CityNew York City
BoroughBrooklyn
Community DistrictBrooklyn 11[1]
Area
 • Total7.6 km2 (2.95 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)[2]
 • Total151,705
 • Density20,000/km2 (51,000/sq mi)
Ethnicity
 • White48.7%
 • Asian35.7
 • Hispanic13.4
 • Black0.7
 • Other1.5
Economics
 • Median income$51,667
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
11204, 11214
Area code718, 347, 929, and 917
Websitewww.bensonhurst.nyc

Bensonhurst is known as a Little Italy of Brooklyn due to its large Italian-American population.[5] Bensonhurst also has the largest population of residents born in China of any neighborhood in New York City and is now home to Brooklyn's second Chinatown.[6] The neighborhood accounts for 9.5% of the 330,000 Chinese-born residents of the city, based on data from 2007 to 2011.[7]

Bensonhurst is part of Brooklyn Community District 11 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11204 and 11214.[1] It is patrolled by the 62nd Precinct of the New York City Police Department.[8] Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 43rd, 44th, and 47th Districts.[9]

Contents

Etymology and history Edit

 
Stillwell Avenue at Bay Parkway and Bay Ridge Parkway

Bensonhurst derives its name from Egbert Benson (1789–1866), whose lands were sold by his children and grandchildren to James D. Lynch, a New York real estate developer. Lynch bought the old farmlands of the Benson family in the mid-1880s, and by 1888, began selling private lots in an area dubbed as Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea, now Bath Beach.[10] The first sale of lands in "The New Seaside Resort" area was advertised in the July 24, 1888 issue of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.[11]

Through the mid-20th century, Bensonhurst developed as an Italian and Jewish enclave. However, even despite a wave of commercial development in the 1980s, some land remained undeveloped by then.[12] By the early 2000s, condominiums were being built in Bensonhurst, and it had turned into a diverse community of Chinese, Italian, Mexican, Middle-Eastern, and Russian residents.[13]

DemographicsEdit

Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the combined population of Bensonhurst West and Bensonhurst East was 151,705, an increase of 8,499 (5.9%) from the 143,206 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,890.81 acres (765.18 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 75.7 inhabitants per acre (48,400/sq mi; 18,700/km2).[2]

The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 48.7% (73,933) White, 0.7% (1,081) African American, 0.1% (121) Native American, 35.7% (54,099) Asian, 0% (38) Pacific Islander, 0.2% (319) from other races, and 1.2% (1,831) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 13.4% (20,283) of the population.[3]

The entirety of Community Board 11 had 204,829 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 83.8 years.[14]:2, 20 This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[15]:53 (PDF p. 84)[16] Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 20% are between the ages of 0–17, 31% between 25–44, and 26% between 45–64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 8% and 15% respectively.[14]:2

As of 2016, the median household income in Community District 12 was $53,493.[17] In 2018, an estimated 23% of Bensonhurst residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. Less than one in ten residents (8%) were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 52% in Bensonhurst, about the same as the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Bensonhurst is considered to be low-income and not gentrifying relative to the rest of the city.[14]:7

Ethnic enclavesEdit

In the early 20th century, many Italians and Jewish migrants moved into the neighborhood, and prior to World War II, the neighborhood was about equally Jewish and Italian.[18] In the 1950s, under pressure of an influx of immigrants from southern Italy and with new housing being built in the suburbs, the Jewish population began to decline, and eventually, after several decades, most of the Jewish population left the neighborhood, leaving the area predominantly Italian.

With a large Italian-American population, Bensonhurst is usually considered the main "Little Italy" of Brooklyn.[19] The Italian-speaking community was over 20,000 strong, according to the census of 2000. The Italian-speaking community, though, is becoming "increasingly elderly and isolated, with the small, tight-knit enclave in the city slowly disappearing as they give way to demographic changes." [20] Its main thoroughfare, 18th Avenue (also known as Cristoforo Colombo Boulevard) between roughly 60th Street and Shore Parkway, is lined with predominantly small, Italian family-owned businesses—many of which have remained in the same family for several generations. 86th Street is another popular local thoroughfare, located under the elevated BMT West End Line.[12]

