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The Muisca Confederation was a loose confederation of different Muisca rulers (zaques, zipas, iraca and tundama) in the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombia before the Spanish conquest of northern South America. The area, presently called Altiplano Cundiboyacense, comprised the current departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and minor parts of Santander with a total surface area of approximately 25,000 square kilometres (9,700 sq mi).[note 1]

Muisca Confederation
~14501540
Muisca Confederation
on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense
Zaque rule in yellow
Zipa rule in green
Independent territories in red
Capital Hunza and Bacatá
(~1450–1540)
Languages Muysccubun
Religion Muisca religion
Political structure Confederation
Zaque and zipa
 •  ~1450-1470 zaque Hunzahúa
zipa Meicuchuca
 •  1470–1490 zaque Saguamanchica
zipa Michuá
 •  1490–1537

1490–1514
zaque Quemuenchatocha
zipa Nemequene
 •  1514–1537 zipa Tisquesusa
 •  1537-1540
1537-1539
zaque Aquiminzaque
zipa Sagipa
Historical era Pre-Columbian
 •  Established ~1450
 •  Spanish conquest begins March 1537
 •  Conquest of Funza (Bacatá) 20 April 1537
 •  Conquest of Hunza 20 August 1537
 •  Destruction of the Sun Temple September 1537
 •  Foundation of Bogotá
Battle of Tocarema
6 August 1538
20 August 1538
 •  Foundation of Tunja
Death of Tundama
6 August 1539
December 1539
 •  Execution of Aquiminzaque 1540
Area 25,000 km2 (9,700 sq mi)
Population
 •  est. 2,000,000 
     Density 80/km2 (207/sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Herrera Period
New Kingdom of Granada
Today part of  Colombia
-Flag of Cundinamarca.svg Cundinamarca
-Flag of Boyacá Department.svg Boyacá
-Flag of Santander Department.svg Santander

According to some Muisca scholars the Muisca Confederation was one of the best-organized confederations of tribes on the South American continent.[2] Modern anthropologists, such as Jorge Gamboa Mendoza, attribute the present-day knowledge about the confederation and its organization more to a reflection by Spanish chroniclers who predominantly wrote about it a century or more after the Muisca were conquered and proposed the idea of a loose collection of different people with slightly different languages and backgrounds.[3]

Contents

GeographyEdit

 
Topography Boyacá

ClimateEdit

Climate charts for the extremes and four most important settlements of the Muisca Confederation
NW: Vélez - 2050 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
34
 
 
19
7
 
 
46
 
 
19
8
 
 
67
 
 
19
9
 
 
113
 
 
19
9
 
 
102
 
 
18
9
 
 
63
 
 
18
9
 
 
47
 
 
18
9
 
 
47
 
 
18
9
 
 
56
 
 
18
8
 
 
119
 
 
18
9
 
 
112
 
 
18
9
 
 
60
 
 
19
8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Bogotá
Lowest: Charalá - 1290 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
71
 
 
29
15
 
 
97
 
 
29
16
 
 
157
 
 
29
16
 
 
272
 
 
28
16
 
 
283
 
 
28
16
 
 
176
 
 
27
16
 
 
175
 
 
29
15
 
 
192
 
 
28
15
 
 
224
 
 
28
15
 
 
312
 
 
27
16
 
 
244
 
 
27
16
 
 
103
 
 
28
16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Charalá
Highest: Aquitania - 3030 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
11
 
 
17
6
 
 
22
 
 
17
6
 
 
49
 
 
17
7
 
 
139
 
 
16
8
 
 
219
 
 
15
8
 
 
113
 
 
14
7
 
 
109
 
 
14
7
 
 
94
 
 
14
7
 
 
83
 
 
15
7
 
 
109
 
 
15
7
 
 
75
 
 
16
7
 
 
24
 
 
16
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Aquitania
NE: Soatá - 1950 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
41
 
 
25
12
 
 
58
 
 
25
12
 
 
88
 
 
25
13
 
 
271
 
 
24
13
 
 
241
 
 
23
13
 
 
126
 
 
23
13
 
 
101
 
 
23
12
 
 
103
 
 
23
13
 
 
155
 
 
24
13
 
 
260
 
 
23
13
 
 
163
 
 
23
13
 
 
84
 
 
24
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Soatá
SW: Tibacuy - 1647 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
72
 
 
24
15
 
 
90
 
 
24
15
 
 
109
 
 
25
16
 
 
170
 
 
24
16
 
 
155
 
 
24
16
 
 
88
 
 
23
15
 
 
57
 
 
24
16
 
 
52
 
 
24
16
 
 
80
 
 
24
15
 
 
214
 
 
23
15
 
 
216
 
 
23
15
 
 
100
 
 
23
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Tibacuy
SE: Ubalá - 1949 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
47
 
 
23
11
 
 
93
 
 
24
12
 
 
136
 
 
24
13
 
 
216
 
 
23
14
 
 
290
 
 
22
14
 
 
360
 
 
21
13
 
 
332
 
 
21
13
 
 
276
 
 
21
13
 
 
205
 
 
22
12
 
 
188
 
 
22
13
 
 
132
 
 
23
13
 
 
72
 
 
23
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Ubalá
Bacatá - 2640 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
34
 
 
19
7
 
 
46
 
 
19
8
 
 
67
 
 
19
9
 
 
113
 
 
19
9
 
 
102
 
 
18
9
 
 
63
 
 
18
9
 
 
47
 
 
18
9
 
 
47
 
 
18
9
 
 
56
 
 
18
8
 
 
119
 
 
18
9
 
 
112
 
 
18
9
 
 
60
 
 
19
8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Bogotá
Hunza - 2820 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
23
 
 
19
7
 
 
30
 
 
19
7
 
 
64
 
 
19
8
 
 
116
 
 
18
9
 
 
108
 
 
18
9
 
 
92
 
 
16
8
 
 
70
 
 
16
8
 
 
69
 
 
17
8
 
 
72
 
 
17
8
 
 
122
 
 
17
8
 
 
108
 
 
18
8
 
 
43
 
 
18
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Tunja
Sugamuxi - 2569 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
19
 
 
22
8
 
 
31
 
 
22
9
 
 
58
 
 
22
9
 
 
114
 
 
21
10
 
 
107
 
 
20
10
 
 
65
 
 
19
9
 
 
49
 
 
19
9
 
 
51
 
 
20
9
 
 
64
 
 
20
9
 
 
116
 
 
20
10
 
 
89
 
 
21
9
 
 
35
 
 
21
8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Sogamoso
Tundama - 2590 m
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
21
 
