Palace of Justice siege

Palace of Justice siege
Part of Colombian armed conflict

A Colombian Police Bell 212 deploying troops on the roof of the Palace of Justice during the siege
Date6–7 November 1985

Colombian government victory.
Destruction of the building.

  • Creation of the AFEUR unit.
Colombia Colombian government M-19's flag M19
Commanders and leaders
Colombia Gen. Jesús Armando Arias Cabrales
Colombia Col. Alfonso Plazas
M-19's flag Luis Otero Cifuentes [1]
Units involved
Colombian Army Ivan Marino Ospina Company
2 squadrons of 4 EE-9 Cascavel
3 vehicles
Casualties and losses
11 killed 33 killed
43 civilians killed
11 missing[2]

The Palace of Justice siege was a 1985 attack on the Supreme Court of Colombia, in which members of the leftist M-19 guerrilla group took over the Palace of Justice in Bogotá and held the Supreme Court hostage, intending to hold a trial against President Belisario Betancur. The guerrilla group called themselves the "Iván Marino Ospina Company" after an M-19 commander who had been killed by the Colombian military on 28 August 1985.[1] Hours later, after a military raid, the incident had left almost half of the twenty-five Supreme Court Justices dead.[3][4]

Background Edit

Drug dealers had issued death threats against the Supreme Court Justices since 1985, with the intention of forcing them to rule out the Extradition Treaty with the United States.[5]

Security Agency Foreknowledge Edit

According to the investigation carried out by the Special Court of Instruction created by decree 3300 of 1985, State Security agencies and even the media had varying levels of knowledge about the siege prior to the attack.[6] [7] A month earlier, two guerrillas were arrested loitering around the Palace and had building plans in their possession. The military authorities had also found, in a raid on a residence south of Bogotá, a cassette containing the proclamation M-19 intended to have broadcast as one of their demands.[8] Additionally, suspicion exists regarding the speed of the military's response, seen in the prompt arrival of armored cars, despite the great distance between their base and the Palace of Justice.

In 2007 the testimony of an alleged witness, former policeman and intelligence agent Ricardo Gámez, gave further support to the claims of state-foreknowladge. Gamez, who first tried to file a report of misconduct in 1989 had been deemed unreliable by the Attorney General's Office for the Military Forces and Prosecutor's Office, but parts of his testimony was later corroborated by the discovery of video recordings showing hostages who were later disappeared or died under torture being evacuated from the Palace. The witness said that days before the takeover of the Palace of Justice, all intelligence personnel were quartered under the warning that something was going to happen and that an operational command had already been set up in the Casa del Florero. At 5:30 AM (UTC-5) hours before the takeover, he and several intelligence agents were located in Carrera Septima near Santander Park , waiting for the attack to begin.[9]

Siege Edit

Day one: 6 November Edit

On 6 November 1985, at 11:35 a.m., three vehicles holding 35 guerrillas (25 men and 10 women) stormed the Palace of Justice of Colombia, entering through the basement.[10][11][12][13] Meanwhile, another group of guerrillas disguised as civilians took over the first floor and the main entrance.[11] The guerrillas killed security guards Eulogio Blanco and Gerardo Díaz Arbeláez and building manager Jorge Tadeo Mayo Castro.[14]

Jorge Medina, a witness located in the basement at the start of the siege, said that "suddenly, the guerrillas entered the basement in a truck. They opened fire with their machine guns against everyone who was there".[15] The official report judged that the guerrillas planned the takeover operation to be a 'bloody takeover'.[16] According to these official sources[17] the guerrillas "set out to shoot indiscriminately and detonate building-shaking bombs while chanting M19-praising battle cries."

