The Peru Portal
The Peru Portal
Republic of Peru
República del Perú (Spanish)
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77.0283°W / -12.0433; -77.0283
ISO 3166 codePE

Peru (/pəˈr/ pə-ROO; Spanish: Perú [peˈɾu]; Quechua: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]; Aymara: Piruw [pɪɾʊw]), officially the Republic of Peru (ES-pe - República del Perú.ogg), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River. Peru has a population of over 32 million, and its capital and largest city is Lima. At 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.

Peruvian territory was home to several cultures during the ancient and medieval periods, and has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 10th millennium BCE. Notable pre-colonial cultures and civilizations include the Caral-Supe civilization (the earliest civilization in the Americas and considered one of the cradles of civilization), the Nazca culture, the Wari and Tiwanaku empires, the Kingdom of Cusco, and the Inca Empire, the largest known state in the pre-Columbian Americas. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and Charles V established a viceroyalty with the official name of the Kingdom of Peru that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in Lima. Higher education started in the Americas with the official establishment of the National University of San Marcos in Lima in 1551.

Peru has a population that includes Mestizos, Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechuan languages, Aymara, or other Indigenous languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music. (Full article...)

Recognized content - show another

Entries here consist of Good and Featured articles, which meet a core set of high editorial standards.

Tutupaca viewed from a southern direction.

Tutupaca is a volcano in the region of Tacna in Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes. Tutupaca consists of three overlapping volcanoes formed by lava flows and lava domes made out of andesite and dacite, which grew on top of older volcanic rocks. The highest of these is usually reported to be 5,815 metres (19,078 ft) tall and was glaciated in the past.

Several volcanoes in Peru have been active in recent times, including Tutupaca. Their volcanism is caused by the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South America Plate. One of these volcanoes collapsed in historical time, probably in 1802, generating a large debris avalanche with a volume likely exceeding 0.6–0.8 cubic kilometres (0.14–0.19 cu mi) and a pyroclastic flow. The associated eruption was among the largest in Peru for which there are historical records. The volcano became active about 700,000 years ago, and activity continued into the Holocene, but whether there were historical eruptions was initially unclear; some eruptions were instead attributed to the less eroded Yucamane volcano. The Peruvian government plans to monitor the volcano for future activity. Tutupaca features geothermal manifestations with fumaroles and hot springs. (Full article...)

Selected image

Peruvian independence proclamation
Peruvian independence proclamation

The Independence of Peru was proclaimed in Lima by José de San Martín on July 28, 1821. San Martín occupied the city a few days before after Royalist troops retreated towards the Andes. Despite this proclamation the Peruvian War of Independence lasted three more years as Patriot forces lacked the necessary strength to defeat Viceroy José de la Serna. Eventually San Martín left the country and was replaced by Simón Bolívar, under whose guidance the Royalist army was decisively defeated at the Battle of Ayacucho. (more...)

Selected battle

The Battle of Arica by Juan Lepiani depicts Bolognesi's final moments. Oil on canvas, Lima, Peru.

The Battle of Arica, also known as Assault and capture of Arica Cape, is a belic action of the War of the Pacific. It was fought on June 7, 1880, between forces of Chile and Peru.

After the Battle of Tacna, and the following Bolivian retirement of the war, Peru had to stand alone for the rest of the conflict. The need of a port near to the location of the army, in order to supply and reinforce the troops and the evacuation of the wounded, made the Chilean command to put its attention on the remaining Peruvian stronghold in the Tacna Department. Thus, a fraction of the Chilean army, led by Colonel Pedro Lagos, launched a simultaneous assault from both sides, taking the defenses on a bayonet charge, and captured the Morro de Arica (English: Arica Cape) from the defending Peruvian troops under the command of Colonel Francisco Bolognesi in a last attack up the hill. In this fight the Peruvian Commander died along with several officers and more than 1.000 men. (more...)

In this month

  • December 24, 1971 - Flight LANSA 508 crashes en route from Lima to Pucallpa killing all crew members and all but one of 87 passengers.

General images

The following are images from various Peru-related articles on Wikipedia.

Selected article - show another

Humala in 2016

Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso (Spanish pronunciation: [oˈʝanta mojˈses uˈmala ˈtaso]; born 27 June 1962) is a Peruvian politician and former military officer who served as President of Peru from 2011 to 2016. Originally a socialist and left-wing nationalist, he is considered to have shifted towards neoliberalism and the political centre during his presidency.

Born to a prominent political family affiliated with the ethnocacerist movement, Humala is the son of famed Quechua labour lawyer Isaac Humala. Humala entered the Peruvian Army in 1981, eventually achieving the rank of lieutenant colonel. During his time in the military, he fought in the internal conflict against left-wing terrorist group Shining Path as well as in the Cenepa War with neighboring Ecuador. In October 2000, Humala attempted an unsuccessful coup d'etat against President Alberto Fujimori during the dying days of his regime; eventually, the Congress of the Republic of Peru granted him amnesty and Humala was allowed to return to military duty. (Full article...)

Did you know (auto-generated) - load new batch


Related portals

Selected quote - show another

Cameron Diaz in 2007

American actress Cameron Diaz (1972– ) after visiting Machu Picchu with a green bag which had a red star

Basic facts & figures

More did you know...

Twelve-angled rock in Hatun Rumiyoq street

Peru Topics

Recognized content

Featured articles

Featured lists

Good articles

New articles

This list was generated from these rules. Questions and feedback are always welcome! The search is being run daily with the most recent ~14 days of results. Note: Some articles may not be relevant to this project.

Rules | Match log | Results page (for watching) | Last updated: 2023-12-06 22:19 (UTC)

Note: The list display can now be customized by each user. See List display personalization for details.

    Associated Wikimedia

    The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:

    Discover Wikipedia using portals

    Purge server cache