 
21
7
 
 
43
 
 
22
8
 
 
65
 
 
22
8
 
 
123
 
 
20
9
 
 
126
 
 
20
9
 
 
75
 
 
19
9
 
 
54
 
 
19
8
 
 
54
 
 
19
8
 
 
74
 
 
20
8
 
 
143
 
 
19
9
 
 
92
 
 
20
9
 
 
42
 
 
21
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate-data.org - Duitama
The climates (Af-Cfb-Cwb) of the geographic (NW, NE, SW and SE) and topographic extremes and for the four main settlements of the Muisca Confederation situated on the Altiplano,
from SW to NE; Bacatá, Hunza, Sugamuxi and Tundama are rather constant over the year with wetter periods in April–May and October–November

Muisca ConfederationEdit

In the times before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, the central part of present-day Colombia; the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes was inhabited by the Muisca people who were organised in a loose confederation of rulers. The central authorities of Bacatá in the south and Hunza in the north were called zipa and zaque respectively. Other rulers were the iraca priest in sacred City of the Sun Sugamuxi, the Tundama of Tundama and various other caciques (chiefs). The Muisca spoke Chibcha, in their own language called Muysccubun; "language of the people".

The Muisca people, different from the other three great civilisations of the Americas; the Maya, Aztec and Inca, did not build grand stone architecture. Their settlements were relatively small and consisted of bohíos; circular houses of wood and clay, organised around a central market square with the house of the cacique in the centre. Roads were present to connect the settlements with each other and with the surrounding indigenous groups, of which the Guane and Lache to the north, the Panche and Muzo to the west and Guayupe, Achagua and Tegua to the east were the most important.

HistoryEdit

PrehistoryEdit

Early Amerindian settlers led a hunter-gatherer life among still extant megafauna living in cool habitats around Pleistocene lakes, of which the humedales in Bogotá, Lake Suesca, Lake Fúquene and Lake Herrera are notable examples. Multiple evidences of late Pleistocene to middle Holocene population of the Bogotá savanna, the high plateau in the Colombian Andes, have been found to date. As is common with caves and rock shelters, Tequendama was inhabited from around 11,000 years BP, and continuing into the prehistorical, Herrera and Muisca periods, making it the oldest site of Colombia, together with El Abra (12,500 BP), located north of Zipaquirá and Tibitó, located within the boundaries of Tocancipá (11,740 BP).[4][5] The oldest human remains and the oldest complete skeleton were discovered at Tequendama and has been named "Hombre del Tequendama" or Homo Tequendama. Other artefacts have been found in Gachalá (9100 BP), Sueva (Junín) and Zipacón.[6] Just west of the Altiplano, the oldest archaeological remains were found; in Pubenza, part of Tocaima and have been dated at 16,000 years Before Present.[7]

Pre-Columbian eraEdit

Timeline of inhabitation of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia
TequendamaAguazuquePiedras del Tunjo Archaeological ParkGalindo, BojacáBD BacatáLake HerreraChía (Cundinamarca)ZipaquiráEl AbraChecuaTibitóSuevaEl InfiernitoHistory of ColombiaSpanish EmpireSpanish conquest of the MuiscaMuisca peopleHerrera PeriodMuisca Confederation#PrehistoryBochicaMuisca mummificationCeramicAndean preceramicMuisca agricultureHunter-gatherer 

Altiplano


Muisca Confederation


Herrera PeriodEdit
Period
name
Start
age
End
age
Herrera 800 BCE 800
Early Muisca 800 1200
Late Muisca 1200 1537
Kruschek, 2003[8]

The Herrera Period is a phase in the history of Colombia. It is part of the Andean preceramic and ceramic, time equivalent of the North American pre-Columbian formative and classic stages and age dated by various archaeologists.[9] The Herrera Period predates the age of the Muisca people, who inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and postdates the lithic formative stage and prehistory of the eastern Andean region in Colombia. The Herrera Period is usually defined as ranging from 800 BCE to 800 AD,[10] although some scholars date it as early as 1500 BCE.[11]

Ample evidence of the Herrera Period has been uncovered on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense and main archaeologists contributing to the present knowledge about the Herrera Period are scholars Ana María Groot, Gonzalo Correal Urrego, Thomas van der Hammen, Carl Henrik Langebaek Rueda, Sylvia M. Broadbent, Marianne Cardale de Schrimpff and others.

MuiscaEdit

The Muisca were polytheistic and their religion and mythology was closely connected with the natural area they were inhabiting. They had a thorough understanding of astronomical parameters and developed a complex luni-solar calendar; the Muisca calendar. According to the calendar they had specific times for sowing, harvest and the organisation of festivals where they sang, danced and played music and drank their national drink chicha in great quantities.

The most respected members of the community were mummified and the mummies were not buried, yet displayed in their temples, in natural locations such as caves and even carried on their backs during warfare to impress their enemies.

Their art is the most famous remnant of their culture, as living spaces, temples and other existing structures have been destroyed by the Spanish who colonised the Muisca territories. A primary example of their fine goldworking is the Muisca raft, together with more objects made of gold, tumbaga, ceramics and cotton displayed in the Museo del Oro in Bogotá, the ancient capital of the southern Muisca.

The Muisca were a predominantly agricultural society with small-scale farmfields, part of more extensive terrains. To diversify their diet, they traded mantles, gold, emeralds and salt for fruits, vegetables, coca, yopo and cotton cultivated in lower altitude warmer terrains populated by their neighbours, the Muzo, Panche, Yarigui, Guane, Guayupe, Achagua, Tegua, Lache, Sutagao and U'wa. Trade of products grown farther away happened with the Calima, Pijao and Caribbean coastal communities around the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.

The Muisca economy was self-sufficient regarding the basic supplies, thanks to the advanced technologies of the agriculture on raised terraces by the people. The system of trade was well established providing both the higher social classes and the general population abundances of gold, feathers, marine snails, coca, yopo and other luxury goods. Markets were held every four to eight days in various settlements throughout the Muisca Confederation and special markets were organised around festivities where merchants from far outside the Andes were trading their goods with the Muisca.

Apart from agriculture, the Muisca were well developed in the production of different crafts, using the raw materials traded with surrounding indigenous peoples. Famous are the golden and tumbaga objects made by the Muisca people. Cotton mantles, cloths and nets were made by the Muisca women and traded for valuable goods, tropical fruits and small cotton cloths were used as money. The Muisca were unique in South America for having real coins of gold, called tejuelos.