The M-19 lost one guerrilla and a nurse during the initial raid on the building.[18] After the guerrillas had neutralised the security personnel guarding the building, they installed armed posts at strategic places, such as the stairs and the fourth floor.[18] A group of guerrillas led by Commander Luis Otero got to the fourth floor and kidnapped the President of the Supreme Court, Chief Justice Alfonso Reyes Echandía.[18]

In the meantime many hostages took refuge in empty offices on the first floor, where they hid until around 2 pm.[16]

The assailants took 300 people hostage, including the 24 justices and 20 other judges. The first hostage the guerrilla group asked for was the Supreme Court Justice and President of the Constitutional Court, then called Sala Constitucional, Manuel Gaona Cruz,[19] who was in charge of delivering the opinion of the court with regard to the constitutionality of the extradition treaty between Colombia and the United States.

About three hours after the initial seizure, army troops rescued about 200 hostages[20] from the lower three floors of the building; the surviving gunmen and remaining hostages occupied the upper two floors.

A recording was delivered to a radio station soon after the seizure, saying that the M-19 group had taken over the building "in the name of peace and social justice".[citation needed] From the Supreme Court, the M-19 members demanded via telephone that President Belisario Betancur come to the Palace of Justice in order to stand trial and negotiate. The president refused and ordered an emergency cabinet session.

Day two: 7 November Edit

The M-19 rebels freed State Councillor Reynaldo Arciniegas at 8:30am, with a message for the government to allow the entry of the Red Cross and initiate dialogue. However, the assault on the Palace of Justice commenced later that morning.[11]

Assault Edit

The operation to retake the building was led by General Jesús Armando Arias Cabrales, commander of the Thirteenth Army Brigade in Bogotá; he appointed Colonel Alfonso Plazas, commander of an armored cavalry battalion, to personally oversee the operation.[citation needed] The retaking of the building began that day and ended on 7 November, when Army troops stormed the Palace of Justice, after having occupied some of the lower floors during the first day of the siege. After surrounding the building with EE-9 Cascavel armored cars and EE-11 Urutu armored personnel carrier and soldiers with G3s and MP5, they stormed the building sometime after 2 pm. The EE-9s knocked down the building's massive doorway, and even made some direct hits against the structure's external walls.

The results of the tests carried out later by ballistics experts and investigators demonstrated that the most likely cause of the burning criminal records, containing proof and warrants against many criminals, was the recoil effect of the army's rockets and not part of M-19's actions. Tests proved that if fired by a soldier standing within twenty feet of wood-lined walls of the library that housed Colombian legal archives, the intense heat generated by the rocket's rear blast could have ignited the wooden paneling. In any event, in a shelved area stacked high with old papers, files, books, and newspapers, the quantity of explosives used by the military virtually guaranteed a conflagration."[21] In total, over 6000 different documents were burned. The fire lasted about 2 days, even with efforts from firemen to try to smother the flames. An investigated theory to the "disappearance" of the missing entities in the siege is that they were charred in the fire, and were not able to be identified in any way, and without having been found, these entities are regarded as missing in action. This theory is still being studied in the different trials of the case.[22]

98 people died during the assault on the Palace. Those killed consisted of hostages, soldiers, and guerrillas, including their leader, Andrés Almarales, and four other senior commanders of M-19. After the raid, another Supreme Court justice died in a hospital after suffering a heart attack.

Aftermath Edit

The siege of the Palace of Justice and the subsequent raid was one of the deadliest attacks in Colombia in its war with leftist rebels. The M-19 group was still a potent force after the raid, but was severely hampered by the deaths of five of its leaders. In March 1990, it signed a peace treaty with the government.

After the siege, firemen rushed to the site of the assault and smothered the few flames left in the palace. Other rescue groups assisted with removing debris and rubble left after the siege.

President Betancur went on national TV on the night of the 7th, saying he took full responsibility for the "terrible nightmare"; He offered condolences to the families of those who died, civilians and rebels, and said he would continue to look for a peaceful solution with the rebels. Exactly a week later, on 14 November, he would offer condolences for another tragedy: the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, which killed 25,000 people in the Armero tragedy. "We have had one national tragedy after another", he said.

This siege led to the creation of the AFEUR unit within the Colombian Army to manage this kind of situation. Colombia's Armed Forces did not have antiterrorist units specifically trained for urban operations before the siege, and some partially blamed the outcome on the relative inexperience of the personnel assigned to the task.

