Portal:Peru

The Peru Portal

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Peru (/pəˈr/ (About this soundlisten); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (ES-pe - República del Perú.ogg), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. At 1.28 million km2 (0.5 million mi2), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization starting in 3500 BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.

The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Peru is a developing country, ranking 82nd on the Human Development Index, with a high level of human development with an upper middle income level and a poverty rate around 19 percent. It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and biotechnology. The country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.

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Two adult guinea pigs

The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy (/ˈkvi/), is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. Despite their common name, guinea pigs are not native to Guinea, nor are they closely biologically related to pigs, and the origin of the name is still unclear. They originated in the Andes of South America. Studies based on biochemistry and hybridization suggest they are domesticated descendants of a closely related species of cavy, such as C. tschudii, and do not exist naturally in the wild. They were originally domesticated as livestock, for a source of meat, and continue to be consumed as food.


In Western society, the domestic guinea pig has enjoyed widespread popularity as a pocket pet, since its introduction to Europe and North America by European traders in the 16th century. Their docile nature, friendly responsiveness to handling and feeding, and the relative ease of caring for them have made guinea pigs a continuing popular choice of household pet. Organizations devoted to the competitive breeding of guinea pigs have been formed worldwide. Many specialized breeds, with varying coat colors and textures, are selected by breeders. Read more...

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Ica city
Photo credit: Oliver Etchebarne

The city of Ica is the capital of the Ica Region in southern Peru. It was founded in 1563 by Spanish conquistador Gerónimo Luis de Cabrera. According to the 2005 census, it had a population of over 200,000, however, the city suffered extensive damage and loss of life during the 2007 Peru earthquake. (more...)

Selected battle

The Battle of Arica by Juan Lepiani depicts Bolognesi's final moments. Oil on canvas, Lima, Peru.

The Battle of Arica, also known as Assault and capture of Arica Cape, is a belic action of the War of the Pacific. It was fought on June 7, 1880, between forces of Chile and Peru.

After the Battle of Tacna, and the following Bolivian retirement of the war, Peru had to stand alone for the rest of the conflict. The need of a port near to the location of the army, in order to supply and reinforce the troops and the evacuation of the wounded, made the Chilean command to put its attention on the remaining Peruvian stronghold in the Tacna Department. Thus, a fraction of the Chilean army, led by Colonel Pedro Lagos, launched a simultaneous assault from both sides, taking the defenses on a bayonet charge, and captured the Morro de Arica (English: Arica Cape) from the defending Peruvian troops under the command of Colonel Francisco Bolognesi in a last attack up the hill. In this fight the Peruvian Commander died along with several officers and more than 1.000 men. (more...)

In this month

  • August  9, 1970 - Flight LANSA 502 crashes en route from Lima to Cusco killing all but one of the 100 crew and passengers on board.
  • August 15, 2007 - A major earthquake originating off the coast of Peru destroys the city of Pisco.

General images

The following are images from various Peru-related articles on Wikipedia.

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Trujillo Peru Collage.png

Trujillo (/trˈhj/ troo-HEE-yoh, Spanish: [tɾuˈxiʝo]; Quechua: Truhillu) is a city in coastal northwestern Peru and the capital of the Department of La Libertad. It is the third most populous city and center of the third most populous metropolitan area of Peru. It is located on the banks of the Moche River, near its mouth at the Pacific Ocean, in the Moche Valley. This was a site of the great prehistoric Moche and Chimu cultures before the Inca conquest and subsequent expansion.

The Independence of Trujillo from Spain was proclaimed in the Historic Centre of Trujillo on December 29, 1820, and the city was honored in 1822 by the Congress of the Republic of Peru with the title "Meritorious City and Faithful to the Fatherland", for its role in the fight for Peruvian independence. Trujillo is the birthplace of Peru's judiciary, and it was twice designated as the capital of the country. It was the scene of the Revolution of Trujillo in 1932. Trujillo is considered the "cradle of liberty and cradle of the judiciary in Peru". Read more...

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Anonymous Cuzco School painting, 17th century

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Isaac Watts

English art historian, writer, antiquarian and politician Horace Walpole 1717–1797

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