Mining was an important source of income for the Muisca, who were called "Salt People" because of their salt mines in Zipaquirá, Nemocón and Tausa. Like their western neighbours, the Muzo -who were called "The Emerald People"- they mined emeralds in their territories, mainly in Somondoco. Carbon was found throughout the region of the Muisca in Eocene sediments and used for the fires for cooking and the production of salt and golden ornaments.

The people used a decimal counting system and counted with their fingers. Their system went from 1 to 10 and for higher numerations they used the prefix quihicha or qhicha, which means "foot" in their Chibcha language Muysccubun. Eleven became thus "foot one", twelve "foot two", etc. As in the other pre-Columbian civilizations, the number 20 was special. It was the total number of all body extremities; fingers and toes. The Muisca used two forms to express twenty: "foot ten"; quihícha ubchihica or their exclusive word gueta, derived from gue, which means "house". Numbers between 20 and 30 were counted gueta asaqui ata ("twenty plus one"; 21), gueta asaqui ubchihica ("twenty plus ten"; 30). Larger numbers were counted as multiples of twenty; gue-bosa ("20 times 2"; 40), gue-hisca ("20 times 5"; 100). The Muisca script consisted of hieroglyphs, only used for numerals.[12]

LanguageEdit

Comparison of important words in various Chibchan languages
Muysccubun Note(s) Uwa
Boyacá
N. de Santander
Arauca
Barí
N. de Santander
Chimila
Cesar
Magdalena
Kogui
S.N. de
Santa Marta
Kuna
Darien Gap
Guaymí
Panama
Costa Rica
Boruca
Costa Rica
Maléku
Costa Rica
Rama
Nicaragua
English
chie [13][14][15][16] siʔ chibai saka tebej tlijii tukan Moon
ata [17][18] úbistia intok ti-tasu/nyé kwati éˇxi dooka one
muysca [19][20] dary tsá ngäbe ochápaká nkiikna people/person/man

Muisca ConfederationEdit

History of the Muisca
Sutagao peopleGuayupe peopleTegua peoplePanche peopleMuisca peopleAchagua peopleMuzo peopleGuane peopleU'wa peopleLache peopleBattle of TocaremaBattle of ChocontáBattle of PascaSagipaTisquesusaNemequeneSaguamanchicaMeicuchucaHistory of Bogotá#Pre-Columbian eraNencatacoaHuitaca (goddess)ChaquénCuchaviraChibchacumBochicaChía (goddess)SuéChiminigaguaSpanish conquest of the MuiscaAquiminzaqueQuemuenchatochaMichuáHunzahúaTunja#HistoryThomagataThomagataPacanchiqueGoranchachaMonster of Lake TotaEl DoradoSugamuxiNompanimIdacansásiracaTundamaDuitama#HistorySpanish EmpireMuisca Confederation 

Altiplano

Muisca

Art

Architecture

Astronomy

Cuisine

El Dorado

Subsistence

Women

Conquest


BacatáEdit

 
The zipa ruled over the Bogotá savanna
Municipality Department
bold is capital
Ruler(s)
bold is seat
Altitude
urban centre (m)
Surface area
(km2)
Remarks Map
Bacatá Cundinamarca zipa 2640 1587 Muisca mummy found
Important market town
Petrographs found
Bojacá Cundinamarca zipa 2598 109 Lake Herrera
Petrographs found
Cajicá Cundinamarca zipa 2558 50.4
La Calera Cundinamarca zipa 2718 317 Petrographs found
Cáqueza Cundinamarca zipa 1746 38
Chía Cundinamarca zipa 2564 80 Moon Temple
Herrera site
Petrographs found
Choachí Cundinamarca zipa 1923 223 Choachí Stone found
Chocontá Cundinamarca zipa 2655 301.1 Important market town
Battle of Chocontá (~1490)
Fortification between zipa & zaque
Cogua Cundinamarca zipa 2600 113 Muisca ceramics production
Petrographs found
Cota Cundinamarca zipa 2566 55 Petrographs found
Still Muisca people living
Cucunubá Cundinamarca zipa 2590 112 Petrographs found
Facatativá Cundinamarca zipa 2586 158 Piedras del Tunjo
Funza Cundinamarca zipa 2548 70 Important market town
Gachancipá Cundinamarca zipa 2568 44 Muisca mummy found
Muisca ceramics production
Guasca Cundinamarca zipa 2710 346 Siecha Lakes
Muisca ceramics production
Petrographs found
Madrid Cundinamarca zipa 2554 120.5 Lake Herrera
Petrographs found
Mosquera Cundinamarca zipa 2516 107 Lake Herrera
Petrographs found
Nemocón Cundinamarca zipa 2585 98.1 Muisca salt mines
Preceramic site Checua
Petrographs found
Pacho Cundinamarca zipa 2136 403.3 Important market town
Pasca Cundinamarca zipa 2180 246.24 Battle of Pasca (~1470)
Muisca raft found
El Rosal Cundinamarca zipa 2685 86.48
San Antonio
del Tequendama
Cundinamarca zipa 1540 82 Tequendama Falls
Fortification against Panche
Petrographs found
Sesquilé Cundinamarca zipa 2595 141 Lake Guatavita
Minor Muisca salt mines
Sibaté Cundinamarca zipa 2700 125.6 Petrographs found
Soacha Cundinamarca zipa 2565 184.45 Preceramic site Tequendama
Herrera site
Muisca ceramics production
Petrographs found
Sopó Cundinamarca zipa 2650 111.5 Herrera site
Subachoque Cundinamarca zipa 2663 211.53 Petrographs found
Suesca Cundinamarca zipa 2584 177 150 Muisca mummies found
Lake Suesca
Muisca ceramics production
Important market town
Petrographs found
Sutatausa Cundinamarca zipa 2550 67 Petrographs found
Tabio Cundinamarca zipa 2569 74.5 Hot springs used by the Muisca
Tausa Cundinamarca zipa 2931 204 Muisca salt mines
Petrographs found
Tena Cundinamarca zipa 1384 55 Fortification against Panche
Petrographs found
Tenjo Cundinamarca zipa 2587 108 Petrographs found
Tibacuy Cundinamarca zipa & Panche 1647 84.4 Border with Panche
Fortification against Panche & Sutagao
Petrographs found
Tocancipá Cundinamarca zipa 2605 73.51 Preceramic site Tibitó
Muisca ceramics production
Important market town
Petrographs found
Zipaquirá Cundinamarca zipa 2650 197 El Abra
Muisca salt mines
Important market town
Petrographs and petroglyphs found
Fúquene Cundinamarca zipa
zaque
2750 90 Lake Fúquene
Simijaca Cundinamarca zipa (1490-1537) 2559 107 Conquered by zipa Saguamanchica
upon zaque Michuá (~1490)
Susa Cundinamarca zipa (1490-1537) 2655 86 Conquered by zipa Saguamanchica
upon zaque Michuá (~1490)
Lake Fúquene
Ubaté Cundinamarca zipa (1490-1537) 2556 102 Conquered by zipa Saguamanchica
upon zaque Michuá (~1490)
Muisca mummy found
Zipacón Cundinamarca zipa 2550 70 Agriculture
Place of meditation for the zipa
Petrographs found