Dead magistrates Edit

The twelve magistrates killed were:[23]

  1. Manuel Gaona Cruz
  2. Alfonso Reyes Echandía
  3. Fabio Calderón Botero
  4. Dario Velásquez Gaviria
  5. Eduardo Gnecco Correa
  6. Carlos Medellín Forero
  7. Ricardo Medina Moyano
  8. Alfonso Patiño Rosselli
  9. Horacio Montoya Gil
  10. Pedro Elías Serrano Abadía
  11. Fanny González Franco
  12. Dante Luis Fiorillo Porras (died of a heart attack)

Alleged drug cartel links Edit

Shortly after the siege, the U.S. and Colombian Justice Minister Enrique Parejo asserted that drug traffickers had financed the operation in order to get rid of various criminal files that were lost during the event, hoping to avoid extradition.[24] Less than a week after the events, Humberto Murica, a retired Supreme Court Judge who had survived the siege stated to the Washington Post that he rejected claims that M19 was concerned with the files based on the militants' conversations.[25] It has also been noted that destroying the files housed at the Palace of Justice would not have prevented extradition as copies of the files were stored elsewhere, including at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Embassy.[26] The Special Commission of Inquiry, established by the Betancur government after intense public pressure,[27] released a June 1986 report which concluded that the destruction of files was not a goal of the M19 operation.[28]

Author Ana Carrigan, who quoted the June 1986 report in her book on the siege and originally dismissed any such links between the M-19 and the Medellín Cartel, told Cromos magazine in late 2005 that she now believes that the Cartel may have financially supported the M-19.[29]

Pablo Escobar's son claimed that while his father did not come up with or plan the raid, he did pay M-19 a million dollars. Escobar said that he supported M-19 because he "believed in the ideals" of M-19 and "looked for ways to preserve and support them".[30]

On the same day of the siege, the Supreme Court's docket apparently called for the beginning of pending deliberations on the constitutionality of the Colombia-United States extradition treaty. The M-19 was publicly opposed to extradition on nationalist grounds. Several of the magistrates had been previously threatened by drug lords in order to prevent any possibility of a positive decision on the treaty. One year after the siege, the treaty was declared unconstitutional.[31][32]

Former Assistant to the Colombian Attorney General, National Deputy Comptroller, author and renowned Professor Jose Mauricio Gaona (son of murdered Supreme Court magistrate Manuel Gaona Cruz [es])[33] along with the former Minister of Justice and Ambassador of Colombia to the United Kingdom, Carlos Medellín Becerra (son of magistrate Carlos Medellín Forero [es]), have consistently pushed for further and broader lines of investigations related not only to the presumed links between the M-19 and the Medellín Cartel drug lords, but also to any other possible links to the investigations performed by the Justices of members of the Armed Forces. President Gustavo Petro, a former M-19 guerrilla, has denied these accusations and dismissed them as based upon the inconsistent testimonies of drug lords. Petro says that the surviving members of the M-19 do admit to their share of responsibility for the tragic events of the siege, on behalf of the entire organization, but deny any links to the drug trade.[34]

Impunity Edit

Later investigations and commentators have considered both the M-19 and the military as responsible for the deaths of the justices and civilians inside the building. Some have blamed President Belisario Betancur for not taking the necessary actions or for failing to negotiate, and others have commented on the possibility of a sort of de facto "24-hour coup", during which the military was in control of the situation.