Around 1989, an influx of immigrants from China and the former USSR began to arrive, mainly from Southern China, Russia, Ukraine, and Armenia. In the 1990s, Bensonhurst rapidly grew in cultural diversity. Bensonhurst is home to many ethnic Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, Albanian, Bosnian, Greek, Turkish, Georgian, Uzbek, Arab, Palestinian, Egyptian, Lebanese, Pakistani, Mexican, Guatemalan, Salvadorian, Ecuadorian, and Puerto Rican Americans.[13] In 2000, the New York City Department of City Planning determined that just over half of the residents were born in another country.[18] By 2013, then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced that the city's foreign-born population had reached a record high, and that Bensonhurst had the city's second-highest number of foreign-born people with 77,700 foreign born immigrants in the neighborhood, just after Washington Heights.[21]

Little ItalyEdit

 
18th Avenue and Bay Ridge Parkway

Bensonhurst has long been well-known as a Little Italy of Brooklyn, containing a large Italian-American and Italian-immigrant population. The annual Festa di Santa Rosalia (commonly known as "the Feast" to locals), is held on 18th Avenue from Bay Ridge Parkway (75th Street) to 66th Street in late August or early September. "The Feast" is presented by Bensonhurst resident and marketer Franco Corrado, as well as by the Santa Rosalia Society, on 18th Avenue. Born in Rome in 1955, Corrado has been an active social member of the Italian-American community for the past 20 years. St. Rosalia is the patron saint of the city of Palermo and is sometimes venerated as the patron for the entire island of Sicily. The annual end-of-summer celebration attracts thousands. Bensonhurt also hosts a Columbus Day parade.

Like Lower Manhattan's Little Italy, Bensonhurst's Little Italy is declining with its Italian-American population, with Bensonhurst's Chinatown and Chinese population rapidly expanding.[22]

 
Brooklyn, Bensonhurst

Little Hong Kong/Little GuangdongEdit

 
Chinatown Bensonhurst (Bay Parkway and 67th Street)
 
The D train of the New York City Subway system connects Brooklyn's Bensonhurst Chinatown (唐人街, 本森社区) to Manhattan's Chinatown (紐約華埠).

Below the West End Line, served by the D train along 86th Street between 18th Avenue and the intersection with Stillwell Avenue,[23] is a small emerging Brooklyn Chinatown (布鲁克林華埠).[24] It remains intermixed with Italian, Jewish, and Russian residents,[25] but in the 2010s, most of the new businesses between 18th Avenue and 25th Avenue, have been Chinese. 86th Street is home to a growing number of Chinese restaurants, including the 86 Wong Chinese Restaurant (one of the earliest Chinese businesses established in Bensonhurst), as well as Chinese grocery stores, salons, bakeries, and other types of businesses.[26] The subway directly connects to Manhattan's Chinatown (紐約華埠), and indirectly to the Chinatown in Sunset Park, which is served by the N and ​W trains at the 8th Avenue station.

With the large migration of the Cantonese and some Fuzhouese people in Brooklyn now to Bensonhurst, as well as new Chinese immigration, other clusters of Chinese businesses and residences have also started to emerge in other parts of Bensonhurst such as 18th Avenue and Bay Parkway, creating other newer small emerging Chinatowns in Bensonhurst in addition to the one on 86th Street under the D train. These are connected to the Sunset Park Chinatown by the N and ​W trains.[27][28][29][30][31][32]

According to a 2015 article in The New York Times, Bensonhurst's Chinese population is 31,658, and this population is primarily Cantonese-speaking. In addition the majority of Brooklyn's Cantonese population is concentrated in Bensonhurst, therefore it is slowly replacing Manhattan's Chinatown as the primary Cantonese cultural center in New York City. [33] In 2011, the New York Daily News reported that Manhattan's Chinatown Chinese population dropped from 34,554 to 28,681 from 2000 to 2010, and that it is continuing to decline due to the gentrification going on in Lower Manhattan, which has spurred the increasing growth of newer Chinatowns in Brooklyn including in Queens. [34] As of the 2010s, the current Chinese population in Bensonhurst has grown so much that it is enough to create another large Chinatown surpassing Manhattan's Chinatown and nearly being as big as Sunset Park's Chinatown, however because of their dispersed population mixing in with the remaining Italian and Russian population including Mexican and Muslim populations unlike the Chinese population in Sunset Park is very highly concentrated amongst each other in a portion of Sunset Park, Bensonhurst's Chinatown is more split up into several small Chinatowns in various sections, such as 18th Avenue, Bay Parkway, and 86th Street as they have the highest concentrations of growing Chinese businesses of Bensonhurst resulting in these streets as the primary commercial business districts for Bensonhurst's Chinese residents. [35][36][37]