ChipazaqueEdit

 
Landscape of Chipazaque
Municipality
Department Ruler(s) Altitude
(m)
Surface area
(km2)
Remarks Map
Junín Cundinamarca chipazaque 2300 337 Shared between
zipa and zaque
Petrographs found

HunzaEdit

 
The Muisca were bordered to the west by the Emerald People
Municipality
Department
bold is capital
Ruler(s)
bold is seat
Altitude
(m)
Surface area
(km2)
Remarks Map
Hunza Boyacá zaque 2820 121.4 Hunzahúa Well
Cojines del Zaque
Goranchacha Temple
Muisca mummy found
Important market town
Petrographs found
Boyacá Boyacá zaque 2420 48
Buenavista Boyacá zaque 2100 125 Border with Muzo
Nose piece and pectoral found,
dated at 620 and 990 AD respectively[21]
Chinavita Boyacá zaque 1763 148
Chíquiza Boyacá zaque 2900 119.52 Lake Iguaque
Chitaraque Boyacá zaque 1575 157.65
Chivatá Boyacá zaque 2903 56
Ciénega Boyacá zaque 2460 73
Cucaita Boyacá zaque 2650 43.58
Gachantivá Boyacá zaque 2450 66 Muisca mummy found
Muisca copper mines
Garagoa Boyacá zaque 1650 191.75
Macanal Boyacá zaque 1680 199.5 Border with Tegua
Motavita Boyacá zaque 2690 62 Coca market town
Petrographs found
Oicatá Boyacá zaque 2815 59
Pachavita Boyacá zaque 1985 68
Ramiriquí Boyacá zaque 2325 146.5 Place of death of Quemuenchatocha
Important ceramics production
Petrographs found
Sáchica Boyacá zaque 2150 62.4 Petrographs found
Samacá Boyacá zaque 2660 172.9
San Miguel de Sema Boyacá zaque 2615 90 Lake Fúquene
Siachoque Boyacá zaque 2760 125
Somondoco Boyacá zaque 1670 58.7 Muisca emerald mines
Important market town
Sutamarchán Boyacá zaque 1800 102 Muisca ceramics production
Tinjacá Boyacá zaque 2175 79.3 Muisca ceramics production
Tipacoque Boyacá zaque 1850 72.1 Chicamocha Canyon
Turmequé Boyacá zaque 2389 106 Important market town
Fortification between zipa & zaque
Villa de Leyva Boyacá zaque 2149 128 El Infiernito
Lake Iguaque
Muisca mummy found
Important market town
Sora Boyacá zaque 2650 42
Soracá Boyacá zaque 2942 57
Sotaquirá Boyacá zaque 2860 288.65
Sutatenza Boyacá zaque 1890 41.26
Tibaná Boyacá zaque 2115 121.76 Petrographs found
Togüí Boyacá zaque 1650 118
Tuta Boyacá zaque 2600 165
Ventaquemada Boyacá zaque 2630 159.3
Viracachá Boyacá zaque 2520 68
Zetaquirá Boyacá zaque 1665 262
Almeida Boyacá zaque 1925 57.98
La Capilla Boyacá zaque 1750 57.26
Jenesano Boyacá zaque 2076 59
Nuevo Colón Boyacá zaque 2500 51
Rondón Boyacá zaque 2075 158
Lenguazaque Cundinamarca zaque 2589 15.36
Machetá Cundinamarca zaque 2094 229.35 Petrographs found
Tibiritá Cundinamarca zaque 1980 57.2 Petrographs found
Villapinzón Cundinamarca zaque 2715 249

IracaEdit

 
The Sun Temple was the seat of the iraca
Municipality Department Ruler(s)
bold is seat
Altitude
(m)
Surface area
(km2)
Remarks Map
Suamox Boyacá iraca
Nompanim
Sugamuxi
2569 208.54 Sun Temple
Muisca mummy found
Muisca carbon mines
Aquitania Boyacá iraca 3030 943 Lake Tota
Busbanzá Boyacá iraca 2472 22.5 Elector of new iraca
Cuítiva Boyacá iraca 2750 43 Lake Tota
Statue of Bochica
Firavitoba Boyacá iraca 2500 109.9 Elector of new iraca
Gámeza Boyacá iraca 2750 88 Herrera site
Muisca mummy found
Minor Muisca salt mines
Muisca carbon mines
Petrographs found
Iza Boyacá iraca 2560 34 Herrera site
Lake Tota
Petrographs found
Mongua Boyacá iraca 2975 365.5 Petrographs found
Monguí Boyacá iraca 2900 81 Petroglyphs
Birth places (Tortolitas)
Pesca Boyacá iraca 2858 282
Tasco Boyacá iraca 2530 167 Muisca mummy found
Toca Boyacá iraca 2810 165
Tota Boyacá iraca 2870 314 Lake Tota
Socotá Boyacá iraca
Tundama
2443 600.11 Muisca mummy found
Tibasosa Boyacá Tundama
iraca
2538 94.3

TundamaEdit

 
The area around Tundama was filled with small lakes of which some bloody evidences remain
  • Capital - Tundama
  • Area - 2,920 square kilometres (1,130 sq mi)
  • Average elevation - 2,470 metres (8,100 ft)
  • Last ruler - Tundama
  • Date of conquest - Late December 1539 (Duitama) - Baltasar Maldonado
  • Important settlements - Tundama, Onzaga, Soatá, Chitagoto (now Paz de Río)
Municipality Department Ruler(s)
bold is seat
Altitude
(m)
Surface area
(km2)
Remarks Map
Tundama Boyacá Tundama 2590 266.93 Seat of Tundama
In ancient lake
Onzaga Santander Tundama 1960 486.76 Important for wool and cotton production
Cerinza Boyacá Tundama 2750 61.63 Monument to the Muisca
Paz de Río Boyacá Tundama 2200 116 Coca market town
Paipa Boyacá Tundama 2525 305.924 Thermal springs
Sativanorte Boyacá Tundama 2600 184 Herrera site
Sativasur Boyacá Tundama 2600 81 Muisca mummy SO10-IX found
Herrera site
Soatá Boyacá Tundama 1950 136 Herrera site
Coca market town
Belén Boyacá Tundama 2650 83.6 Petrographs found
Corrales Boyacá Tundama 2470 60.85
Floresta Boyacá Tundama 2506 86
Nobsa Boyacá Tundama 2510 55.39
Santa Rosa de Viterbo Boyacá Tundama 2753 107
Susacón Boyacá Tundama 2480 191
Tibasosa Boyacá Tundama
iraca
2538 94.3
Socotá Boyacá iraca
Tundama
2443 600.11 Muisca mummy found