According to Ana Carrigan's 1993 book The Palace of Justice: A Colombian Tragedy, Supreme Court Chief Justice Alfonso Reyes was apparently burned alive during the assault, as someone incinerated his body after pouring gasoline over it. The book also asserts that, after the siege was over, some twenty-eight bodies were dumped into a mass grave and apparently soaked with acid, in order to make identification difficult. Carrigan argued that the bodies of the victims of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano eruption, which buried the city of Armero and killed more than 20,000 people, were dumped into the same mass grave, making any further forensic investigations impractical.[35][36]

Despite numerous investigations and lawsuits to date, impunity prevailed for most of the subsequent decades. Ana Carrigan asserted in her 1993 book that "Colombia has moved on... Colombia has forgotten the Palace of Justice siege", in much the same way that, in her opinion, Colombians have also forgotten or adopted a position of denial towards other tragic events, such as the 1928 Santa Marta Massacre. No definite responsibility has been fixed on the government or on the surviving members of the M-19 movement who were pardoned after they demobilized.

Eduardo Umaña, the first attorney representing some of the families of the people killed during the siege, was assassinated in 1998, and several members of those families had to flee to Europe because of death threats against them.[37]

The missing Edit

The eleven missing[38]
Photos of the missing[39]
Name Occupation
Bernardo Beltrán Fernández Cafeteria waiter[40]
Héctor Jaime Beltrán Fuentes Cafeteria waiter[40]
Ana Rosa Castilblanco* Assistant chef[41]
David Celis Cafeteria Chef[40]
Norma Constanza Esguerra Sold homemade
in cafeteria[41][42]
Cristina Guarín Cortés Teller in cafeteria
Gloria Stella Lizarazo Figueroa Cafeteria employee
Luz Mary Portela León Cafeteria dishwasher[41]
Carlos Augusto Vera Rodríguez Cafeteria manager[40]
Gloria Anzola de Lanao Niece of
Aydee Anzola,
state official
Irma Franco Pineda Law student,
M-19 member

At least 11 people disappeared during the events of the siege, most of them cafeteria workers, the fate of ten of them unknown. It is likely that their remains may be among a number of unidentified and charred bodies, one of which was identified through DNA testing done by the National University of Colombia, leaving the fates of the other 10 still in question.[43]

According to Ana Carrigan, Irma Franco, a law student and M-19 guerrilla, disappeared after she was captured. Carrigan states that Franco was seen in the custody of Colombian special forces by several hostages. She also states that the guerrilla left with several hostages and was never seen again.[44] The Special Commission of Inquiry confirmed Franco's disappearance, and the judges requested that the investigation of her case be thoroughly pursued.[45]

One week after the siege, M-19 released a communique to the press claiming that six leaders, including Franco, and "seven other fighters" had all been "disappeared and murdered" by the army. From the tapes of the military and police inter-communications it is known that army intelligence arrested at least seventeen people in the course of the two-day siege. None of the M-19 leaders, with the exception of Andrés Almarales, were ever identified in the city morgue.[46]

Later developments Edit

The new Palace of Justice building.

The events surrounding the Palace of Justice siege received renewed media coverage in Colombia during the 20th anniversary of the tragedy. Among other outlets, the country's main daily El Tiempo, the weekly El Espectador, and the Cromos magazine published several articles, interviews and opinion pieces on the matter, including stories about the survivors, as well as the plight of the victims' relatives and those of the missing.[47][48]

2005–2006 Truth Commission Edit

The Supreme Court created a Truth Commission in order to investigate the siege. The Commission officially began its work on November 3, 2005.[49]

2006–2007 Judicial processes Edit

On 22 August 2006, Attorney General Mario Iguarán announced that former Colonel Edilberto Sánchez, former B-2 intelligence chief of the Army's Thirteenth Brigade, would be summoned for questioning and investigated for the crimes of kidnapping and forced disappearance. Public prosecutors were to reopen the case after examining video tape recordings and identifying cafeteria manager Carlos Augusto Rodríguez being taken outside of the Palace of Justice alive by a soldier, together with other former M-19 hostages.[50]

Sánchez was then detained. In May 2007, he was questioned by prosecutors about his possible role in the disappearance of Irma Franco and at least two cafeteria workers, who would have left the Palace alive. Sánchez rejected the charges and proclaimed his innocence. He accepted that he could have received the order to cover the exit of some hostages from the Palace of Justice.[51]