The Daily News also stated that Brooklyn's Asian population, mainly Chinese, has grown tremendously, not only in the Sunset Park area, but also in Bensonhurst, Dyker Heights, and Borough Park. In Bensonhurst alone, from 2000 to 2010, the Asian population increased by 57%. The study also showed that Asians very often live in houses that are divided into studio apartments, which means the Asian population could be higher than indicated on censuses.[38] The newly emerging Chinese enclaves in sections of Bensonhurst, and another one in Homecrest/Sheepshead Bay, are primarily Cantonese populated and are more of extensions of the Western Cantonese section of Manhattan's Chinatown or Little Hong Kong(小香港)/Little Guangdong(小廣東) or Cantonese Town (粵語埠). However, there are also small numbers are Fuzhou- and Mandarin-speakers.[39][40][41]

Chinese translation terms Bensonhurst as 本森社区.

Land use and terrainEdit

Many of Bensonhurst's houses are attached or semidetached, though fully detached houses can be found in the west near Dyker Heights. These are mostly 20th century houses made of brick, stucco, and stone, with aluminum siding facades. There are also a cluster of apartment buildings throughout the neighborhood. After rezoning in the 2000s, many houses dating back over 90 years are being torn down and replaced by three-story brick apartment buildings and multi-family condominiums.[18] They are sometimes called "Fedders Houses" for their distinctive, standard air conditioner sleeves.[42] From 2002 to 2005, 1,200 new housing units in Bensonhurst were approved to accommodate the growing population including many foreign-born residents. With an increase in the area's real estate values, long-time homeowners sold their houses.[18]

 
Sons of Israel Synagogue

As no official neighborhood designations are used in New York City, Bensonhurst does not have any official boundaries.[43] Still, parts of Bath Beach, Mapleton, Dyker Heights, Gravesend, and Borough Park are sometimes considered parts of Bensonhurst.[18][44] However, Bensonhurst-proper includes the area bounded by 86th Street, 14th Avenue, 60th Street, McDonald Avenue, Avenue P, and Bay Parkway.[45]

Police and crimeEdit

The NYPD's 62nd Precinct is located at 1925 Bath Avenue.[8]

The 62nd Precinct ranked 4th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. Historically, Bensonhurst has had lower crime than other neighborhoods in Brooklyn, though its mostly white and Asian population has made the area susceptible to racially-motivated crimes, such as the murder of Yusef Hawkins in 1989.[46] With a non-fatal assault rate of 23 per 100,000 people, Bensonhurst's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 152 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.[14]:8 The Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 87.4% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 2 murders, 20 rapes, 120 robberies, 148 felony assaults, 178 burglaries, 482 grand larcenies, and 67 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[47]

Fire safetyEdit

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) operates two firehouses in the area.[48] Engine Co. 330/Ladder Co. 172 is located at 2312 65th Street.[49] Engine Co. 253 is located at 2429 86th Street.[50]

HealthEdit

Preterm and teenage births are less common in Bensonhurst than in other places citywide. In Bensonhurst, there were 84 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 12.5 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).[14]:11 Bensonhurst has a high population of residents who are uninsured, or who receive healthcare through Medicaid.[51] In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 13%, which is higher than the citywide rate of 12%.[14]:14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Bensonhurst is 0.007 milligrams per cubic metre (7.0×10−9 oz/cu ft), lower than the citywide and boroughwide averages.[14]:9 Sixteen percent of Bensonhurst residents are smokers, which is higher the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[14]:13 In Bensonhurst, 21% of residents are obese, 12% are diabetic, and 16% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[14]:16 In addition, 14% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[14]:12

Ninety percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is slightly higher than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 65% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," less than the city's average of 78%.[14]:13 For every supermarket in Bensonhurst, there are 27 bodegas.[14]:10

The Bay Ridge/Dyker Heights/Bensonhurst area does not have any hospitals. However, the Coney Island Hospital, NYU Langone Hospital – Brooklyn, and Maimonides Medical Center are located in nearby neighborhoods.[51]:19–20

Post offices and ZIP codesEdit

Bensonhurst is covered by ZIP Codes 11204 north of Bay Ridge Parkway, and 11214 south of Bay Ridge Parkway.[52] The United States Postal Service's Parkville Station is located at 6618 20th Avenue.[53] It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988.[54] Another post office, the Bath Beach Station, is located at 1865 Benson Avenue.[55]

Notable landmarksEdit

EducationEdit

Bensonhurst generally has a lower ratio of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. While 36% of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, 26% have less than a high school education and 38% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 40% of Brooklynites and 38% of city residents have a college education or higher.[14]:6 The percentage of Bensonhurst students excelling in math has been increasing, with math achievement rising from 50 percent in 2000 to 71 percent in 2011, though reading achievement within the same time period stayed steady at 52%.[58]

Bensonhurst's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Bensonhurst, 12% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, compared to the citywide average of 20% of students.[15]:24 (PDF p. 55)[14]:6 Additionally, 85% of high school students in Bensonhurst graduate on time, higher than the citywide average of 75% of students.[14]:6

SchoolsEdit

The New York City Department of Education serves Bensonhurst.[59]

LibrariesEdit

The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) operates two libraries in Bensonhurst. The Highlawn branch is located at 1664 West 13th Street, near the intersection with Kings Highway. The branch was renovated in 2005–2006. Unlike most other BPL branches, it contains a circular reading room with multicolored walls.[60]

The New Utrecht branch is located at 1743 86th Street, near Bay 17th Street. It was founded in 1894 as the Free Library of the Town of New Utrecht and became a BPL branch in 1901. The current building opened in 1956.[61]

TransportationEdit

The neighborhood is well served by the New York City Subway. The D train, which runs on the BMT West End Line above 86th Street, provides a direct connection to Grand Street in Manhattan[18][62] while the N and ​W trains, which run on the BMT Sea Beach Line near 63rd Street, provide a direct connection to Canal Street.[18] This provides convenient commutes into Manhattan's Chinatown for the growing Bensonhurst Chinese population.[63] The Sea Beach Line has a station at Eighth Avenue in Brooklyn's Sunset Park Chinatown and a transfer to the West End Line is available at New Utrecht Avenue / 62nd Street. The IND Culver Line along McDonald Avenue, carrying the F train, also runs through the most northeastern end of Bensonhurst between the Bay Parkway and Kings Highway stations.[23]

Subway stations in the neighborhood include:

The B1, B3, B4, B6, B8, B9, B64, B82 and B82 SBS lines operate through Bensonhurst.[64]

In popular cultureEdit

Bensonhurst has long been portrayed in film, art, and literature:

Notable peopleEdit

Notable current and former residents of Bensonhurst include:

Organized crimeEdit

A number of high-profile organized crime figures hail from Bensonhurst, including Frankie Yale, Anthony Casso, Paul Castellano, Mikey DiLeonardo, Anthony Gaggi, Carlo Gambino, John Gambino, Sammy "The Bull" Gravano, Gregory Scarpa, and Carmine Sessa.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". Communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference CB3PUMA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Holter, Lauren. "City Living: Bensonhurst, Brooklyn's Little Italy, is now teeming with diversity", AM New York, February 11, 2015. Accessed August 21, 2016. "The neighborhood's Italian roots are still visible in the many eateries and specialty shops nestled along the tree-lined streets of Brooklyn's Little Italy, including Lenny's Pizza, made famous by its cameo in the opening scene of Saturday Night Fever. However, an influx of Chinese, Russian, Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants has diversified the area for a few decades."
  6. ^ Robbins, Liz. "With an Influx of Newcomers, Little Chinatowns Dot a Changing Brooklyn", The New York Times, April 15, 2015. Accessed August 26, 2016. "As the sidewalks on Eighth Avenue overflow with new arrivals in Sunset Park, Brooklyn's first Chinatown, and grocery stores proliferate along 86th Street in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn's second Chinatown, immigrants have been pushing southeast toward the ocean. ... Bensonhurst has the largest number of Chinese-born residents of any neighborhood in the city, with 31,658, narrowly edging the populations in Flushing, Queens, and Sunset Park, according to a 2013 city report that offered the most recent data on immigrant New Yorkers."
  7. ^ "The Newest New Yorkers; Characteristics of the City's Foreign-born Population", p. 69. New York City Department of City Planning, December 2013. Accessed August 26, 2016.
  8. ^ a b "NYPD – 62nd Precinct". Nyc.gov. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  9. ^ Current City Council Districts for Kings County, New York City. Accessed May 5, 2017.
  10. ^ Howard, Henry W.B. "The Eagle and Brooklyn: the Record of the Progress of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 1150. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  11. ^ "Auction Sales. Next Tuesday, Jere. Johnson, Jr., Auctioneer. Absolute Auction Sale, 340 Lots". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  12. ^ a b Radomsky, Rosalie R. (August 26, 1984). "If You're Thinking of Living in Bensonhurst". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  13. ^ a b Scharfenberg, David (August 20, 2006). "An Old Neighborhood Grows Up Again". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Bensonhurst (Including Bath Beach, Bensonhurst, Gravesend and Mapleton)" (PDF). Nyc.gov. NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  15. ^ a b "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). Nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  16. ^ "New Yorkers are living longer, happier and healthier lives". New York Post. June 4, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  17. ^ "Census profile: NYC-Brooklyn Community District 11--Bensonhurst & Bath Beach PUMA, NY". Census Reporter. July 22, 2018. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g David Scharfenberg (August 20, 2006). "An Old Neighborhood Grows Up Again". The New York Times.
  19. ^ Treadwell, David (September 2, 1989). "Racial Tension Haunts a 'Nice Neighborhood'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  20. ^ Santos, Fernanda (January 6, 2009). "For Italians in Brooklyn, Voices on Streets Have Changed". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  21. ^ "There Are More Foreign-Born New Yorkers Than There Are People In Chicago". The Huffington Post. December 19, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  22. ^ Vivian Yee and Jeffrey E. Singer (December 30, 2014). "For Officer Liu's Funeral, Blending Police Traditions With Chinese Customs". The New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  23. ^ a b c "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  24. ^ Annie Hauck-Lawson and Jonathan Deutsch (eds.) (2009). Gastropolis: Food and New York City. Arts and traditions of the table. New York: Columbia University. p. 136.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  25. ^ "Bensonhurst transforms as international families move in". New York Daily News. March 1, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  26. ^ [1] Archived September 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ The New York Times' Book of New York: 549 Stories of the People, the Events. Black Dog & Leventhal. 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  28. ^ Joseph Berger (June 24, 2009). The World in a City: Traveling the Globe Through the Neighborhoods of the New New York. Random House. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  29. ^ A Coat of Many Colors: Immigration, Globalism, and Reform in the New York City Garment Industry. Fordham University Press. 2005. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  30. ^ Let's Go New York City 17th Edition. Books.google.com. November 25, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  31. ^ Ellen Freudenheim; Anna Wiener (April 1, 2004). Brooklyn!, 3rd Edition: The Ultimate Guide to New York's Most Happening Borough. Macmillan. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  32. ^ BEYOND CHINATOWN: DUAL IMMIGRATION AND THE CHINESE POPULATION OF METROPOLITAN NEW YORK CITY, 2000 Archived October 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, SUNY-New Paltz study, 2002.
  33. ^ https://www.nydailynews.com/changing-chinatowns-move-manhattan-sunset-park-home-chinese-nyc-article-1.948028
  34. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/projects/census/2010/map.html
  35. ^ Robbins, Liz (April 15, 2015). "With an Influx of Newcomers, Little Chinatowns Dot a Changing Brooklyn". Nytimes.com. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  36. ^ Beekman, Daniel. "The changing Chinatowns: Move over Manhattan, Sunset Park now home to most Chinese in NYC". Nydailynews.com. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  37. ^ "Chinese Population by Census Tract : New York City, 2010" (PDF). 1.nyc.gov. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  38. ^ Nelson, Katie (September 15, 2011). "Asian boom in Brooklyn along N-lline neighborhoods in Brooklyn, Census data shows". Daily News. New York.
  39. ^ "Bensonhurst becomes Brooklyn's second Chinatown-Americas-chinadaily.com.cn". Usa.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ Mooney, Jake (March 19, 2006). "The True Story of the 'Fedders' Curse". The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  43. ^ Michael M. Grynbaum (September 9, 2012). "Amateur Mapmakers Redraw Boundaries, Working Online". The New York Times.
  44. ^ New York City Market Analysis (PDF). New York: News Syndicate, New York Times, Daily Mirror, and Hearst Consolidated. 1943. p. 19.
  45. ^ Google (August 21, 2015). "Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, NY" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  46. ^ "Bensonhurst – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". Dnainfo.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  47. ^ "62nd Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  48. ^ "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  49. ^ "Engine Company 330/Ladder Company 172". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  50. ^ "Engine Company 253". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  51. ^ a b New York City Health Provider Partnership Brooklyn Community Needs Assessment: Final Report, New York Academy of Medicine (October 3, 2014).
  52. ^ "Bensonhurst, New York City-Brooklyn, New York Zip Code Boundary Map (NY)". United States Zip Code Boundary Map (USA). Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  53. ^ "Location Details: Parkville". USPS.com. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  54. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
  55. ^ "Location Details: Bath Beach". USPS.com. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  56. ^ "Milestone Park : NYC Parks". Nycgovparks.org. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  57. ^ "Film locations for Saturday Night Fever (1977)". Movie-locations.com. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  58. ^ "Bensonhurst – BK 11" (PDF). Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  59. ^ "School & Zone Finder." New York City Department of Education.
  60. ^ "Highlawn Library". Brooklyn Public Library. August 19, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  61. ^ "New Utrecht Library". Brooklyn Public Library. August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  62. ^ "MTA/New York City Transit Subway Line Information". Web.mta.info. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  63. ^ "MTA/New York City Transit Subway Line Information". Web.mta.info. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
  64. ^ "Brooklyn Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  65. ^ Berman, Eliza. "Why Margot Robbie Thought Her Career Was Over After Making The Wolf of Wall Street", Time, August 4, 2016. Accessed September 6, 2016. "Naomi Lapaglia, the foul-mouthed, platinum-haired lover-turned-wife she played in Martin Scorsese's The Wolf of Wall Street, is from Bay Ridge, just a handful of blocks away from Bensonhurst. That's the birthplace of Harley Quinn, the bonkers baddie Robbie portrays in DC Comics' supervillain convention Suicide Squad, out Friday."
  66. ^ West, Abby. "General Hospital: Maurice Benard on Sonny's journey home to Brooklyn", Entertainment Weekly, November 28, 2011. Accessed September 6, 2016. "'I'm very excited about the stuff I've done in the last month, when Sonny and Kate [Kelly Sullivan] go to Bensonhurst,' says Benard of episodes that kick off today and deal with Sonny's childhood abuse at the hands of his stepfather.... Sonny and Kate leave their upstate New York town for the Brooklyn neighborhood they grew up in as part of an effort to help Sonny – who recently spiraled out of control after Brenda (Vanessa Marcil) left him – deal with his anger/abandonment issues."
  67. ^ Atkinson, Michael. "Reel Brooklyn: The French Connection: Gravesend/Bensonhurst", Brooklyn Magazine, August 15, 2016. Accessed September 6, 2016. "Friedkin shot and cut this chaos so clearly it practically serves as its own map: after a French hood takes a shot at Hackman's hothead from a rooftop in Gravesend, he boards the elevated B train at Bay 50th Street station, and Hackman grabs someone's LeMans and follows the train at illegal speeds under the platforms, up Stillwell Avenue, north onto 86th Street and then New Utrecht Avenue. The train doesn't stop—the assassin makes the driver blow through the stations, after offing a few transit cops—and the LeMans races it across Bensonhurst for some 26 blocks, through a hairy litany of crashes, near-misses, screaming pedestrians, and flat-out outlaw driving, until the runaway train meets another at 62nd Street Station, and crashes."
  68. ^ Boyar, Jay. "Dice Man's Ford Fairlane Is One For The Junkyard", Orlando Sentinel, July 13, 1990. Accessed September 6, 2016. "In The Adventures of Ford Fairlane, Clay plays the title character, a Dice-like Los Angeles detective (by way of Bensonhurst, N.Y.) who specializes in solving crimes involving the rock-music industry."
  69. ^ "Keanu Reeves rides through Bensonhurst on horseback". Brooklyn Eagle. July 17, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  70. ^ Barron, James; Stevens, Kimberly; and Brescia, Joe. "PUBLIC LIVES", The New York Times, May 29, 1998. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
  71. ^ "Vic Damone, Who Crooned His Way to Postwar Popularity, Dies at 89". The New York Times. February 12, 2018.
  72. ^ Martin, Douglas (July 28, 2002). "Millie Deegan, 82, Pioneer In Women's Baseball League". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2009. Mildred Eleanor Deegan was born on Dec. 11, 1919, in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Bensonhurst.... She excelled in track and field at Lincoln High School, and after graduation played amateur softball with a team called the Americanettes.
  73. ^ Martin, Douglas. "Marshall Flaum, Documentary Filmmaker, Dies at 85", The New York Times, October 8, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2010.