Independent caciquesEdit

 
Independent caciques headed small communities
  • Capital - none
  • Area - 3,080 square kilometres (1,190 sq mi)
  • Average elevation - 2,140 metres (7,020 ft)
  • Important caciques - Guatavita, Ubaté, Chiquinquirá, Ubaque, Tenza, Vélez
Municipality
bold is major cacique
Department Ruler(s) Altitude
(m)
Surface area
(km2)
Remarks Map
Vélez Santander cacique 2050 271.34
Chipatá Santander cacique 1820 94.17 First town conquered by the Spanish
Güepsa Santander cacique 1540 33.08 Border with Guane
Border with Yarigui
Charalá Santander cacique 1290 411 Border with Guane
Arcabuco Boyacá cacique 2739 155 Statue honouring the Muisca warriors
Betéitiva Boyacá cacique 2575 123
Boavita Boyacá cacique 2114 159 Muisca mummy found
Chiquinquirá Boyacá cacique 2556 133
Cómbita Boyacá cacique 2825 149
Covarachía Boyacá cacique 2320 103 Herrera site
Guateque Boyacá cacique 1815 36.04 Religious rituals at Guatoc hill
Guayatá Boyacá cacique 1767 112 Muisca money (tejuelo) found
Moniquirá Boyacá cacique 1669 220 Muisca mummy found
Muisca copper mines
Pisba Boyacá cacique 2400 469.12 Muisca mummy found
Ráquira Boyacá cacique 2150 233 Muisca ceramics production
Saboyá Boyacá cacique 2600 246.9 Petrographs found
Tópaga Boyacá cacique 2900 37 Muisca mummy found
Muisca carbon mines
Tutazá Boyacá cacique 1890 135 Muisca ceramics production
Tenza Boyacá cacique 1600 51 Tenza Valley
Chivor Boyacá cacique 1800 108.36 Muisca emerald mines
Úmbita Boyacá cacique 2480 148.17
Carmen de Carupa Cundinamarca cacique 2600 228 Tunjo found
Guatavita Cundinamarca cacique 2680 247.3 Muisca ceramics production
Main goldworking town
Petrographs found
Gachetá Cundinamarca cacique Guatavita 1745 262.2
Guachetá Cundinamarca cacique 2688 177.45 Minor Muisca salt mines
Petrographs found
Manta Cundinamarca cacique 1924 105
Ubaque Cundinamarca cacique 1867 104.96 Last public religious ritual (1563)
Lake Ubaque
Ubalá Cundinamarca cacique 1949 505 Muisca emerald mines
Chipaque Cundinamarca cacique 2400 139.45 Petrographs found
Fómeque Cundinamarca cacique 1895 555.7
Quetame Cundinamarca cacique 1496 138.47
Une Cundinamarca cacique 2376 221
Fosca Cundinamarca cacique 2080 126.02 Fortification against Guayupe

Neighbouring indigenous groupsEdit

Yarigui Guane Lache U'wa
Muzo
Panche Achagua
Sutagao Guayupe Tegua
Cariban languages • Chibchan languages • Arawakan languages
Yarigui and Lache not shown on map • Tegua shown as Tecua • U'wa shown as Tunebo
[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Sacred sitesEdit

The sacred sites of the Muisca Confederation were based in the Muisca religion and mythology. The Muisca were a highly religious people with their own beliefs on the origin of the Earth and life and human sacrifices were no exception to please the gods for good harvests and prosperity.

Lake Guatavita, Guatavita, was the location where the new zipa would be inaugurated. It became known with the Spanish conquerors as the site of El Dorado where the new zipa was covered in gold dust and installed as the new ruler of the southern Muisca.[32]

In the legends of the Muisca, mankind originated in Lake Iguaque, Monquirá, when the goddess Bachué came out from the lake with a boy in her arms. When the boy grew, they populated the Earth. They are considered the ancestors of the human race. Finally, they disappeared unto the lake in the shape of snakes.[33]

According to Muisca myths, the Tequendama Falls, outside Soacha, was the site where the first zipa Meicuchuca lost his beautiful lover who turned in a snake and disappeared in the waters of the Bogotá River.[34][35]

El Infiernito, close to the present town of Villa de Leyva was a sacred site where the Muisca erected structures based on astronomical parameters.[36][37][38]

Other sacred sitesEdit

Spanish conquestsEdit

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
 
Topography Cesar
 
Topography Santander
The harsh expedition through the jungles of Magdalena, La Guajira, Cesar and Santander cost the lives of more than 80% of the troops and they hadn't found El Dorado...
Tisquesusa
(† 1537)
Sagipa
(† 1540)
Sagipa, or Saquesazipa, was the last ruler of Bacatá, as successor of Tisquesusa, defeated near Funza, on April 20, 1537, and died, as the prophecy said, "bathing in his own blood", due to attacks by the Spanish. His body was not found a year after. His defeat meant a new reign over the savanna and the foundation of Bogotá on August 6, 1538

Conquest and early colonial periodEdit

Quemuenchatocha
(† 1537)
Aquiminzaque
(† 1539)
Túpac Amaru
(† 1572)
Aquiminzaque, as successor of Quemuenchatocha, defeated in his home in Hunza, on August 20, 1537, was the last souvereign ruler of the Muisca and was decapitated by the Spanish, as would happen to Túpac Amaru of the Inca, 34 years later

The conquest of the Muisca was the heaviest of all four Spanish expeditions to the great American civilisations.[39] More than 80 percent of the soldiers and horses that started the journey of a year to the northern Muisca Confederation didn't make it.[40][41][42] Various settlements were founded by the Spanish between 1537 and 1539.[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]

A delegation of more than 900 men left the tropical city of Santa Marta and went on a harsh expedition through the heartlands of Colombia in search of El Dorado and the civilisation that produced all this precious gold. The leader of the first and main expedition under Spanish flag was Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, with his brother Hernán second in command.[42] Several other soldiers were participating in the journey, who would later become encomenderos and taking part in the conquest of other parts of Colombia. Other contemporaneous expeditions into the unknown interior of the Andes, all searching for the mythical land of gold, were starting from later Venezuela, led by Bavarian and other German conquistadors and from the south, starting in the previously founded Kingdom of Quito in later Ecuador.