2008 Virginia Vallejo's testimony Edit

On 11 July 2008, Virginia Vallejo, the television anchorwoman who was romantically involved with Pablo Escobar from 1983 to 1987 and author of "Amando a Pablo, odiando a Escobar" (2007) (Loving Pablo, Hating Escobar),[52] was asked to testify in the reopened case of the siege of the Palace of Justice, in order to confirm events that she had described in her memoir, in the chapter "That Palace in Flames", in pages 230 to 266.[53] In the Colombian Consulate in Miami, under oath, she described the relationship of the drug lord with the Sandinista Government of Nicaragua[54][55] and the M-19; also, a meeting of Escobar with the rebel commander Ivan Marino Ospina, in which she had been present, two weeks before the latter was killed by the Army, on August 28, 1985.[56] In her judicial declaration, Vallejo confirmed how, in mid-1986, Escobar had told her that he had paid one million dollars in cash to the rebels, and another million in arms and explosives to steal his files from the Palace of Justice, before the Supreme Court began studying the extradition of the leading members of the cocaine cartels to the United States.[57] During her testimony, that lasted five hours, the journalist described also photographs of sixteen bodies that she had received anonymously in that year. According to her, Escobar identified the victims as the employees of the cafeteria of the Palace and two rebel women that had been detained by the Army after the siege, and had been tortured and disappeared on orders of colonel Edilberto Sánchez, director of B-2, Military Intelligence.[57] Though her testimony was protected under gag, several excerpts appeared on 17 August 2008 in El Tiempo, the newspaper of the Santos' family, including the vice president Francisco Santos, and defense minister Juan Manuel Santos.[58][59] On radio stations,[60] Vallejo accused the office of the Colombian Attorney General of filtering it to the media and adulterating the contents, to protect the military and the former presidential candidate Alberto Santofimio, Escobar's political ally.[61][62] On 3 June 2010, Virginia Vallejo was granted political asylum in the United States.[63]

Sentence and Absolution of Colonel Plazas Vega Edit

In 2010, retired Colonel Alfonso Plazas Vega was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment for his alleged role in forced disappearances after the siege.[64]

The President of Colombia, Álvaro Uribe, reacted by declaring that he was "sad and hurt" by the decision. He announced his intention of seeking changes to the way military are judged in Colombia and asked for prison sentences for those he called the "instigators" of the massacre.[65] Uribe also had a meeting with the military command to find ways to protect them from "judiciary decisions that interfere with their work".[66]

Nevertheless, Colombia's General Attorney declared that crimes against humanity took place during the siege, which allowed for the continued processing of another colonel and one general involved in the incident.[37] María Stella Jara, the judge that handed the sentence to Colonel Plazas left the country after receiving multiple death threats to her and her son. She and her family had to live under heavy surveillance for the duration of the trial.[67]

On 16 December 2015 Colonel Plazas Vega was declared innocent in a five to three vote by the Colombian Supreme Court and absolved of his previous 30-year prison sentence. The declaration was influenced by a revisiting of the case in the Supreme Court when the validity of testimonies of four witnesses came into question, along with absence of conclusive evidence to prove guilty in the charges brought again Plazas Vega.[68]

