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Peru (/pəˈr/ (About this sound listen); Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw Republika [pʰɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw Suyu [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: About this sound República del Perú ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures, ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire, the largest and most sophisticated state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990; his government was credited with economically stabilizing Peru and successfully ending the Shining Path insurgency, though he was widely accused of human rights violations and suppression of political dissent. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017.

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Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso

Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso (born June 26, 1963) is a Peruvian left-leaning nationalist politician who ran for president in 2006 but lost in a runoff to Alan García. The son of Isaac Humala, a former member of the Communist Party of Peru - Red Fatherland, he joined the Peruvian Army in 1982. In the military he achieved the rank of Lieutenant Colonel; in 1992 he fought in the internal conflict against Shining Path and three years later he participated in the Cenepa War against Ecuador. On October 2000, Humala led an unsuccessful military uprising against President Alberto Fujimori and was pardoned by the Peruvian Congress after the downfall of the Fujimori regime.

In 2005 he founded the Peruvian Nationalist Party and registered to run in the 2006 presidential election. The nomination was made under the Union for Peru ticket as the Nationalist party did not achieve its electoral inscription on time. He won the first round of the elections, held on April 9, 2006, with 30.62% of the valid votes. A runoff was held on June 4 between Humala and Alan García of the Peruvian Aprista Party. Humala lost this round with 47.47% of the valid votes versus 52.62% for García. After his defeat, Humala has remained as an important figure within Peruvian politics. (more...)

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Ica city
Photo credit: Oliver Etchebarne

The city of Ica is the capital of the Ica Region in southern Peru. It was founded in 1563 by Spanish conquistador Gerónimo Luis de Cabrera. According to the 2005 census, it had a population of over 200,000, however, the city suffered extensive damage and loss of life during the 2007 Peru earthquake. (more...)

Selected battle

The Cenepa War (January 26 – February 28, 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of a disputed area on the border between the two countries. The indecisive outcome of the conflict — with both sides claiming victory — along with the mediation efforts of the United States of America, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile, paved the way for the opening of diplomatic negotiations that ultimately led to the signing of a definitive peace agreement in 1998, putting an end to one of the longest territorial disputes in the Western Hemisphere. (more...)

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History: Ancient civilizations • Inca Empire • Spanish conquest • Viceroyalty • War of independence • War of the Pacific • Demographic • Economic • More...

Politics: Constitution • Law • Human rights • Foreign relations • Military • Electoral system • Political parties • More...

Geography: Regions • Cities • Lima • Earthquakes • Mountains • Rivers • Flora • National parks • More...

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Culture: Architecture • Art • Cinema • Dances • Cuisine • Education • Languages • Literature • Media • Music • Public holidays • Religion • Sport • More...

Other: Chifa • Guinea pig • Inca Kola • Llama • Machu Picchu • People • More...

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