The first phase of the conquest was ended by the victory of the few conquistadors left over Tisquesusa, the last zipa of Bacatá, who fell and died "bathing in his own blood"after the battle at Funza, on the Bogotá savanna, April 20, 1537. The arrival of the Spanish conquerors was revealed to Tisquesusa by the mohan Popón, from the village of Ubaque. He told the Muisca ruler that foreigners were coming and Tisquesusa would die "bathing in his own blood".[53] When Tisquesusa was informed of the advancing invasion of the Spanish soldiers, he sent a spy to Suesca to find out more about their army strength, weapons and with how many warriors they could be beaten. The zipa left the capital Bacatá and took shelter in Nemocón which directed the Spanish troops to there, during this march attacked by more than 600 Muisca warriors.[54]

When Tisquesusa retreated in his fort in Cajicá he allegedly told his men he would not be able to combat against the strong Spanish army in possession of weapons that produced "thunder and lightning". He chose to return to Bacatá and ordered the capital to be evacuated, resulting in an abandoned site when the Spanish arrived. In search for the Muisca ruler the conquistadores went north to find Tisquesusa in the surroundings of Facatativá where they attacked him at night.

Tisquesusa was thrusted by the sword of one of De Quesada's soldiers but without knowing he was the zipa he let him go, after taking the expensive mantle of the ruler. Tisquesusa fled hurt into the mountains and died of his wounds there. His body was only discovered a year later because of the black vultures circling over it.

When Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada found out the caciques were conspiring against him, he sent out several expeditions of soldiers. His captain Juan de Céspedes went south to found Pasca on July 15, 1537.[55] Hernán was sent north and Gonzalo himself went northeast, to search for the mythical Land of Gold El Dorado. There he didn't find golden cities, but emeralds, the Muisca were extracting in Chivor and Somondoco. First foundation was Engativá, presently a locality of Bogotá, on May 22, 1537.[48] Passing through Suba, Chía, Cajicá, Tocancipá, Gachancipá, Guatavita and Sesquilé, he arrived in Chocontá, founding the modern town on June 9.[49] The journey went eastward into the Tenza Valley through Machetá, Tibiritá, Guateque, Sutatenza and Tenza, founded on San Juan; June 24.[50] On the same day, Hernán founded Sutatausa.[51] Gonzalo continued northwest through La Capilla and Úmbita. He arrived in Turmequé that he founded on July 20.[52]

In August 1537 Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada entered the territories of the zaque, who ruled from Hunza. When the Spanish conquerors entered the outskirts of Hunza and found a hill with poles were bodies were dangling, they named it Cerro de la Horca ("Gallow Hill").[56] At the time of the conquest Quemuenchatocha was the zaque and he ordered his men to not submit to the European invaders or show them the way to his bohío. He sent messengers to the Spanish conquistadors with valuable peace offers. While this was happening, Quemuenchatocha had hidden his treasures from the Spanish. Hunza was located in a valley not as green as the Bogotá savanna. The advantage of the Spanish weaponry and the use of the horses quickly beat the Muisca warriors.[42]

When Gonzalo arrived at the main bohío of Quemuenchatocha, he found the Muisca ruler sitting in his throne and surrounded by his closest companions. All men were dressed in expensive mantles and adorned with golden crowns. On August 20, 1537, the Spanish beat the zaque and the big and strong Muisca ruler was taken captive to Suesca. There he was tortured and the Spanish soldiers hoped he would reveal where he hid his precious properties. The absence of Quemuenchatocha paved the route for his nephew Aquiminzaque to succeed him as ruler of the northern Muisca, a practice common in Muisca traditions. When Quemuenchatocha was finally released from captivity in Suesca, he fled to Ramiriquí, where he died shortly after. The Spanish soldiers found gold, emeralds, silver, mantles and other valuables in Tunja. They were not able to take all the precious pieces and many were secretly taken away by the Muisca, using folded deer skins. They hid the valuables in nearby hills.[42]