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b "27 Hours That Shook Bogota - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2018-06-15.
  2. ^ de 2020, 6 de Noviembre. "Toma del Palacio de Justicia: 35 años después se sigue pidiendo justicia". infobae.
  3. ^ Livingstone, Grace (2004). Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy, and War. Rutgers University Press. p. 55. ISBN 0-8135-3443-7.
  4. ^ Pearce, Jenny (1 May 1990). Colombia:Inside the Labyrinth. Latin America Bureau. p. 181. ISBN 0-906156-44-0.
  5. ^ Consejo Superior de la Judicatura. (2005). Libro Blanco. 20 años del Holocausto del Palacio de Justicia. Bogotá: Legis. pp. 53-54.
  6. ^ "DECRETO 3300 DE 1985". Retrieved 2021-09-24.
  7. ^ Cajar, Prensa. "El Ejército Nacional conocía de los planes del M-19 para tomarse el Palacio de Justicia | CAJAR" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-09-24.
  8. ^ "El testigo del holocausto". SEMANA. April 6, 2007.
  9. ^ "El testigo del holocausto". SEMANA. April 6, 2007.
  10. ^ Acosta, Mauricio (director) (2011). El Palacio de Justicia [The Palace of Justice] (Television production) (in Spanish). History Channel. Event occurs at 01:32-01:39. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved March 15, 2013 – via YouTube.
  11. ^ a b c Administrator. "Yo Creo En Plazas". Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  12. ^ "HOLOCAUSTO PALACIO DE JUSTICIA 1985 (parte 1 de 8)". Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 16 December 2014 – via YouTube.
  13. ^ "El papel de la antropología forense en la identificación de las víctimas del holocausto del Palacio de Justicia, Bogotá, Colombia (1985) - Dialnet". Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  14. ^ Consejo Superior de la Judicatura. (2005). Libro Blanco. 20 años del Holocausto del Palacio de Justicia. Bogotá: Legis. p. 93.
  15. ^ Consejo Superior de la Judicatura. (2005). Libro Blanco. 20 años del Holocausto del Palacio de Justicia. Bogotá: Legis. p. 101.
  16. ^ a b Consejo Superior de la Judicatura. (2005). Libro Blanco. 20 años del Holocausto del Palacio de Justicia. Bogotá: Legis. p. 102.
  17. ^ Consejo Superior de la Judicatura. (2005). Libro Blanco. 20 años del Holocausto del Palacio de Justicia. Bogotá: Legis. pp. 102-103.
  18. ^ a b c Consejo Superior de la Judicatura. (2005). Libro Blanco. 20 años del Holocausto del Palacio de Justicia. Bogotá: Legis. p. 173.
  19. ^ Official Report. Commission of Truth. Colombia Supreme Court Justice / Preliminary Report November 2005. See also, Ambito Juridico Law Review Journal. Legis, 6 de Noviembre de 2005.
  20. ^ Adriana Echeverry; Ana María Hanssen (2005). Holocausto en el silencio (in Spanish). Editorial Planeta. p. 156.
  21. ^ Carrigan, Ana.(1963)."The Palace of Justice: A Colombian Tragedy", p.160. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.
  22. ^ Palace Of Justice Siege
  23. ^ Rama Judicial Archived 2004-04-15 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "12 Colombian Justices Dead: Half of High Court Killed in Takeover". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  25. ^ Graham, Bradley (Nov 13, 1985). "27 Hours That Shook Bogota". Washington Post.
  26. ^ Segovia Mora, Guillermo. "Palacio de Justicia: 35 años de ignominia". Fundacion Paz & Reconciliacion.
  27. ^ Carrigan, Ana (1993). The Palace of Justice: A Colombian Tragedy. Four Walls Eight Windows. p. 268. ISBN 0-941423-82-4.
  28. ^ Carrigan, p. 279
  29. ^ "Un Grito por el Palacio" (in Spanish). Cromos. 25 November 2005. Retrieved 2006-04-03.[dead link]
  30. ^ "Pablo Escobar se suicidó, no lo mataron: su hijo" (in Spanish). W Radio Colombia. Archived from the original on November 6, 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  31. ^ "Palacio de Justicia, 20 años de dolor". El País. 7 November 2005. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2006-04-03.
  32. ^ "Diez fallos que hicieron historia". El Espectador. 9 October 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-12-10. Retrieved 2006-04-03.
  33. ^ Gaona, José Mauricio (17 August 2001). "Hace 16 Años, y Aún Sin Respuesta". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  34. ^ "M-19 cambió drogas por armas". El País (in Spanish). 6 October 2005. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2006-04-03.
  35. ^ Carrigan, p. 263-264, 266, 281
