Flora of Colombia

The Flora of Colombia is characterized by 130,000 species of plants that have been described within Colombian territory.[1]

National Flower of ColombiaEdit

The national flower of Colombia is the orchid Cattleya trianae which was named after the Colombian naturalist José Jerónimo Triana. The orchid was selected by botanist Emilio Robledo, in representation of the Colombian Academy of History to determine the most representative flowering plant of Colombia. He described it as one of the most beautiful flowers in the world and selected Cattleya trianae as National symbol.

National Tree of ColombiaEdit

The national tree of Colombia is the palm Ceroxylon quindiuense (Quindío wax palm) which was named after the Colombian Department of Quindío where is located the Cocora valley, the only habitat of this restricted range species. The Quindío wax palm was selected as the national tree by the government of Belisario Betancur and was the first tree officially declared as a protected species in Colombia. C. quindiuense is the only palm that grows at such high altitudes in Colombia and is the tallest monocot in the world.

EndemismEdit

 
Colombia has the second largest number of heliconia species worldwide. Most of them are endemic species
 
The Baudó Mountains in the Colombian pacific coast have many endemic plants.

Colombia has the largest number of endemic species (species that are not found naturally anywhere else) worldwide. About 10% of the species in the world live in Colombia.[2] Some determinant factors in the distribution range of the species are the wide diversity of habitats available due the variety of altitudes, weather conditions, temperatures, soils and sunlight on the coasts, in the Andes and in the rainforest lowlands.

Endemics can easily become endangered or extinct due to their restricted habitat and vulnerability to the actions of man, including the introduction of new organisms.

Ecoregions with high endemismEdit

According to the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of botanic endemic species:

Tree speciesEdit

Many of the Colombian trees are endangered species due to the high quality of the woods and timber industry exploitation (such as Colombian oak Quercus humboldtidiana and Colombian mahogany) and as source of tanning substances for the leather industry (such as mangrove and Encenillo tree Weinmannia tomentosa). Some tree species described in Colombia are:

 
Pekea-nut tree (Caryocar nuciferum)

Fruits of ColombiaEdit

GeneraEdit

 
Marmalade bush (Streptosolen jamesonii)
 
The Arrayan was sacred to precolumbian peoples
 
Velvety Passion Flower
 
Orange Passion Flower

AbaremaEdit

AcidocrotonEdit

AiphanesEdit

AnibaEdit

BrowneaEdit

BrunelliaEdit

CalatolaEdit

CentroniaEdit

CeroxylonEdit

ClusiaEdit

EschweileraEdit

EspeletiaEdit

FrezieraEdit

GriasEdit

GuareaEdit

GustaviaEdit

HerraniaEdit

HuilaeaEdit

IngaEdit

LeptolejeuneaEdit

LicaniaEdit

MacrolobiumEdit

MagnoliaEdit

MaynaEdit

MerianiaEdit

MetteniusaEdit

MiconiaEdit

OenocarpusEdit

OrphanodendronEdit

ParmentieraEdit

PassifloraEdit

PhytelephasEdit

PouteriaEdit

PradosiaEdit

PrunusEdit

RinoreaEdit

RolliniaEdit

RomeroaEdit

SchoenocephaliumEdit

SolanumEdit

SphaerolejeuneaEdit

StreptosolenEdit

SwartziaEdit

UtriculariaEdit

VantaneaEdit

WettiniaEdit

XylosmaEdit

ZamiaEdit

ZygiaEdit

Orchid speciesEdit

Colombia has the largest number of orchids in the world. Among others:

FrondariaEdit

RestrepiaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit