Portal:Panama

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Introduction

Republic of Panama
República de Panamá (Spanish)
Motto: "Pro Mundi Beneficio"
"For the Benefit of the World"
Anthem: Himno Istmeño (Spanish)
Hymn of the Isthmus
ISO 3166 codePA

Panama (/ˈpænəmɑː/ (listen) PAN-ə-mah, /pænəˈmɑː/ pan-ə-MAH; Spanish: Panamá IPA: [panaˈma] (listen)), officially the Republic of Panama (Spanish: República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country spanning the southern part of North America and the northern part of South America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. Its capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.0

Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada eventually became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. The 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties agreed to transfer the canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999. The surrounding territory was first returned in 1979.

Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. It is regarded as having a high-income economy. In 2019 Panama ranked 57th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. In 2018, Panama was ranked the seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index. Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on earth. Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO, and NAM. (Full article...)

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Manuel Noriega mug shot.jpg
Noriega's mugshot after his surrender to U.S. forces

Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (Spanish pronunciation: [maˈnwel noˈɾjeɣa]; February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian dictator, politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989. An authoritarian ruler who amassed a personal fortune through drug trafficking operations, he had longstanding ties to United States intelligence agencies before the U.S. invasion of Panama removed him from power.

Born in Panama City to a poor pardo family, Noriega studied at the Chorrillos Military School in Lima and at the School of the Americas. He became an officer in the Panamanian army, and rose through the ranks in alliance with Omar Torrijos. In 1968, Torrijos overthrew President Arnulfo Arias in a coup. Noriega became chief of military intelligence in Torrijos's government, and after Torrijos's death in 1981, consolidated power to become Panama's de facto ruler in 1983. Beginning in the 1950s, Noriega worked with U.S. intelligence agencies, and became one of the Central Intelligence Agency's most valued intelligence sources. He also served as a conduit for illicit weapons, military equipment, and cash destined for U.S.-backed forces throughout Latin America. (Full article...)
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Panama - Related Topics
History Torrijos–Carter TreatiesDarién schemeMallarino–Bidlack TreatyWatermelon WarPanama Canal RailwayMartyrs' DayHay–Bunau-Varilla TreatyPanama Canal ZoneUS invasion of PanamaHistory of the Panama CanalPanama Canal fenceZonianCoat of armsFlag of Panama
Politics List of heads of state of PanamaMartín TorrijosNational AssemblyDemocratic Revolutionary PartyArnulfista PartySolidarity PartyNationalist Republican Liberal MovementDemocratic ChangePeople's PartyNational Liberal PartyPanamanian election, 1999Panamanian election, 2004Provinces of PanamaForeign relations of PanamaPanama Canal AuthorityPanama Canal expansion referendum, 2006
Geography Panama CityIsthmus of PanamaProvinces of PanamaColón ProvinceSan Blas IslandsPearl IslandsGulf of PanamaCoibaTaboga IslandVolcán BarúGatun LakeChagres RiverGuna YalaCiudad del SaberHerrera ProvinceLos Santos ProvinceIsla Gibraleón
Panama Canal HistoryHealth MeasuresPanama Canal RailwayCulebra Cut (Gaillard Cut) • Gatun DamChagres RiverGatun LakePanama Canal locksPanamaxBridge of the AmericasCentennial Bridge, PanamaPanama Canal AuthorityPanama Canal ZonePanama Canal expansion project
Culture Music of PanamaMolasChinatownIslam in PanamaKuna peopleEmbera-Wounaan PeopleNgöbe–Buglé peoplePollera
Panamanians Alfredo SinclairOlga SinclairJustine PasekStefanie de RouxRubén BladesDanilo PérezEl GeneralDaphne Rubin-VegaJordana BrewsterBelisario PorrasVictoriano LorenzoOmar TorrijosArnulfo AriasHarmodio Arias MadridGuillermo EndaraMireya MoscosoManuel Antonio NoriegaErnesto Pérez BalladaresMartín TorrijosJulio LinaresRod CarewRolando BlackmanRoberto DuránRoberto KellyJuan BerenguerEusebio PedrozaCarlos LeeEinar DíazLaffit Pincay, Jr.Mariano RiveraRamiro MendozaHilario ZapataJosé MacíasLuis TejadaJorge Dely ValdésGilbert ArenasBruce ChenRoberto CorbinLorenzo CharlesOlmedo SáenzOscar Willis LayneBayanoHugo SpadaforaLía BorreroNele KantuleJuan Carlos NavarroManuel Amador GuerreroJosé Domingo de ObaldíaCelestino "Pelenchín" CaballeroPedro AlcázarVicente MosqueraEusebio PedrozaRoberto "La Araña" VásquezHilario ZapataIrving SaladinoBayano KamaniLloyd La BeachReginald BeckfordJaime PenedoJorge Dely ValdésJulio Dely ValdésRoberto ChenRubén Rivera
Buildings and Structures Airports: Tocumen International Airport ; Marcos A. Gelabert International Airport

Bridges: Bridge of the AmericasCentennial Bridge
Hospitals: Hospital NacionalHospital Santo TomasInstituto Oncologico Nacional • ...
Stadiums: Estadio Rommel FernándezEstadio Nacional Rod Carew
Dams: Gatun DamFortuna DamChanguinola Dam

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