  36. ^ McClintick, David (28 November 1993). "Lost in the Ashes". The Washington Post. pp. X5.
  37. ^ a b "Dos caras en condena historica -". Archived from the original on 2015-09-01.
  38. ^ "Contenido". Archived from the original on 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2006-02-26.
  39. ^ "The disappeared". 2006-03-06.
  40. ^ a b c d Carrigan, p. 272
  41. ^ a b c Carrigan, p. 275
  42. ^ Carrigan, p. 265
  43. ^ "Contenido". Archived from the original on 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2006-02-26.
  44. ^ Carrigan, pp. 269–270
  45. ^ Carrigan, p. 280
  46. ^ Carrigan, pp. 270–271
  47. ^ "Home - domain expired". Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  48. ^[permanent dead link]
  49. ^ "Comisión de la Verdad citará al ex presidente Belisario Betancur por toma del Palacio de Justicia". El Tiempo. 10 November 2005.
  50. ^ "Por video y testimonios reabren caso del Palacio" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 23 August 2006.
  51. ^ "En bóveda del B-2 apareció la billetera de magistrado muerto en el Palacio de Justicia" (in Spanish). El Tiempo. 14 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-25.[dead link]
  52. ^ Vallejo, Virginia (2007). Amando a Pablo, odiando a Escobar. Random House Mondadori. p. 227-251.
  53. ^ "Amando a Pablo, odiando a Escobar". 8 February 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  54. ^ "Wikileaks, Nicaragua's Ortega financed by drugs money". BBC News. 2010-12-07. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  55. ^ "Pablo Escobar fotografiado en Nicaragua" (in Spanish). 2017-09-05. Archived from the original on 2018-09-14. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  56. ^ "La muerte de un jefe del M-19, un duro golpe al plan de paz de Betancur". El País (in Spanish). 1985-08-29. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  57. ^ a b "Virginia:los narcos controlan a Univision". Archived from the original on 2021-12-21 – via
  58. ^ "Virginia Vallejo, ahora testigo en caso del Palacio" (in Spanish). 2008-08-17. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  59. ^ "Virginia Vallejo declaró en proceso por palacio de Justicia" (in Spanish). 2008-08-16. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  60. ^ "Virginia Vallejo habla sobre el narcotráfico de los 80's en Colombia". 2008-08-27. Archived from the original on 2012-02-14. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  61. ^ "Amante de Pablo Escobar afirma que este pagó por asalto a Palacio de Justicia en 1985". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  62. ^ "Presentadora Virginia Vallejo critica que Tribunal haya absuelto a Alberto Santofimio". 24 October 2008. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  63. ^ "Biography of Virginia Vallejo". Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  64. ^ "Colombian Colonel Alfonso Plazas Vega Sentenced To 30 Years For Forced Disappearances". 2010-06-10. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  65. ^ "Uribe criticizes Plazas Vega sentencing". Colombia News - Colombia Reports. 2010-06-10. Archived from the original on 2010-11-21. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  66. ^ "Uribe meets with military over Plazas Vega's sentence - Colombia News - Colombia Reports". Colombia News - Colombia Reports. 2010-06-10. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  67. ^ "Jueza María Stella Jara abandona el país por amenazas de muerte". Diálogo. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  68. ^ "La sombra de las desapariciones del Palacio se aleja de Plazas Vega". 2015-12-16.

Further reading Edit

Books Edit

Government/NGO reports Edit

News Edit

  • Jimenez, Michael F. (5 September 1994). "Dead Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life Inside the Cocaine Wars". The Nation. Vol. 259, no. 7. p. 246.
  • Kirby, Peadar (26 February 1994). "Palace where justice was put to death". The Irish Times. p. 8.
  • McClintick, David (28 November 1993). "Lost in the Ashes". The Washington Post. pp. X5.
  • Weiner, Lauren (26 December 1993). "Buffoonish Armageddon at the 'Palace of Justice'". The Washington Times. pp. B8.
  • Impunity Still Surrounds Palace of Justice Tragedy, Inter Press Service
  • O'Grady, Mary Anastasia (2011-12-12). "Colombia's Compromised Courts". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-11-10.