Feb 1537 First contact @ Chipatá
Mar-Apr 1537 Expedition into Muisca Confederation
20 Apr 1537 Conquest of Funza upon zipa Tisquesusa
May-Aug 1537 Expedition & conquest in Tenza Valley
20 Aug 1537 Conquest Hunza, zaque Quemuenchatocha
Early Sep 1537 Conquest Sugamuxi, iraca Sugamuxi
Oct 1537-Feb 1538 Other foundations on Altiplano & valleys
6 Aug 1538 Foundation Santafé de Bogotá, by Gonzalo
20 Aug 1538 B. of Tocarema; Spanish & zipa beat Panche
6 Aug 1539 Foundation Tunja, by Gonzalo Suárez
15 Dec 1539 Conquest Tundama, by Baltasar Maldonado
Early 1540 Decapitation last zaque Aquiminzaque, Hernán
I - Soldiers of the main expedition - Santa Marta-Funza and on - February - April 20, 1537
Name
leader in bold
Nationality Years
active
Encountered
bold is conquered
Year
of
death
Image Notes
Gonzalo Jiménez
de Quesada
Granadian 1536-39
1569-72
zipa
zaque
1579
[39][40][42]
Juan Maldonado Castilian 1536-39
1569-72
Muisca [40][note 2]
Gonzalo Macías Castilian 1536-39
1569-71
Muisca 1571~ [40][57]
Hernán Pérez
de Quesada
Granadian 1536-39
1540-42
Muisca 1544 [40][42]
Gonzalo Suárez Rendón Castilian 1536-39 zipa, zaque 1590 [40][42][58]
Martín Galeano Castilian 1536-39
1540-45
Muisca 1554~ [40][42][59]
Lázaro Fonte Castilian 1536-39
1540-42
Muisca 1542 [40][42]
Juan de Céspedes Castilian 1525-43 Muisca 1573 or 1576 [40][42][60][61]
Juan de San Martín Castilian 1536-39
1540-45
Muisca [40][42]
Antonio de Lebrija Castilian 1536-39 Muisca 1540 [40]
Ortún Velázquez de Velasco Castilian 1536-39 Muisca 1584 [40][62]
Bartolomé Camacho Zambrano Castilian 1536-39 Muisca [40]
Antonio Díaz de Cardoso Castilian 1536-39 Muisca [40]
Pedro Fernández de Valenzuela Castilian 1536-39 Muisca [40]
640+ conquistadors
~80%
mostly Castilian April 1536
-
April 1537
Diseases, jaguars, crocodiles, climate,
various indigenous warfare
1536
1537
[40][42]
II & III - Soldiers of the expeditions De Belalcázar & Federmann (1535-1539)
Name
leader in bold
Nationality Years
active
Encountered
bold is conquered
Year
of
death
Image Notes
Sebastián de Belalcázar Castilian 1514-39 Muisca 1551
[39][42]
Baltasar Maldonado Castilian 1543-52 Muisca 1552 [63][64][65][66]
Nikolaus Federmann Bavarian 1535-39 Muisca 1542 [39][42]
Miguel Holguín y Figueroa Castilian 1535-39 Muisca 1576> [67]
I - 1 - Main expedition - inland and up from Chipatá to Funza - March - April 1537
Settlement
bold is founded
Department Date Year Altitude (m)
urban centre
Notes Map
Chipatá Santander 8 March 1537 1820 [42][43]
Barbosa Santander March 1537 1610
Moniquirá Boyacá March 1537 1669 [68][note 3]
Santa Sofía Boyacá March 1537 2387
Sutamarchán Boyacá March 1537 1800
Ráquira Boyacá March 1537 2150 [69]
Simijaca Cundinamarca March 1537 2559
Susa Cundinamarca March 1537 2655
Fúquene Cundinamarca March 1537 2750
Guachetá Cundinamarca 12 March 1537 2688 [44]
Lenguazaque Cundinamarca 13 March 1537 2589 [45]
Cucunubá Cundinamarca 13–14 March 1537 2590
Suesca Cundinamarca 14 March 1537 2584 [46]
Nemocón Cundinamarca March 1537 2585 [42]
Zipaquirá Cundinamarca March 1537 2650
Cajicá Cundinamarca 23 March 1537 2558 [42][70]
Chía Cundinamarca 24 March 1537 2564 [42][71]
Cota Cundinamarca March–April 1537 2566
Funza Cundinamarca 20 April 1537 2548 [42][47]
I - 2 - Gonzalo - Tenza Valley - Conquest of Hunza & Sugamuxi - May - August 20 & September, 1537
Settlement
bold is founded
Department Date Year Note(s) Map
Engativá Cundinamarca 22 May 1537 [48]
Suba Cundinamarca May 1537
Chía Cundinamarca May 1537
Cajicá Cundinamarca May 1537
Tocancipá Cundinamarca May–June 1537
Gachancipá Cundinamarca May–June 1537
Guatavita Cundinamarca May–June 1537
Sesquilé
Lake Guatavita
El Dorado
Cundinamarca May–June 1537
Chocontá Cundinamarca 9 June 1537 [49]
Machetá Cundinamarca June 1537
Tibiritá Cundinamarca June 1537
Guateque Boyacá June 1537
Sutatenza Boyacá June 1537
Tenza Boyacá 24 June 1537 [50]
La Capilla Boyacá June–July 1537
Chivor Boyacá July 1537 [72]
Úmbita Boyacá July 1537
Turmequé Boyacá 20 July 1537 [52]
Boyacá Boyacá 8 August 1537 [73]
Ciénega Boyacá August 1537
Soracá Boyacá 20 August ~15:00 1537 [74]
Hunza Boyacá 20 August 1537 [74]
3 - Hernán - Foundation of Sutatausa - June 24, 1537
Name Department Date Year Note(s) Map
Sutatausa Cundinamarca 24 June 1537 [51]
4 - Juan de Céspedes - Southern savanna - 1537
Name Department Date Year Note(s) Map
Pasca Cundinamarca 15 July 1537 [55]
San Antonio del Tequendama Cundinamarca 1539 [75]
5 - Juan de San Martín - 1537-1550
Name Department Date Year Note(s) Map
El Colegio Cundinamarca 1537 [76]
Cuítiva Boyacá 19 January 1550 [77]
6 - Gonzalo et al. - Foundations of Bogotá and savanna
Name Department Date Year Note(s) Map
Bojacá Cundinamarca 16 October 1537 [78]
Somondoco Boyacá 1 November 1537 [79]
Une Cundinamarca 23 February 1538 [80]
7 - Gonzalo Suárez Rendón - Foundation of Tunja - August 6, 1539
Name Department Date Year Note(s) Map
Tunja Boyacá 6 August 1539
8 - Baltasar Maldonado - Conquest of Tundama - December 1539
Name Department Date Year Note(s) Map
Duitama Boyacá 15 December 1539 [81]
9 - Hernán & Lázaro Fonte a.o. - 1540
Name Department Date Year Note(s) Map
Motavita Boyacá 1540 [82]
Nevado del Sumapaz Cundinamarca 1540

Early colonial periodEdit

Year(s) Epidemic
1537 Tunja Province: ~250,000 est. inh.
1558< no data
1558-60 smallpox, measles
1568-69 influenza
1587-90 influenza (or typhus)
1607 smallpox
1617-18 measles (after food shortages)
1621 smallpox
1633 typhus
1636 Tunja Province: ~50,000 est. inh.
-80%

Not only the Spanish settlers had lost large percentages of their men due to warfare and diseases. The assessed corregimientos of the Province of Tunja between 1537 and 1636 shows a decline of the total Muisca population between 65 and 85%.[83] Epidemics were the main cause of the rapid reduction in population. Various have been reported and many undescribed in the first twenty years of contact.[84]

After the foundation of Bogotá and the installation of the new dependency of the Spanish Crown, several strategies were important to the Spanish conquerors. The rich mineral resources of the Altiplano had to be extracted, the agriculture was quickly reformed, a system of encomiendas was installed and a main concern of the Spanish was the evangelisation of the Muisca. On October 9, 1549, Carlos V sent a royal letter to the New Kingdom directed at the priests about the necessity of population reduction of the Muisca.[85] The indigenous people were working in the encomiendas which limited their religious conversion.[85] To speed up the process of submittance to the Spanish reign, the mobility of the indigenous people was prohibited and the people gathered in resguardos.[86] The formerly celebrated festivities in their religion disappeared. Specific times for the catechesis were controlled by laws, as executed in royal dictates in 1537, 1538 and 1551.[87] The first bishop of Santafé, Juan de los Barrios, ordered to destroy the temples of the Muisca and replace them with catholic churches.[88] The last public religious ceremony of the Muisca religion was held in Ubaque on December 27, 1563.[89] The second bishop of Santafé, Luis Zapata de Cárdenas, intensified the aggressive policies against the Muisca religion and the burnings of their sacred sites. This formed the final nail in the coffin of the former polytheistic society.[88]

