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Venezuela,
Map of Venezuela
officially, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic, located at the north of South America. It borders north with the Caribbean Sea, east to Guyana, south with Brazil and west with Colombia. Its territory comprehends about 916,445 km², including 600 islands that form the Federal Dependencies, uncounting the Essequibo area, which has been largely reclaimed by the country.

A country with a large biodiversity, Venezuela is divided into 23 states (estados), the Venezuelan Capital District and the aforementioned dependencies. The capital city is Caracas, where resides the government along the legislative body. The country gained independence from Spain in 1821, and was one of the three nations that formed the Great Colombia. The economy is most based on the petroleum industry, depending also on the agricultural sector. The official language is Spanish, although several indigenous languages are spoken by aboriginal tribes through the nation.

Venezuela is a co-founder member of the OPEC and the South American Community of Nations.

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A small blue bird sits on a wooden pole.
A tree swallow at Stroud Preserve, near West Chester, Pennsylvania, US

The tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) is a migratory bird of the family Hirundinidae. Found in the Americas, the tree swallow was first described in 1807 by French ornithologist Louis Vieillot as Hirundo bicolor. It has since been moved to its current genus, Tachycineta, within which its phylogenetic placement is debated. The tree swallow has glossy blue-green upperparts, with the exception of the blackish wings and tail, and white underparts. The bill is black, the eyes dark brown, and the legs and feet pale brown. The female is generally duller than the male, and the first-year female has mostly brown upperparts, with some blue feathers. Juveniles have brown upperparts, and a grey-brown-washed breast. The tree swallow breeds in the US and Canada. It winters along southern US coasts south, along the Gulf Coast, to Panama and the northwestern coast of South America, and in the West Indies.

The tree swallow nests either in isolated pairs or loose groups, in both natural and artificial cavities. Breeding can start as soon as early May, although this date is occurring earlier because of climate change, and it can end as late as July. This bird is generally socially monogamous (although about 8% of males are polygynous), with high levels of extra-pair paternity. This can benefit the male, but since the female controls copulation, the lack of resolution on how this behaviour benefits females makes the high level of extra-pair paternity puzzling. The female incubates the clutch of two to eight (but usually four to seven) pure white eggs, usually for 14 to 15 days. The chicks hatch slightly asynchronously, allowing for the female to prioritize which chicks to feed in times of food shortage. They generally fledge about 18 to 22 days after hatching. The tree swallow is sometimes considered a model organism, due to the large amount of research done on it.

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Village Gran Roque.jpg


Los Roques archipelago is a federal dependency of Venezuela consisting of approximately 350 islands, cays, and islets in a total area of 40.61 square kilometers. The archipelago is located 128 kilometers (80 mi) directly north of the port of La Guaira, in the Caribbean Sea.

Selected biography

Lorena Telpuk, formerly María del Luján Telpuk (sometimes María de Luján Telpuk) or the Suitcase Girl (born c. 1981), is a former airport police officer at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery in Buenos Aires, Argentina, who noticed a suitcase with US$800,000 as it went through an X-ray machine in August 2007, initiating a very public international election scandal, known as Maletinazo.

When the suitcase scandal became public, Telpuk became an international celebrity, appearing on the cover of several magazines, including those of the February 2008 issue of the Argentine edition of Playboy magazine and the March 2008 issue of the Venezuelan edition of Playboy magazine.

In 2008, she changed her name to Lorena Telpuk, had breast augmentation surgery, and continued to pose for adult modeling photographs and derive income from her notoriety. She became involved in larger political struggles between the US government and perceived "leftist" Latin American leaders, receiving death threats requiring police protection, and testifying in court regarding her involvement in the case.

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Patricia Ortega in 2017

Current events

3 November 2019 – 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis
Following similar measures by Argentina last month, the government of El Salvador expels diplomats of the government of Venezuela led by Nicolás Maduro. (BBC News)
27 October 2019 –
Since convening on 6 October, the synod of Catholic bishops from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela, and Suriname gather with Pope Francis in Rome. According to the bishops, "a deep personal, social and structural conversion" is needed in response to the "unprecedented" environmental and social crisis in the Amazon. (Catholic News Service)
22 October 2019 – 2019 Chilean protests
According to candidate for Vice President of Argentina for the Together for Change alliance, Miguel Ángel Pichetto, there is a "destabilization plan in Latin America directly linked to Venezuela's and Cuba's governments' activities". Argentine Foreign Minister Jorge Faurie also expressed his concerns and said there were "calculated and identical methods of destabilization in the region". He blames Nicolás Maduro's government after Constituent Assembly President Diosdado Cabello says there is a "Bolivarian breeze" in the region. (Clarín) (Buenos Aires Times)

Selected list

The Venezuelan troupial is the national bird of Venezuela.

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Venezuela. The avifauna of Venezuela has 1386 confirmed species, of which 45 are endemic, six have been introduced by humans, 30 are rare or vagrants, and one has been extirpated. An additional 18 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.

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Angel Falls

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