The transition to a mixed agriculture with Old World crops was remarkably fast, mainly to do with the fertility of the lands of the Altiplano permitting European crops to grow there, while in the more tropical areas the soil was not so much suited for the foreign crops. In 1555, the Muisca of Toca were growing European crops as wheat and barley and sugarcane was grown in other areas.[90] The previously self-sustaining economy was quickly transformed into one based on intensive agriculture and mining that produced changes in the landscape and culture of the Muisca.[91]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While some sources state 47,000 km² as area,[1] that would be Cundinamarca and Boyacá combined and other indigenous groups were living in those areas
  2. ^ Not the same as Juan Maldonado, who was only 11 in 1536
  3. ^ Note: date of foundation says March 16, 1537, which cannot be correct, as the troops were already in Cundinamarca by that date

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ (in Spanish) Muisca Confederation area almost 47,000 km2, page 12
  2. ^ (in Spanish) Muisca culture - Historia Universal - accessed 21-04-2016
  3. ^ Gamboa Mendoza, 2016
  4. ^ (in Spanish) Nivel Paleoindio. Abrigos rocosos del Tequendama
  5. ^ Gómez Mejía, 2012, p.153
  6. ^ Ocampo López, 2007, p.27
  7. ^ Ocampo López, 2007, p.26
  8. ^ (in Spanish) Herrera Period - Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  9. ^ (in Spanish) Chronology of pre-Columbian periods: Herrera and Muisca
  10. ^ Kruschek, 2003
  11. ^ Langebaek, 1995, Ch.4, p.70
  12. ^ Izquierdo Peña, 2009
  13. ^ (in Spanish) Muysccubun: chie
  14. ^ Casimilas Rojas, 2005, p.250
  15. ^ Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1947, p.30
  16. ^ Quesada & Rojas, 1999, p.93
  17. ^ (in Spanish) Muysccubun: ata
  18. ^ Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1947, p.38
  19. ^ (in Spanish) Muysccubun: muysca
  20. ^ Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1947, p.25
  21. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Buenavista
  22. ^ (in Spanish) Reconstruction of the Guane people - El Espectador
  23. ^ (in Spanish) Las Tribus Indígenas en Colombia
  24. ^ Chibcha-speaking U'wa
  25. ^ Achagua in Encyclopædia Britannica
  26. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Miraflores
  27. ^ (in Spanish) Description Guayupe
  28. ^ (in Spanish) Indios Sutagaos
  29. ^ The lost Panches
  30. ^ (in Spanish) El vocabulario Muzo-Colima de la relación de Juan Suárez de Cepeda (1582)
  31. ^ (in Spanish) Apuntes para el análisis de la situación de la lengua Carare
  32. ^ (in Spanish) Legend of El Dorado on the shores of Lake Guatavita - Casa Cultural Colombiana - accessed 21-04-2016
  33. ^ (in Spanish) Birth of mankind from Lake Iguaque - Cultura, Recreación y Deporte - accessed 21-04-2016
  34. ^ (in Spanish) Legend of the lover of Meicuchuca turning into a snake in the Tequendama Fallas - Pueblos Originarios - accessed 21-04-2016
  35. ^ Ocampo López, 2013, Ch.18, p.99
  36. ^ (in Spanish) El Infiernito; astronomical site - Pueblos Originarios
  37. ^ Langebaek, 2005b, p.282
  38. ^ Izquierdo, 2014
  39. ^ a b c d (in Spanish) Personajes de la Conquista a América - Banco de la República
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p (in Spanish) List of conquistadors led by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada - Banco de la República
  41. ^ (in Spanish) Biography Hernán Pérez de Quesada - Banco de la República
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s (in Spanish) Conquista rápida y saqueo cuantioso de Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
  43. ^ a b (in Spanish) Official website Chipatá
  44. ^ a b (in Spanish) Official website Guachetá
  45. ^ a b (in Spanish) Official website Lenguazaque
  46. ^ a b (in Spanish) Official website Suesca
  47. ^ a b (in Spanish) Official website Funza
  48. ^ a b c (in Spanish) Engativá celebra hoy sus 458 años - El Tiempo
  49. ^ a b c (in Spanish) Official website Chocontá
  50. ^ a b c (in Spanish) Official website Tenza
  51. ^ a b c (in Spanish) Official website Sutatausa
  52. ^ a b c (in Spanish) Official website Turmequé
  53. ^ (in Spanish) Tisquesusa would die bathing in his own blood - Pueblos Originarios
  54. ^ (in Spanish) Zipa Tisquesusa - Banco de la República
  55. ^ a b (in Spanish) Official website Pasca
  56. ^ (in Spanish) Biography Quemuenchatocha - Pueblos Originarios
  57. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.173
  58. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.84
  59. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.144
  60. ^ (in Spanish) Biography Juan de Céspedes - Banco de la República
  61. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.69
  62. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.xii
  63. ^ (in Spanish) Baltasar Maldonado - Soledad Acosta Samper - Banco de la República
  64. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.88
  65. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.93
  66. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.94
  67. ^ Rodríguez Freyle, 1979 (1638), p.153
  68. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Moniquirá
  69. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Ráquira
  70. ^ (in Spanish) History Cajicá
  71. ^ (in Spanish) De Quesada celebrated the Holy Week in Chia
  72. ^ (in Spanish) History Chivor
  73. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Boyacá
  74. ^ a b (in Spanish) Official website Soracá
  75. ^ (in Spanish) Official website San Antonio del Tequendama
  76. ^ (in Spanish) Official website El Colegio
  77. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Cuítiva
  78. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Bojacá
  79. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Somondoco
  80. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Une
  81. ^ (in Spanish) Biography Cacique Tundama - Pueblos Originarios
  82. ^ (in Spanish) Official website Motavita
  83. ^ Francis, 2002, p.59
  84. ^ Francis, 2002, p.42
  85. ^ a b Suárez, 2015, p.128
  86. ^ Segura Calderón, 2014, p.38
  87. ^ Suárez, 2015, p.125
  88. ^ a b Suárez, 2015, p.129
  89. ^ Londoño, 2001, p.4
  90. ^ Francis, 1993, p.60
  91. ^ Martínez & Manrique, 2014, p.102

Bibliography and further readingEdit

Spanish chroniclersEdit